First name
Ha
Last name
Dang

Title

Prospective Evaluation of the Fungitell® (1→3) Beta-D-Glucan Assay as a Diagnostic Tool for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

e14399

Date Published

02/2023

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as the beta-D-glucan assay, may improve the diagnosis of IFD. The objective was to define the utility of surveillance testing using Fungitell® beta-D-glucan (BDG) assay in children receiving antifungal prophylaxis in the immediate post-HCT period.

METHODS: Weekly surveillance blood testing with the Fungitell® BDG assay was performed during the early post-HCT period in the context of a randomized trial of children, adolescents, and young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT allocated to triazole or caspofungin prophylaxis. Positivity was defined at the manufacturer cutoff of 80 pg/ml. IFD was adjudicated using blinded central reviewers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the Fungitell® BDG assay for the outcome of proven or probable IFD.

RESULTS: A total of 51 patients (out of 290 patients in the parent trial) contributed blood specimens. In total, 278 specimens were evaluated. Specificity was 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.6%-85.3%), and NPV was over 99% (95% CI: 86.8%-99.9%). However, there were no true positive results, resulting in sensitivity of 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-84.2%) and PPV of 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-6.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: Fungitell® BDG screening is of limited utility in diagnosing IFD in the post-HCT period, mainly due to high false-positive rates. Fungitell® BDG surveillance testing should not be performed in children during the early post-HCT period while receiving antifungal prophylaxis as the pretest probability for IFD is low.

DOI

10.1111/petr.14399

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

36299233

Title

Facilitators and barriers to clinical practice guideline-consistent supportive care at pediatric oncology institutions: a Children's Oncology Group study.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

106

Date Published

2021 Sep 16

ISSN Number

2662-2211

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Clinical practice guideline (CPG)-consistent care improves patient outcomes, but CPG implementation is poor. Little is known about CPG implementation in pediatric oncology. This study aimed to understand supportive care CPG implementation facilitators and barriers at pediatric oncology National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) institutions.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Healthcare professionals at 26 pediatric, Children's&nbsp;Oncology&nbsp;Group-member, NCORP institutions were invited to participate in face-to-face focus groups. Serial focus groups were held until saturation of ideas was reached. Supportive care CPG implementation facilitators and barriers were solicited using nominal group technique (NGT), and implementation of specific supportive care CPG recommendations was discussed. Notes from each focus group were analyzed using a directed content analysis. The top five themes arising from an analysis of NGT items were identified, first from each focus group and then across all focus groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Saturation of ideas was reached after seven focus groups involving 35 participants from 18 institutions. The top five facilitators of CPG implementation identified across all focus groups were organizational factors including charging teams with CPG implementation, individual factors including willingness to standardize care, user needs and values including mentorship, system factors including implementation structure, and implementation strategies including a basis in science. The top five barriers of CPG implementation identified were organizational factors including tolerance for inconsistencies, individual factors including lack of trust, system factors including administrative hurdles, user needs and values including lack of inclusivity, and professional including knowledge gaps.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Healthcare professionals at pediatric NCORP institutions believe that organizational factors are the most important determinants of supportive care CPG implementation. They believe that CPG-consistent supportive care is most likely to be delivered in organizations that prioritize evidence-based care, provide structure and resources to implement CPGs, and eliminate implementation barriers.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02847130. Date of registration: July 28, 2016.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s43058-021-00200-2

Alternate Title

Implement Sci Commun

PMID

34530933

Title

Musculoskeletal impairments in children receiving intensive therapy for acute leukemia or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29053

Date Published

2021 Apr 23

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children receiving intensive chemotherapy for leukemia or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for solid tumors or leukemia are at risk for musculoskeletal (MSK) impairment from their underlying disease and from treatment. Data are limited on the incidence and nature of these disorders during intensive therapy. This study's objective was to provide a cross-sectional description of MSK impairments in this population.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rALL), or undergoing HSCT were systematically assessed for MSK impairments as part of Children's Oncology Group study ACCL0934. Assessments occurred at study entry, at 2&nbsp;months, and at 12&nbsp;months and included evaluation for signs or symptoms of MSK impairment and the type, site, and diagnosis.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Six hundred three patients were included. MSK signs or symptoms were present in 48 (8.0%) children at study entry, 64 (13.5%) children at 2&nbsp;months, and 40 (11.6%) children at 12&nbsp;months. Arthralgia and/or gait abnormalities were the most common impairments; the knee was the most common site. Arthritis and tendonitis were both rare. Vincristine neuropathy, MSK impacts from central nervous system pathology, and bone or joint pain from underlying cancer were the most common diagnoses. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that having rALL (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% CI 1.07-3.76, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.03) or obesity (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.12-3.95, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.02) were risk factors for MSK impairment at study entry.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>MSK impairments are common in this intensively treated patient population, especially in those with rALL and those who are obese.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29053

