First name
Knashawn
Middle name
H
Last name
Morales

Title

Predictive Validity of a Computerized Battery for Identifying Neurocognitive Impairments Among Children Living with HIV in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Feb 19

ISSN Number

1573-3254

Abstract

<p>Children living with&nbsp;HIV (HIV+) experience increased risk of&nbsp;neurocognitive deficits, but standardized&nbsp;cognitive testing is limited in low-resource, high-prevalence settings. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB) was adapted for use in Botswana.&nbsp;This&nbsp;study evaluated the criterion validity of a locally adapted version of the PennCNB among a cohort of HIV+ individuals aged 10-17&nbsp;years in Botswana.&nbsp;Participants completed the PennCNB and a comprehensive professional consensus assessment consisting of pencil-and-paper psychological assessments, clinical interview, and review of academic performance. Seventy-two&nbsp;participants were&nbsp;classified as cases (i.e., with cognitive impairment; N = 48) or controls (i.e., without cognitive impairment; N = 24). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under receiver operating&nbsp;characteristic curves were&nbsp;calculated. Discrimination was acceptable, and prediction improved as the threshold for PennCNB impairment was less conservative. This research contributes to the validation of the PennCNB for use among children affected by HIV in Botswana.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10461-022-03620-w

Alternate Title

AIDS Behav

PMID

35182282

Title

Delivery Characteristics and the Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 12

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Multiple strategies are used to identify newborn infants at high risk of culture-confirmed early-onset sepsis (EOS). Delivery characteristics have been used to identify preterm infants at lowest risk of infection to guide initiation of empirical antibiotics. Our objectives were to identify term and preterm infants at lowest risk of EOS using delivery characteristics and to determine antibiotic use among them.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective cohort study of term and preterm infants born January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014, with blood culture with or without cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained ≤72 hours after birth. Criteria for determining low EOS risk included: cesarean delivery, without labor or membrane rupture before delivery, and no antepartum concern for intraamniotic infection or nonreassuring fetal status. We determined the association between these characteristics, incidence of EOS, and antibiotic duration among infants without EOS.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 53 575 births, 7549 infants (14.1%) were evaluated and 41 (0.5%) of those evaluated had EOS. Low-risk delivery characteristics were present for 1121 (14.8%) evaluated infants, and none had EOS. Whereas antibiotics were initiated in a lower proportion of these infants (80.4% vs 91.0%, P &lt; .001), duration of antibiotics administered to infants born with and without low-risk characteristics was not different (adjusted difference 0.6 hours, 95% CI [-3.8, 5.1]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Risk of EOS among infants with low-risk delivery characteristics is extremely low. Despite this, a substantial proportion of these infants are administered antibiotics. Delivery characteristics should inform empirical antibiotic management decisions among infants born at all gestational ages.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-052900

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35022750

Title

Incidence and risk factors for hypoglycemia during maintenance chemotherapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29467

Date Published

2021 Nov 22

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Fasting hypoglycemia is a recognized occurrence among pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during maintenance therapy. Existing publications describing this finding are limited to small studies and case reports. Our objective was to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia during maintenance chemotherapy and to investigate the association of age, as well as other potential risk factors, with this outcome in pediatric patients with ALL.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>This retrospective cohort study included individuals 1 to 21 years of age with ALL treated with antimetabolite-containing maintenance chemotherapy at a large children's hospital between January 2011 and December 2014. The primary endpoint was time to first documented episode of hypoglycemia during maintenance therapy, defined as single measurement of plasma glucose&nbsp;&lt;60&nbsp;mg/dL. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association with age and identify other potential risk factors.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 126 eligible patients, of whom 63% were documented as White, non-Hispanic, 28% as non-White, non-Hispanic, and 9% as Hispanic. Twenty-eight children (22%) had documented hypoglycemia during maintenance therapy. Younger age at the start of maintenance and hepatotoxicity documented during chemotherapy prior to maintenance initiation were associated with hypoglycemia (adjusted HR age&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.99; adjusted HR prior hepatotoxicity&nbsp;=&nbsp;3.50; 95% CI, 1.47-8.36).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Nearly one quarter of children in our cohort had hypoglycemia documented during maintenance chemotherapy. Younger age at maintenance initiation and hepatotoxicity during chemotherapy prior to maintenance initiation emerged as risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of counseling about the risk of, and monitoring for, hypoglycemia, particularly in young children.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29467

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

34811879

Title

Structural validity of a computerized neurocognitive battery for youth affected by human immunodeficiency virus in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 13

