First name
Bonnie
Middle name
T
Last name
Zima

Title

ED Visits and Readmissions After Follow-up for Mental Health Hospitalization.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>A national quality measure in the Child Core Set is used to assess whether pediatric patients hospitalized for a mental illness receive timely follow-up care. In this study, we examine the relationship between adherence to the quality measure and repeat use of the emergency department (ED) or repeat hospitalization for a primary mental health condition.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We used the Truven MarketScan Medicaid Database 2015-2016, identifying hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of depression, bipolar disorder, psychosis, or anxiety for patients aged 6 to 17 years. Primary predictors were outpatient follow-up visits within 7 and 30 days. The primary outcome was time to subsequent mental health-related ED visit or hospitalization. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard models to assess relationships between predictors and outcome.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 22 844 hospitalizations, 62.0% had 7-day follow-up, and 82.3% had 30-day follow-up. Subsequent acute use was common, with 22.4% having an ED or hospital admission within 30 days and 54.8% within 6 months. Decreased likelihood of follow-up was associated with non-Hispanic or non-Latino black race and/or ethnicity, fee-for-service insurance, having no comorbidities, discharge from a medical or surgical unit, and suicide attempt. Timely outpatient follow-up was associated with increased subsequent acute care use (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 7 days: 1.20 [1.16-1.25]; 30 days: 1.31 [1.25-1.37]). These associations remained after adjusting for severity indicators.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although more than half of patients received follow-up within 7 days, variations across patient population suggest that care improvements are needed. The increased hazard of subsequent use indicates the complexity of treating these patients and points to potential opportunities to intervene at follow-up visits.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-2872

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32404433
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Classification System for International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and Tenth Revision Pediatric Mental Health Disorders.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Mar 23

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p>Effective October 2015, all US health care institutions and practitioners transitioned to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding system, raising concerns about the validity of examining trends over time in clinical care, costs, and quality. For child mental health disorders, alignment with psychiatric diagnosis groups in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-5) is also required to consistently examine trends. This is because the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes differ for individual disorders, and child mental health disorders are reclassified under new psychiatric diagnosis groups. We thus developed the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Disorders Classification System (CAMHD-CS), which classifies child mental health disorders across coding systems and aligns with DSM-5 psychiatric diagnosis groups. To examine our system’s performance, we compared detection of these disorders in a Medicaid claims database against the Clinical Classification Software (CCS) groups and then examined identification of the disorders across ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM coding systems using a national pediatric hospitalization database.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0037

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

32202603
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Healthcare Utilization and Spending for Children with Mental Health Conditions in Medicaid.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Feb 01

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To examine how characteristics vary between children with any mental health (MH) diagnosis who have typical spending and the highest spending; to identify independent predictors of highest spending; and to examine drivers of spending groups.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This retrospective analysis utilized 2016 Medicaid claims from 11 states and included 775,945 children ages 3-17 years with any MH diagnosis and at least 11 months of continuous coverage. We compared demographic characteristics and Medicaid expenditures based on total healthcare spending: the top 1% (highest-spending) and remaining 99% (typical-spending). We used chi-squared tests to compare the 2 groups and adjusted logistic regression to identify independent predictors of being in the top 1% highest-spending group.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Children with MH conditions accounted for 55% of Medicaid spending among 3- to 17-year-olds. Patients in the highest-spending group were more likely to be older, have multiple MH conditions, and have complex chronic physical health conditions (p&lt;0.001). The highest-spending group had $164,003 per-member-per-year (PMPY) in total healthcare spending, compared to $6097 PMPY in the typical-spending group. Ambulatory MH services contributed the largest proportion (40%) of expenditures ($2455 PMPY) in the typical-spending group; general health hospitalizations contributed the largest proportion (36%) of expenditures ($58,363 PMPY) in the highest-spending group.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Among children with MH conditions, mental and physical health comorbidities were common and spending for general healthcare outpaced spending for MH care. Future research and quality initiatives should focus on integrating MH and physical healthcare services and investigate whether current spending on MH services supports high-quality MH care.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2020.01.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

