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BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with megakaryocytic differentiation (AMkL) is a rare subtype of AML more common in children. Recent literature has identified multiple fusions associated with this type of leukemia.
METHODS: Morphology, cytogenetics, and genomic sequencing were assessed in patients from Children's Oncology Group trials AAML0531 and AAML1031 with central-pathology review confirmed non-Down syndrome AMkL. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and RR were evaluated in these AMkL subcategories.
RESULTS: A total of 107 cases of AMkL (5.5%) were included. Distinct fusions were identified in the majority: RBM15::MRTFA (20%), CBFA2T3::GLIS2 (16%), NUP98 (10%), KMT2A (7%), TEC::MLLT10 (2%), MECOM (1%), and FUS::ERG (1%); many of the remaining cases were classified as AMkL with (other) myelodysplasia-related changes (MRC). Very few cases had AML-associated somatic mutations. Cases with CBFA2T3::GLIS2 were enriched in trisomy 3 (p = .015) and the RAM phenotype, with associated high CD56 expression (p < .001). Cases with NUP98 fusions were enriched in trisomy 6 (p < .001), monosomy 13/del(13q) (p < .001), trisomy 21 (p = .026), and/or complex karyotypes (p = .026). While different 5-year EFS and OS were observed in AMkL in each trial, in general, those with CBFA2T3::GLIS2 or KMT2A rearrangements had worse outcomes compared to other AMkL, while those with RBM15::MRTFA or classified as AMkl-MRC fared better. AMkL with NUP98 fusions also had poor outcomes in the AAML1031 trial.
CONCLUSION: Given the differences in outcomes, AMkL classification by fusions, cytogenetics, and morphology may be warranted to help in risk stratification and therapeutic options.