ISSN Number

1939-134X

Abstract

<p>Children born to mothers infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy experience increased risk of neurocognitive impairment. In Botswana, HIV infection is common among youth, but standardized cognitive screening is limited. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB), a tool that streamlines evaluation of neurocognitive functioning, was culturally adapted for use among youth in this high-burden, low-resource setting. The present study examined the structural validity of the culturally adapted PennCNB. A cohort of 7-17-year-old children living with HIV (HIV +) and HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) children were enrolled from the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed on speed, accuracy, and efficiency measures for 13 PennCNB tests. Fit of the confirmatory factor analysis was acceptable, which supports the design of the battery measuring four neurocognitive domains: Executive functioning, episodic memory, complex cognition, and sensorimotor/processing speed. However, the model revealed high interfactor correlation. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that tests assessing executive functioning and sensorimotor/processing speed clustered together rather than forming differentiable factors. Overall, this research provides valuable insight into the structural validity of a neurocognitive battery adapted for use in a non-Western setting, suggesting that the PennCNB could serve as a useful tool for the assessment of neurocognitive function in Botswana and, potentially, other resource-limited settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).</p>

DOI

10.1037/pas0001066

Alternate Title

Psychol Assess

PMID

34516163

Title

Associations of the residential built environment with adolescent sleep outcomes.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 28

ISSN Number

1550-9109

Abstract

<p><strong>STUDY OBJECTIVES: </strong>Over 75% of US high school students obtain insufficient sleep, placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes. Identification of modifiable determinants of adolescent sleep is needed to inform prevention strategies, yet little is known about the influence of the built environment on adolescent sleep.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this prospective study, actigraphy was used to assess sleep outcomes among 110 adolescents for 14 days each in eighth and ninth grades: duration (hours/night), onset and offset, and sleeping ≥8 hours. Home addresses were linked to built environment exposures: sound levels, tree canopy cover, street density, intersection density, population density, and housing density. Mixed-effects regression estimated associations of built environment measures with sleep outcomes, adjusting for sex, race, parent education, household income, household size, grade, weeknight status, and neighborhood poverty.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in neighborhood sound was associated with 16 minutes later sleep onset (β = 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.49) and 25% lower odds of sleeping for ≥8 hours (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96). A 1-SD increase in neighborhood tree canopy was associated with 18 minutes earlier sleep onset (β = -0.31, 95% CI: -0.49, -0.13) and 10 minutes earlier sleep offset (β= -0.17, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.05). No associations were observed for density-based exposures.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Higher neighborhood sound level was associated with lower odds of sufficient sleep, while higher tree canopy cover was associated with more favorable sleep timing. Neighborhood sound levels and tree canopy cover are potential targets for policies and interventions to support healthier sleep among adolescents.</p>

DOI

10.1093/sleep/zsaa276

Alternate Title

Sleep

PMID

33507268

Title

Engineering a Mobile Platform to Promote Sleep in the Pediatric Primary Care Setting.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 07

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pediatricians lack tools to support families at home for the promotion of childhood sleep. We are using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to guide the development of a mobile health platform for childhood sleep promotion.</p>

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Under the preparation phase of the MOST framework, to demonstrate feasibility of a mobile health platform towards treating children with insufficient sleep.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children aged 10-12y were enrolled (Study #1: N=30; Study #2: N=43). Participants wore a sleep tracker to measure sleep duration. Data were retrieved by a mobile health platform, programmed to send introductory messages during run-in (2 weeks) and goal achievement messages during intervention (7 weeks) periods. In study #1, participants were randomized to control, gain-framed incentive or loss-framed incentive arms. In study #2, participants were randomized to control, loss-framed incentive, normative feedback or loss-framed incentive plus normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In study #1, 1,514 nights of data were captured (69%) and sleep duration during the intervention was higher by an average of 21 (95% CI: -8, 51) and 34 (95% CI: 7, 61) minutes per night for the gain-framed and loss-framed arms, respectively, compared to controls. In study #2, 2,689 nights of data were captured (81%), with no major differences in average sleep duration between the control and the loss-framed or normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We have developed and deployed a mobile health platform that can capture sleep data and remotely communicate with families. Promising candidate intervention components will be further investigated under the optimization phase of the MOST framework.</p>

DOI

10.1101/2020.11.06.20223719

Alternate Title

medRxiv

PMID

33173886

Title

Engineering a mobile platform to promote sleep in the pediatric primary care setting.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

zpab006

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2632-5012

Abstract

<p><strong>Study Objectives: </strong>Pediatricians lack tools to support families at home for the promotion of childhood sleep. We are using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to guide the development of a mobile health platform for childhood sleep promotion. The objective of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of a mobile health platform towards treating children with insufficient sleep.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>Children aged 10-12 years were enrolled (Study #1: = 30; Study #2: = 43). Participants wore a sleep tracker to measure sleep duration. Data were retrieved by a mobile health platform, programmed to send introductory messages during run-in (2 weeks) and goal achievement messages during intervention (7 weeks) periods. In study #1, participants were randomized to control, gain-framed incentive or loss-framed incentive arms. In study #2, participants were randomized to control, loss-framed incentive, normative feedback or loss-framed incentive plus normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>In study #1, 1514 nights of data were captured (69%) and sleep duration during the intervention was higher by an average of 21 (95% CI: -8, 51) and 34 (95% CI: 7, 61) minutes per night for the gain-framed and loss-framed arms, respectively, compared to controls. In study #2, 2,689 nights of data were captured (81%), with no major differences in average sleep duration between the control and the loss-framed or normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>We have developed and deployed a mobile health platform that can capture sleep data and remotely communicate with families. Promising candidate intervention components will be further investigated under the of the MOST framework.</p>

