Leading initial
E
First name
Anders
Last name
Kolb

Title

Morphologic remission status is limited compared to ΔN flow cytometry: a Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 report.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

5050-5061

Date Published

2020 Oct 27

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

Risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uses molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities identified at diagnosis. Response to therapy informs risk, and morphology continues to be used more frequently than flow cytometry. Herein, the largest cohort of pediatric patients prospectively assessed for measurable residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (N = 784) is reported. The "difference from normal" (ΔN) technique was applied: 31% of all patients tested positive (AML range, 0.02% to 91%) after the first course of treatment on Children's Oncology Group study AAML0531. Detection of MRD following initial chemotherapy proved the strongest predicator of overall survival (OS) in univariable and multivariable analyses, and was predictive of relapse risk, disease-free survival, and treatment-related mortality. Clearance of MRD after a second round of chemotherapy did not improve survival. The morphologic definition of persistent disease (>15% AML) failed 27% of the time; those identified as MRD- had superior outcomes. Similarly, for patients not achieving morphologic remission (>5% blasts), 36% of patients were MRD- and had favorable outcomes compared with those who were MRD+ (P < .001); hence an increase in myeloid progenitor cells can be favorable when ΔN classifies them as phenotypically normal. Furthermore, ΔN reclassified 20% of patients in morphologic remission as having detectable MRD with comparable poor outcomes. Retrospective analysis using the relapse phenotype as a template demonstrated that 96% of MRD- patients had <0.02% of the relapse immunophenotype in their end of induction 1 marrow. Thus, the detection of abnormal myeloid progenitor cells by ΔN is both specific and sensitive, with a high predictive signal identifiable early in treatment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00372593.

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002070

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

33080007

Title

Bortezomib is significantly beneficial for de novo pediatric AML patients with low phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunit RelA.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2100072

Date Published

2021 Nov 01

ISSN Number

1862-8354

Abstract

The addition of the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib to standard chemotherapy (ADE: cytarabine [Ara-C], daunorubicin and etoposide,) did not improve overall outcome in the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase 3 randomized clinical trial (AAML1031). Bortezomib prevents protein degradation, including RelA via the intracellular NF-kB pathway. In this study, we hypothesized that subgroups of pediatric AML patients benefitting from standard therapy plus bortezomib (ADEB) could be identified based on pre-treatment RelA expression and phosphorylation status. RelA-total and phosphorylation at serine 536 (RelA-pSer ) levels were measured in 483 patient samples using reverse phase protein array technology. In ADEB-treated patients, low-RelA-pSer was favorably prognostic when compared to high-RelA-pSer (3-yr overall survival (OS): 81% vs. 68%, p = 0.032; relapse risk (RR): 30% vs. 49%, p = 0.004). RR in low-RelA-pSer patients significantly decreased in ADEB compared to ADE (RR: 30% vs. 44%, p = 0.035). Correlation between RelA-pSer and 295 other assayed proteins identified a strong correlation with HSF1-pSer , another protein previously identified as modifying ADEB response. The combination of low-RelA-pSer and low-HSF1-pSer was a significant predictor of ADEB response (3-yr OS: 86% vs. 67%, p = 0.013). Thus, bortezomib may improve clinical outcome in a subgroup of AML patients identified by low-RelA-pSer and low-HSF1-pSer . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI

10.1002/prca.202100072

Alternate Title

Proteomics Clin Appl

PMID

34719869

Title

Clinical relevance of proteomic profiling in de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 13

ISSN Number

1592-8721

Abstract

<p>Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease for at least 30% of patients, stressing the need for improved therapies and better risk stratification. As proteins are the unifying feature of (epi)genetic and environmental alterations, and are often targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents, we studied the proteomic landscape of pediatric AML. Protein expression and activation levels were measured in 500 bulk leukemic patient samples and 30 control CD34+ samples, using the reverse phase protein arrays with 296 strictly validated antibodies. The multi-step "MetaGalaxy" analysis methodology was applied and identified nine protein expression signatures (PrSIG), based on strong recurrent protein expression patterns. PrSIGs were associated with cytogenetics and mutational state, and with both favorable or unfavorable prognosis. Analysis based on treatment (i.e., ADE vs. ADE plus bortezomib (ADEB)) identified three PrSIGs that did better with ADEB vs. ADE. When PrSIGs were studied in the context of genetic subgroups, PrSIGs were independently prognostic after multivariate analysis, suggesting a potential value for proteomics in combination with current classification systems. Proteins with universally increased (n=7) or decreased (n=17) expression were observed across PrSIGs. Expression of certain proteins significantly differentially expressed from normal could be identified, forming a hypothetical platform for personalized medicine.</p>

