First name
Douglas
Middle name
A
Last name
Canning

Title

The natural history of semen parameters in untreated asymptomatic adolescent varicocele patients: A retrospective cohort study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 24

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Adolescent males with varicoceles present a dilemma for surveillance and treatment. Testicular volumetrics have not been shown to predict SA outcomes. Serial SAs are thus recommended in asymptomatic adolescent males with varicoceles and normal testicular development, but the natural history of semen parameters is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To explore the natural history of semen parameters in adolescent boys with a left varicocele under active surveillance.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Adolescents with an asymptomatic unilateral left varicocele, Tanner V development, normal testicular volumes, and an initial SA were retrospectively reviewed in a single-institution prospectively followed cohort. Total motile count (TMC) was calculated. A cutoff of TMC Z 20 million was used to dichotomize SA results into "normal" or "poor." Those with poor SA were offered repeat SA. Cumulative probabilities of normal TMC over successive rounds of SA were calculated. Bivariate models were used to explore associations of a second consecutive poor TMC with age and varicocele grade.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 216 patients provided an initial SA between 1992 and 2015. We excluded 17 for a history of cryptorchidism or incomplete SA data for a final cohort of 199 patients with median follow-up of 3.3 years (interquartile range 1.5-5.6 years). The mean age at initial SA was 17.9 years (range 14.8-21.8 years). One hundred and nine out of 199 had an initial normal TMC. Of the 90 out of 199 with an initially poor TMC, 51 had repeat SA and 24 of the 51 patients improved to normal TMC. Of the 27 patients with two consecutive poor TMCs, 15 had a third SA and five out of 15 improved to normal TMC. Thus, cumulatively, 55%, 67%, and 69% of all patients had a normal TMC after an initial, second, and third SA, respectively. However, fewer patients in each round of SA normalized their TMC (Figure). Neither age nor varicocele grade was associated with a second consecutive poor TMC.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>Two-thirds of Tanner V boys with an uncorrected varicocele and normal testicular volumes achieve a normal TMC regardless of varicocele grade or age. Despite Tanner V development, 47% with an initial "poor" SA will improve to normal status without surgery. However, a small subgroup of patients will have persistently poor TMC and thus should be targeted in future research for timely intervention.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Semen parameters improve over time. SA should be followed and repeated at least once in symptomatic Tanner V boys with varicoceles.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.008

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27815047

Title

Does varicocelectomy improve semen analysis outcomes in adolescents without testicular asymmetry?

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 26

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The main indications for adolescent varicocelectomy are testicular hypotrophy or pain. However, we have previously shown that both serial total testicular volume and volume differential are weakly associated with semen quality. The ultimate patient goal is paternity, but semen analysis is critical to appropriate management of varicocele. We hypothesize that varicocelectomy improves total motile count (TMC) among patients who only have abnormal semen analysis (SA) parameters, but not among those with potential hormonal dysfunction such as Klinefelter syndrome or cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed our registry of adolescent males followed with a clinical left varicocele. For this study, subjects without sustained testicular asymmetry, who were Tanner V, and gave at least one preoperative SA were included. Subjects were excluded if they had embolization for their varicocele or no postoperative SA. Primary outcome was change in TMC before and after surgery, compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test after stratifying by surgical indication. Secondary outcomes included rates of improved TMC and normalized TMC (&gt;20 million) after surgery, compared across covariates using the Fisher exact test.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventeen patients met the eligibility criteria, 11 of whom underwent repair for only abnormal preoperative TMC. Overall, median age (interquartile range [IQR]) at first preoperative SA was 17.6 (15.9-17.9) years. The median preoperative TMC across all SA was 2.8 (0.7-7.4) million. The median age at surgery was 18.2 (16.8-18.9) years. Postoperatively, the median TMC across all SA increased to 18.2 (3.6-18.2) million (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.01; see Figure). The improvement in TMC occurred primarily in the group who only had abnormal preoperative TMC (82% improved, 55% normalized); lack of improvement was seen in patients who had a history of Klinefelter or orchiopexy for cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adolescent varicocele patients should undergo SA after development of Tanner V. Varicocelectomy has a high success rate for improving TMC in adolescent or young adult males who only have abnormal TMC and no history of cryptorchidism.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.010

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27818033

Title

Race and 30-Day Morbidity in Pediatric Urologic Surgery.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Jun 17