<p><strong>Clinical Trials: </strong>Both studies included in this manuscript were registered at clinicaltrials.gov:-Study #1: NCT03263338-Study #2: NCT03426644.</p>

DOI

10.1093/sleepadvances/zpab006

Alternate Title

Sleep Adv

PMID

33173886

Title

Mental Health, Social Influences, and HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Utilization Among Men and Transgender Individuals Screening for HIV Prevention Trials.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 28

ISSN Number

1573-3254

Abstract

<p>The effects of mental health comorbidities and social support on the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and transgender individuals, ≥ 18&nbsp;years-old, with ≥ 2 male or transgender partners, or recent condomless anal intercourse. Surveys assessed demographics, mental health treatment, depressive symptomatology, social support, and PrEP-related social contacts. Logistic regression assessed associations between these factors and PrEP uptake and persistence. Participants (n = 247) were 89% cis-male and 46% African-American. Median age was 27 (IQR:23-33). Thirty-seven percent had ever used PrEP, of whom 18% discontinued use. High depressive symptomology was identified in 11% and 9% were receiving mental health treatment. There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms or mental health treatment on the odds of PrEP uptake or discontinuation. Each additional PrEP contact conferred a greater odds of uptake (aOR:1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42). Network-level targets may produce fruitful interventions to increase PrEP uptake.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10461-020-03004-y

Alternate Title

AIDS Behav

PMID

32860114

Title

Changes in Sleep Duration and Timing During the Middle-to-High School Transition.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 20

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The purpose of the study was to quantify changes in sleep during the middle-to-high school transition and determine if changes in sleep differ by sociodemographic characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Adolescents were enrolled in eighth grade and followed into ninth grade (N&nbsp;= 110; 2,470 nights observed). The outcomes were actigraphy-estimated sleep duration, sleep onset, sleep offset, and sleep sufficiency (≥8&nbsp;hours of sleep). The exposures were school grade (eighth or ninth), school night status (school or nonschool), sex (female or male), and race (white, black, or other).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>On school nights, sleep duration declined by 25.8&nbsp;minutes per night (p &lt; .001) from eighth to ninth grade. There was no change in sleep duration on nonschool nights. Timing of sleep onset was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on school nights (p &lt; .001) and 17.4&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool nights (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001) in ninth grade. Timing of sleep offset did not change on school mornings but was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool mornings (p &lt; .001) in ninth grade. The proportion of school nights (and nonschool nights) with sleep duration ≥8&nbsp;hours was 9.4% (38.3%) in eighth grade and 5.7% (35.9%) in ninth grade. The odds of sleeping ≥8&nbsp;hours per night was 42% lower in ninth grade, compared toeighth grade (odds ratio&nbsp;= .58; 95% confidence interval: .37, .91). Males were 59% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night. Black adolescents were 51% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Insufficient sleep is highly prevalent, especially on school nights and among male and black adolescents, and this problem worsens with the transition to high school.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.04.024

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

32576483

Title

National trends in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus hospitalization in the United States: 2000-2009.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

539-46

Date Published

2014 Mar

ISSN Number

0315-162X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>In the setting of recent healthcare advances and emphasis on reduced spending, we aimed to characterize US trends in inpatient healthcare use and mortality for pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective, serial, cross-sectional analysis of the national Kids' Inpatient Database (for 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009). We identified patients with SLE aged 2 to 21 years using an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) code of 710.0 listed as a discharge diagnosis. Using sampling weights, we estimated trends in hospitalization, inpatient mortality, procedure rates, and length of stay (LOS). We analyzed patient and hospital-specific risk factors for mortality and LOS, and compared those outcomes to those without SLE.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 26,903 estimated pediatric SLE hospitalizations. The hospitalization rate of 8.6 (95% CI 7.6-9.6) per 100,000 population and mean LOS of 5.9 days (95% CI 5.6-6.2) were stable over time. We found a significant downward trend in mortality, decreasing from 1% to 0.6% (p = 0.04), which paralleled a less pronounced trend for those without SLE. The rate of dialysis, blood transfusions, and vascular catheterization procedures increased. Patients with SLE nephritis and non-white race were at risk for increased healthcare use and death.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Pediatric SLE hospitalization rate and LOS remained stable, but inpatient mortality decreased as the rate of common therapeutic procedures increased. More research is needed to understand the drivers of these relationships.</p>

DOI

10.3899/jrheum.130592

Alternate Title

J. Rheumatol.

PMID

24488419

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