DOI

10.3324/haematol.2021.279672

Alternate Title

Haematologica

PMID

35021602

Title

CD123 Expression Is Associated With High-Risk Disease Characteristics in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

JCO2101595

Date Published

2021 Dec 02

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Increased CD123 surface expression has been associated with high-risk disease characteristics in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but has not been well-characterized in childhood AML. In this study, we defined CD123 expression and associated clinical characteristics in a uniformly treated cohort of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed AML enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase III trial (NCT01371981).</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>AML blasts within diagnostic bone marrow specimens (n = 1,040) were prospectively analyzed for CD123 protein expression by multidimensional flow cytometry immunophenotyping at a central clinical laboratory. Patients were stratified as low-risk or high-risk on the basis of (1) leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular alterations and (2) end-of-induction measurable residual disease levels.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study population was divided into CD123 expression-based quartiles (n = 260 each) for analysis. Those with highest CD123 expression (quartile 4 [Q4]) had higher prevalence of high-risk rearrangements and -ITD mutations ( &lt; .001 for both) and lower prevalence of low-risk t(8;21), inv(16), and mutations ( &lt; .001 for all). Patients in lower CD123 expression quartiles (Q1-3) had similar relapse risk, event-free survival, and overall survival. Conversely, Q4 patients had a significantly higher relapse risk (53% 39%, &lt; .001), lower event-free survival (49% 69%, &lt; .001), and lower overall survival (32% 50%, &lt; .001) in comparison with Q1-3 patients. CD123 maintained independent significance for outcomes when all known contemporary high-risk cytogenetic and molecular markers were incorporated into multivariable Cox regression analysis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>CD123 is strongly associated with disease-relevant cytogenetic and molecular alterations in childhood AML. CD123 is a critical biomarker and promising immunotherapeutic target for children with relapsed or refractory AML, given its prevalent expression and enrichment in patients with high-risk genetic alterations and inferior clinical outcomes with conventional therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.21.01595

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

34855461

Title

Outcomes of intensification of induction chemotherapy for children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29281

Date Published

2021 Oct 01

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>High-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia confers a poor prognosis, and alternative strategies are needed to improve outcomes. We hypothesized that intensifying induction on the AAML1031 clinical trial would improve outcomes compared to the predecessor trial AAML0531.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Patients on AAML0531 received cytarabine (1600&nbsp;mg/m )/daunorubicin (150&nbsp;mg/m )/etoposide (ADE) for induction II and patients on AAML1031 received mitoxantrone (48&nbsp;mg/m )/cytarabine (8000&nbsp;mg/m ) (MA). Stem cell transplant (SCT) conditioning included busulfan/cyclophosphamide on AAML0531, whereas AAML1031 used busulfan/fludarabine and liberalized donor eligibility. Patients were included in this analysis if they met high-risk criteria common to the two trials by cytogenics or poor disease response after induction I ADE.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>MA provided no benefit over ADE at: induction II response (complete response [CR]: 64% vs. 62%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.87; measurable residual disease [MRD]+: 57% vs. 46%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.34); or intensification I response (CR: 79% vs. 94%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.27; MRD+: 27% vs. 20%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.0). When considered with altered SCT approach, MA did not improve 5-year disease-free survival (24% ± 9% vs. 18% ± 15%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.63) or 5-year overall survival (35% ± 10% vs. 38% ± 18%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.66). MA was associated with slower neutrophil recovery (median 34 vs. 27&nbsp;days, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.007) and platelet recovery (median 29 vs. 24.5&nbsp;days, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.04) and longer hospital stay (32 vs. 28&nbsp;days, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.01) during induction II.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Intensification of induction II did not improve treatment response or survival, but did increase toxicity and resource utilization. Alternative strategies are urgently needed to improve outcomes for pediatric patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01371981, NCT00372593).</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29281

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

34596937

Title

Cytarabine dose reduction in patients with low-risk acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29313