32017995
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Trends in Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Mental Health Conditions and Disposition by Presence of a Psychiatric Unit.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

Date Published

2019 Jun 05

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To examine trends in mental health (MH) visits to pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and identify whether ED disposition varies by presence of a hospital inpatient psychiatric unit (IPU).</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Cross-sectional study of 8,479,311 ED visits to 35 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2016 for patients aged 3 to 21 years with a primary MH or non-MH diagnosis. Multivariable generalized estimating equations and bivariate Rao-Scott chi-square tests were used to examine trends in ED visits and ED disposition by IPU status, adjusted for clustering by hospital.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>From 2012 to 2016, hospitals experienced a greater increase in ED visits with a primary MH vs. non-MH diagnosis (50.7% vs. 12.7% cumulative increase, P&lt;.001). MH visits were associated with patients who were older, female, white non-Hispanic, and privately insured compared with patients of non-MH visits (all P&lt;.001). 44% of MH visits in 2016 had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorders or suicide or self-injury, and the increase in visits was highest for these diagnosis groups (depression: 109.8%; suicide or self-injury: 110.2%). Among MH visits, presence of a hospital IPU was associated with increased hospitalizations (34.6% vs. 22.5%, P&lt;.001) and less transfers (9.3% vs. 16.2%, P&lt;.001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The increase in ED MH visits from 2012 to 2016 was four times greater than non-MH visits at US children's hospitals, and was primarily driven by patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and suicide or self-injury. Our findings have implications for strategic planning in tertiary children's hospitals dealing with a rising demand for acute MH care.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2019.05.132

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

31175994
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Readmissions after Pediatric Hospitalization for Suicide Ideation and Suicide Attempt.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

743-751

Date Published

2018 Nov

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To inform resource allocation toward a continuum of care for youth at risk of suicide, we examined unplanned 30-day readmissions after pediatric hospitalization for either suicide ideation (SI) or suicide attempt (SA).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 133,516 hospitalizations for SI or SA among 6- to 17-year-olds to determine prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of 30-day readmissions using the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Dataset (NRD). Risk factors for readmission were modeled using logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 95,354 hospitalizations for SI and 38,162 hospitalizations for SA. Readmission rates within 30 days were 8.5% for SI and SA hospitalizations. Among 30-day readmissions, more than one-third (34.1%) occurred within 7 days. Among patients with any 30-day readmission, 11% had more than one readmission within 30 days. The strongest risk factors for readmission were SI or SA hospitalization in the 30 days preceding the index SI/SA hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.14, 95% CI: 2.73-3.61) and hospitalization for other indications in the previous 30 days (AOR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.67-3.78). Among readmissions, 94.5% were for a psychiatric condition and 63.4% had a diagnosis of SI or SA.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Quality improvement interventions to reduce unplanned 30-day readmissions among children hospitalized for SI or SA should focus on children with a recent prior hospitalization and should be targeted to the first week following hospital discharge.</p>

<p><strong>FUNDING: </strong>Dr. Zima received funding from the Behavioral Health Centers of Excellence for California (SB852).</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3070

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

30484776
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Mental Health Conditions and Unplanned Hospital Readmissions in Children.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

