First name
Rishi
Middle name
K
Last name
Agrawal

Title

Children's Hospital Characteristics and Readmission Metrics.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Jan 25

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: </strong>Like their adult counterparts, pediatric hospitals are increasingly at risk for financial penalties based on readmissions. Limited information is available on how the composition of a hospital's patient population affects performance on this metric and hence affects reimbursement for hospitals providing pediatric care. We sought to determine whether applying different readmission metrics differentially affects hospital performance based on the characteristics of patients a hospital serves.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 64 children's hospitals from the Children's Hospital Association Case Mix Comparative Database 2012 and 2013. We calculated 30-day observed-to-expected readmission ratios by using both all-cause (AC) and Potentially Preventable Readmissions (PPR) metrics. We examined the association between observed-to-expected rates and hospital characteristics by using multivariable linear regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We examined a total of 1 416 716 hospitalizations. The mean AC 30-day readmission rate was 11.3% (range 4.3%-19.6%); the mean PPR rate was 4.9% (range 2.9%-6.9%). The average 30-day AC observed-to-expected ratio was 0.96 (range 0.63-1.23), compared with 0.95 (range 0.65-1.23) for PPR; 59% of hospitals performed better than expected on both measures. Hospitals with higher volumes, lower percentages of infants, and higher percentage of patients with low income performed worse than expected on PPR.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>High-volume hospitals, those that serve fewer infants, and those with a high percentage of patients from low-income neighborhoods have higher than expected PPR rates and are at higher risk of reimbursement penalties.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2016-1720

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

28123044

Title

Hospital Utilization Among Children With the Highest Annual Inpatient Cost.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

1-10

Date Published

2016 Feb

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Children who experience high health care costs are increasingly enrolled in clinical initiatives to improve their health and contain costs. Hospitalization is a significant cost driver. We describe hospitalization trends for children with highest annual inpatient cost (CHIC) and identify characteristics associated with persistently high inpatient costs in subsequent years.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective study of 265 869 children age 2 to 15 years with ≥1 admission in 2010 to 39 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System. CHIC were defined as the top 10% of total inpatient costs in 2010 (n = 26 574). Multivariate regression and regression tree modeling were used to distinguish individual characteristics and interactions of characteristics, respectively, associated with persistently high inpatient costs (≥80th percentile in 2011 and/or 2012).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The top 10% most expensive children (CHIC) constituted 56.9% ($2.4 billion) of total inpatient costs in 2010. Fifty-eight percent (n = 15 391) of CHIC had no inpatient costs in 2011 to 2012, and 27.0% (n = 7180) experienced persistently high inpatient cost. Respiratory chronic conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-3.5), absence of surgery in 2010 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1), and technological assistance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7) were associated with persistently high inpatient cost. In regression tree modeling, the greatest likelihood of persistence (65.3%) was observed in CHIC with ≥3 hospitalizations in 2010 and a chronic respiratory condition.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most children with high children's hospital inpatient costs in 1 year do not experience hospitalization in subsequent years. Interactions of hospital use and clinical characteristics may be helpful to determine which children will continue to experience high inpatient costs over time.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2015-1829

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

26783324

Title

Children with medical complexity and Medicaid: spending and cost savings.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

2199-206

Date Published

12/2014

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>A small but growing population of children with medical complexity, many of whom are covered by Medicaid, accounts for a high proportion of pediatric health care spending. We first describe the expenditures for children with medical complexity insured by Medicaid across the care continuum. We report the increasingly large amount of spending on hospital care for these children, relative to the small amount of primary care and home care spending. We then present a business case that estimates how cost savings might be achieved for children with medical complexity from potential reductions in hospital and emergency department use and shows how the savings could underwrite investments in outpatient and community care. We conclude by discussing the importance of these findings in the context of Medicaid's quality of care and health care reform.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0828

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

25489039

Title

Rates and impact of potentially preventable readmissions at children's hospitals.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

613-9.e5

Date Published

03/2015

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess readmission rates identified by 3M-Potentially Preventable Readmissions software (3M-PPRs) in a national cohort of children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>A total of 1 719 617 hospitalizations for 1 531 828 unique patients in 58 children's hospitals from 2009 to 2011 from the Children's Hospital Association Case-Mix Comparative database were examined. Main outcome measures included rates, diagnoses, and costs of potentially preventable readmissions (PPRs) and all-cause readmissions.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The 7-, 15-, and 30-day rates by 3M-PPRs were 2.5%, 4.1%, and 6.2%, respectively. Corresponding all-cause readmission rates were 5.0%, 8.7%, and 13.3%. At 30 days, 60.6% of all-cause readmissions were considered nonpreventable by 3M-PPRs, more than one-half of which were related to malignancies. The percentage of readmissions rated as potentially preventable was similar at all 3 time intervals. Readmissions after chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and cystic fibrosis were all considered nonpreventable, and at least 80% of readmissions after index admissions for sickle cell crisis, bronchiolitis, ventricular shunt procedures, asthma, and appendectomy were designated potentially preventable. Total costs for all readmissions were $1.7 billion; PPRs accounted for 27.3% of these costs. The most costly readmissions were associated with ventricular shunt procedures ($26.5 million/year), seizures ($15.5 million/year), and sickle cell crisis ($15.0 million/year).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Rates of PPRs were significantly lower than all-cause readmission rates more than one-half of which were caused by exclusion of malignancies. Annual costs of PPRs, although significant in the aggregate, appear to represent a much smaller cost-savings opportunity for children than for adults. Our study may help guide children's hospitals to focus readmission reduction strategies on areas where the financial vulnerability is greatest based on 3M-PPRs.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.052

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

25477164

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