Date Published

2021 Sep 02

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The optimal number of chemotherapy courses for low-risk (LR) pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not known.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare outcomes for four (21.6&nbsp;g/m cytarabine) versus five (45.6&nbsp;g/m cytarabine) chemotherapy courses for LR-AML using data from Children's Oncology Group (COG) AAML0531 and AAML1031.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We compared relapse risk (RR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS), and the differential impact in LR subgroups for patients receiving four versus five chemotherapy courses. Cox (OS and DFS) and risk (RR) regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) to compare outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 923 LR-AML patients were included; 21% received five courses. Overall, LR-AML patients who received four courses had higher RR (40.9% vs. 31.4%; HR&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.85), and worse DFS (56.0% vs. 67.0%; HR&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.45, 95% CI: 1.10-1.91). There was a similar decrement in OS though it was not statistically significant (77.0% vs. 83.5%; HR&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.45, 95% CI: 0.97-2.17). Stratified analyses revealed the detrimental effects of cytarabine dose de-escalation to be most pronounced in the LR-AML subgroup with uninformative cytogenetic/molecular features who were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative after the first induction course (EOI1). The absolute decrease in DFS with four courses for patients with favorable cytogenetic/molecular features and positive MRD was similar to that observed for patients with uninformative cytogenetic/molecular features and negative MRD at EOI1, though not statistically significant.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Our results support de-escalation of cytarabine exposure through the elimination of a fifth chemotherapy course only for LR-AML patients who have both favorable cytogenetic/molecular features and negative MRD after the first induction cycle.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29313

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

34472213

Title

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Improves Event-Free Survival and Reduces Relapse in Pediatric -Rearranged AML: Results From the Phase III Children's Oncology Group Trial AAML0531.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

JCO2003048

Date Published

2021 May 28

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>We investigated the impact of the CD33-targeted agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) on survival in pediatric patients with -rearranged (-r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 (NCT01407757).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Patients with -r AML were identified and clinical characteristics described. Five-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse risk (RR) were determined overall and for higher-risk versus not high-risk translocation partners. GO's impact on response was determined and outcomes based on consolidation approach (hematopoietic stem cell transplant [HSCT] chemotherapy) described.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Two hundred fifteen (21%) of 1,022 patients enrolled had -r AML. Five-year EFS and OS from study entry were 38% and 58%, respectively. EFS was superior with GO treatment (EFS 48% with GO 29% without, = .003), although OS was comparable (63% 53%, = .054). For patients with -r AML who achieved complete remission, GO was associated with lower RR (40% GO 66% patients who did not receive GO [No-GO], = .001) and improved 5-year DFS (GO 57% No-GO 33%, = .002). GO benefit was observed in both higher-risk and not high-risk -r subsets. For patients who underwent HSCT, prior GO exposure was associated with decreased relapse (5-year RR: 28% GO and HSCT 73% No-GO and HSCT, = .006). In multivariable analysis, GO was independently associated with improved EFS, improved DFS, and reduced RR.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>GO added to conventional chemotherapy improved outcomes for -r AML; consolidation with HSCT may further enhance outcomes. Future clinical trials should study CD33-targeted agents in combination with HSCT for pediatric r AML.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.20.03048

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

34048275

Title

CEBPA bZip Mutations are Associated with Favorable Prognosis in de novo AML: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 May 05

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

<p>Bi-allelic CEBPA mutations are associated with favorable outcomes in AML. We evaluated the clinical and biologic implications of CEBPA-bZip mutations in childhood/young adult newly diagnosed AML. CEBPA-bZip mutation status was determined in 2,958 AML patients enrolled on COG trials (NCT00003790, NCT0007174, NCT00372593, NCT01379181). Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 1,863 patients, 107 with CEBPA mutations, to characterize the co-occurring mutations. CEBPA mutational status was correlated with disease characteristics and clinical outcomes. CEBPA-bZip mutations were identified in 160/2958 (5.4%) patients, with 132 (82.5%) harboring a second CEBPA mutation (CEBPA-dm) and 28 (17.5%) with a single CEBPA-bZip only. The clinical and laboratory features of the two CEBPA cohorts were very similar. CEBPA-dm and CEBPA-bZip patients experienced identical event-free survival (EFS) of 64% and similar overall survival (OS) of 81% and 89%, respectively (p=0.259); this compared favorably to EFS and OS in CEBPA wild type (CEBPA-WT) of 46% and 61%, respectively (both p&lt;0.001). Transcriptome analysis demonstrated similar expression profiles for CEBPA-bZip and CEBPA-dm cases. Comprehensive NGS of CEBPA-mutant cases identified co-occurring CSF3R and GATA2 mutations in 13.1% and 21.5% of patients, respectively. Patients with dual CEBPA/CSF3R mutations had an EFS of 17% vs. 63% for CEBPA-mutant/CSF3R-WT (p&lt;0.001) with a corresponding relapse rate (RR) of 83% vs. 22%, respectively (p&lt;0.001); GATA2 co-occurrence did not impact outcome. CEBPA bZip domain mutations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes, regardless of mono or bi-allelic status. Co-occurring CSF3R and CEBPA mutations are associated with a high RR and nullifies the favorable prognostic impact of CEBPA mutations.</p>