445-452

Date Published

2018 07

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Mental health conditions (MHCs) are prevalent among hospitalized children and could influence the success of hospital discharge. We assessed the relationship between MHCs and 30-day readmissions.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This retrospective, cross-sectional study of the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database included 512,997 hospitalizations of patients ages 3 to 21 years for the 10 medical and 10 procedure conditions with the highest number of 30-day readmissions. MHCs were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes. We derived logistic regression models to measure the associations between MHC and 30-day, all-cause, unplanned readmissions, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>An MHC was present in 17.5% of medical and 13.1% of procedure index hospitalizations. Readmission rates were 17.0% and 6.2% for medical and procedure hospitalizations, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, compared with hospitalizations with no MHC, hospitalizations with MHCs had higher odds of readmission for medical admissions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.26] and procedure admissions (AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.33). Three types of MHCs were associated with higher odds of readmission for both medical and procedure hospitalizations: depression (medical AOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.49-1.66; procedure AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17-1.65), substance abuse (medical AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30; procedure AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.43), and multiple MHCs (medical AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.37-1.50; procedure AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.44).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>MHCs are associated with a higher likelihood of hospital readmission in children admitted for medical conditions and procedures. Understanding the influence of MHCs on readmissions could guide strategic planning to reduce unplanned readmissions for children with cooccurring physical and mental health conditions.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.2910

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

29964274
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Postacute Care after Pediatric Hospitalizations for a Primary Mental Health Condition.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

222-2228.e1.

Date Published

2018 Feb

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the proportion of US children hospitalized for a primary mental health condition who are discharged to postacute care (PAC); whether PAC discharge is associated with demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics; and whether PAC use varies by state.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of US acute care hospitalizations for children ages 2-20 years with a primary mental health diagnosis, using the 2009 and 2012 Kids' Inpatient Databases. Discharge to PAC was used as a proxy for transfer to an inpatient mental health facility. We derived adjusted logistic regression models to assess the association of patient and hospital characteristics with discharge to PAC.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In 2012, 14.7% of hospitalized children (n = 248 359) had a primary mental health diagnosis. Among these, 72% (n = 178 214) had bipolar disorder, depression, or psychosis, of whom 4.9% (n = 8696) were discharged to PAC. The strongest predictors of PAC discharge were homicidal ideation (aOR, 24.9; 96% CI, 4.1-150.4), suicide and self-injury (aOR, 15.1; 95% CI, 11.7-19.4), and substance abuse-related medical illness (aOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 4.5-5.6). PAC use varied widely by state, ranging from 2.2% to 36.3%.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The majority of children hospitalized primarily for a mood disorder or psychosis were not discharged to PAC, and safety-related conditions were the primary drivers of the relatively few PAC discharges. There was substantial state-to-state variation. Target areas for quality improvement include improving access to PAC for children hospitalized for mood disorders or psychosis and equitable allocation of appropriate PAC resources across states.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.09.058

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

29162345
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image

Title

Mental Health Conditions and Medical and Surgical Hospital Utilization.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

Date Published

2016 Dec

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Mental health conditions are prevalent among children hospitalized for medical conditions and surgical procedures, but little is known about their influence on hospital resource use. The objectives of this study were to examine how hospitalization characteristics vary by presence of a comorbid mental health condition and estimate the association of a comorbid mental health condition with hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, we conducted a retrospective, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of 670 161 hospitalizations for 10 common medical and 10 common surgical conditions among 3- to 20-year-old patients. Associations between mental health conditions and hospital LOS were examined using adjusted generalized linear models. Costs of additional hospital days associated with mental health conditions were estimated using hospital cost-to-charge ratios.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A comorbid mental health condition was present in 13.2% of hospitalizations. A comorbid mental health condition was associated with a LOS increase of 8.8% (from 2.5 to 2.7 days, P &lt; .001) for medical hospitalizations and a 16.9% increase (from 3.6 to 4.2 days, P &lt; .001) for surgical hospitalizations. For hospitalizations in this sample, comorbid mental health conditions were associated with an additional 31 729 (95% confidence interval: 29 085 to 33 492) hospital days and $90 million (95% confidence interval: $81 to $101 million) in hospital costs.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Medical and surgical hospitalizations with comorbid mental health conditions were associated with longer hospital stay and higher hospital costs. Knowledge about the influence of mental health conditions on pediatric hospital utilization can inform clinical innovation and case-mix adjustment.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2016-2416

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

27940716
Inner Banner
Publication Image
Inner Banner
Publication Image