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: </strong>Quality improvement in surgery involves identifying patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We sought to assess the impact of race and procedure type on 30-day surgical morbidity in pediatric urology.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatrics (NSQIP-P) is a prospective registry of surgical cases from 50 and 56 pediatric hospitals in 2012 and 2013, respectively. We performed a cohort study of children followed in NSQIP-P who underwent urologic surgery. Forty unique operations were stratified into 6 clinically related procedure groups: ureteral, testicular, renal, urinary diversion, penile and urethral, or bladder procedures. Outcomes were 3 different composite measures of 30-day morbidity. Primary predictors were patient race and procedural group. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associations between race, procedure type, and postoperative morbidity.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 114 395 patients in the NSQIP-P cohort, 11 791 underwent pediatric urologic procedures. Overall 30-day complication rate was 5.9% and was higher in bladder and urinary diversion procedures. On multivariate analyses, non-Hispanic black compared with non-Hispanic white children had higher odds of 30-day overall complications (odds ratio 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.74) and 30-day hospital-acquired infection (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.20). Bladder and urinary diversion procedures relative to testicular procedures had significantly higher odds of surgical morbidity across all composite outcome measures.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Black race and bladder and urinary diversion operations were significantly associated with 30-day surgical morbidity. Future efforts should identify processes of care that decrease postoperative morbidity among children.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2015-4574

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

27317576

Title

Renal parenchymal area and risk of ESRD in boys with posterior urethral valves.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

499-505

Date Published

2014 Mar

ISSN Number

1555-905X

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Approximately 20% of boys with posterior urethral valves develop ESRD; however, few factors associated with the risk of ESRD have been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if renal parenchymal area, defined as the area of the kidney minus the area of the pelvicaliceal system on first postnatal ultrasound, is associated with the risk of ESRD in infants with posterior urethral valves.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, &amp; MEASUREMENTS: </strong>A retrospective cohort of boys who were diagnosed with posterior urethral valves at less than 6 months of age between 1988 and 2011 and followed for at least 1 year at a free-standing children's hospital was assembled. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to estimate the association between renal parenchymal area and time to ESRD. Cox models were adjusted for age at presentation, minimum creatinine 1 month after bladder decompression, and vesicoureteral reflux.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Sixty patients were followed for 393 person-years. Eight patients developed ESRD. Median renal parenchymal area was 15.9 cm(2) (interquartile range=13.0-21.6 cm(2)). Each 1-cm(2) increase in renal parenchymal area was associated with a lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.98). The rate of time to ESRD was 10 times higher in boys with renal parenchymal area&lt;12.4 cm(2) than boys with renal parenchymal area≥12.4 cm(2) (P&lt;0.001). Renal parenchymal area could best discriminate children at risk for ESRD when the minimum creatinine in the first 1 month after bladder decompression was between 0.8 and 1.1 mg/dl.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In boys with posterior urethral valves presenting during the first 6 months of life, lower renal parenchymal area is associated with an increased risk of ESRD during childhood. The predictive ability of renal parenchymal area, which is available at time of diagnosis, should be validated in a larger, prospectively-enrolled cohort.</p>

DOI

10.2215/CJN.08700813

Alternate Title

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol

PMID

24311709

Title

Patient and institutional characteristics associated with initial computerized tomography in children presenting to the emergency department with kidney stones.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

1848-53

Date Published

05/2015

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Professional associations recommend ultrasound as the initial imaging study in children with suspected nephrolithiasis but computerized tomography remains frequently used. We identified patient and institutional characteristics associated with computerized tomography as the first imaging study in children with nephrolithiasis diagnosed in the emergency department.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>We performed a cross-sectional study of children 2 to 18 years old with nephrolithiasis who were referred to a freestanding pediatric hospital from 2003 to 2012. We identified the imaging modality first used to evaluate the child. Medical directors at the emergency department where children were first evaluated were sent a questionnaire to ascertain emergency department characteristics. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to determine patient and institutional characteristics associated with initial computerized tomography.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 536 eligible children 323 (60.2%) were evaluated at emergency departments from which surveys were returned. Of the 323 children 238 (71%) underwent computerized tomography as initial imaging. Ultrasound was available at all emergency departments. Older patient age was associated with higher initial computerized tomography use (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.16). A more recent year of diagnosis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.88) and a clinical care pathway that used ultrasound as initial imaging (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.01-0.38) were associated with lower initial computerized tomography use.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A clinical care pathway in the emergency department was the only institutional characteristic associated with lower computerized tomography use. Future studies are needed to determine whether care pathways using ultrasound for initial imaging in children with suspected nephrolithiasis would decrease inappropriate computerized tomography and improve adherence to national guidelines.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.115

Alternate Title

J. Urol.

PMID

25305359

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