DOI

10.1182/blood.2020009652

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

33951732

Title

Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1-pSer326) Predicts Response to Bortezomib-Containing Chemotherapy in Pediatric AML: A COG Study.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 21

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

<p>Bortezomib (BTZ) was recently evaluated in a randomized Phase 3 clinical trial which compared standard chemotherapy (cytarabine, daunorubicin, etoposide; ADE) to standard therapy with BTZ (ADEB) for de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. While the study concluded that BTZ did not improve outcome overall, we examined patient subgroups benefitting from BTZ-containing chemotherapy using proteomic analyses. The proteasome inhibitor BTZ disrupts protein homeostasis and activates cytoprotective heat shock responses. We measured total heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and phosphorylated HSF1 (HSF1-pSer326) in leukemic cells from 483 pediatric patients using Reverse Phase Protein Arrays. HSF1-pSer326 phosphorylation was significantly lower in pediatric AML compared to CD34+ non-malignant cells. We identified a strong correlation between HSF1-pSer326 expression and BTZ sensitivity. BTZ significantly improved outcome of patients with low-HSF1-pSer326 with a 5-year event-free survival of 44% (ADE) vs. 67% for low-HSF1-pSer326 treated with ADEB (P=0.019). To determine the effect of HSF1 expression on BTZ potency in vitro, cell viability with HSF1 gene variants that mimicked phosphorylated (S326A) and non-phosphorylated (S326E) HSF1-pSer326 were examined. Those with increased HSF1 phosphorylation showed clear resistance to BTZ vs. those with wild type or reduced HSF1-phosphorylation. We hypothesize that HSF1-pSer326 expression could identify patients that benefit from BTZ-containing chemotherapy.</p>

DOI

10.1182/blood.2020005208

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

32959058

Title

Phase I/II Study of CPX-351 Followed by Fludarabine, Cytarabine, and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor for Children With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

JCO1903306

Date Published

2020 May 13

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Effective regimens are needed for children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AAML1421 is a phase I/II study of CPX-351, a liposomal preparation of daunorubicin and cytarabine. AAML1421 sought to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of CPX-351 and the response rate after up to 2 cycles of therapy.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS AND METHODS: </strong>Children &gt; 1 and ≤ 21 years of age with relapsed/refractory AML were eligible for dose finding; those in first relapse were eligible for the efficacy phase. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) assessment occurred during cycle 1. Two cycles of therapy were offered (cycle 1: CPX-351; cycle 2: FLAG [fludarabine 30 mg/m/dose on days 1-5; cytarabine 2,000 mg/m/dose on days 1-5; and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor 5 µg/kg/dose, days 1-5 and day 15 through absolute neutrophil count &gt; 500/µL]). Response was assessed after each cycle.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Thirty-eight patients enrolled: 6 in the dose-finding phase and 32 in the efficacy phase. During dose finding, 1/6 patients experienced a DLT (grade 3 decrease in ejection fraction). The RP2D was 135 units/m on days 1, 3, and 5. Toxicities of grade ≥ 3 during cycle 1 included fever/neutropenia (45%), infection (47%), and rash (40%). There was no toxic mortality. Best responses included 20 complete response (CR; 54%), 5 CR with partial recovery of platelet count (CRp; 14%), and 5 CR with incomplete blood count recovery (14%). Twenty-one of 25 with CR/CRp had no detectable residual disease (RD; 84%) by flow cytometry. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was used as consolidation in 29/30 responders (96.7%); 20/25 (80%) had no RD before HSCT.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The RP2D of CPX-351 is 135 units/m/dose on days 1, 3, and 5. Toxicity was manageable, and protocol therapy was effective. Response rates are superior to prior published North American cooperative group clinical trials for children with AML in first relapse.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.19.03306

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

32401633

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