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

33890409

Title

A Randomized Trial of Caspofungin vs Triazoles Prophylaxis for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 02

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children and adolescents undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multicenter, randomized, open-label trial planned to enroll 560 children and adolescents (3 months to &lt;21 years) undergoing allogeneic HCT between April 2013 and September 2016. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin or a center-specific comparator triazole (fluconazole or voriconazole). Prophylaxis was administered from day 0 of HCT to day 42 or discharge. The primary outcome was proven or probable IFD at day 42 as adjudicated by blinded central review. Exploratory analysis stratified this evaluation by comparator triazole.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A planned futility analysis demonstrated a low rate of IFD in the comparator triazole arm, so the trial was closed early. A total of 290 eligible patients, with a median age of 9.5 years (range 0.3-20.7), were randomized to caspofungin (n = 144) or a triazole (n = 146; fluconazole, n = 100; voriconazole, n = 46). The day 42 cumulative incidence of proven or probable IFD was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3%-5.4%) in the caspofungin group vs 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%) in the triazole group (P = .99, log-rank test). When stratified by specific triazole, there was no significant difference in proven or probable IFD at day 42 between caspofungin vs fluconazole (1.0%, 95% CI, 0.1%-6.9%, P = .78) or caspofungin vs voriconazole (2.3%, 95% CI, 0.3%-15.1%, P = .69).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In pediatric HCT patients, prophylaxis with caspofungin did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of early proven or probable IFD compared with triazoles. Future efforts to decrease IFD-related morbidity and mortality should focus on later periods of risk.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>NCT01503515.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa119

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

33136159

Title

Chlorhexidine gluconate bathing in children with cancer or those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 20

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>To the authors' knowledge, information regarding whether daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) reduces central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in pediatric oncology patients and those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is limited.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In the current multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients aged ≥2 months and &lt;22 years with cancer or those undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized 1:1 to once-daily bathing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths or control cloths for 90 days. The primary outcome was CLABSI. Secondary endpoints included total positive blood cultures, acquisition of resistant organisms, and acquisition of cutaneous staphylococcal isolates with an elevated CHG mean inhibitory concentration.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study was stopped early because of poor accrual. Among the 177 enrolled patients, 174 were considered as evaluable (88 were randomized to the CHG group and 86 were randomized to the control group). The rate of CLABSI per 1000 central line days in the CHG group was 5.44 versus 3.10 in the control group (risk difference, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-4.69 [P = .049]). Post hoc conditional power analysis demonstrated a 0.2% chance that the results would have favored CHG had the study fully enrolled. The rate of total positive blood cultures did not differ between groups (risk difference, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, -0.41 to 5.14 [P = .078]). The number of patients demonstrating the new acquisition of resistant organisms did not differ between groups (P = .54). Patients in the CHG group were found to be more likely to acquire cutaneous staphylococcal isolates with an elevated CHG mean inhibitory concentration (P = .032).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The data from the current study do not support the use of routine CHG bathing in children with cancer or those undergoing allogeneic HCT.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.33271

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

33079403

Title

Effect of Caspofungin vs Fluconazole Prophylaxis on Invasive Fungal Disease Among Children and Young Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1673-1681

Date Published

2019 11 05

ISSN Number

1538-3598

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk of life-threatening invasive fungal disease with both yeasts and molds.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the efficacy of caspofungin vs fluconazole prophylaxis against proven or probable invasive fungal disease and invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapy.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This multicenter, randomized, open-label, clinical trial enrolled patients aged 3 months to 30 years with newly diagnosed de novo, relapsed, or secondary acute myeloid leukemia being treated at 115 US and Canadian institutions (April 2011-November 2016; last follow-up June 30, 2018).</p>

<p><strong>Interventions: </strong>Participants were randomly assigned during the first chemotherapy cycle to prophylaxis with caspofungin (n = 257) or fluconazole (n = 260). Prophylaxis was administered during the neutropenic period following each chemotherapy cycle.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcome was proven or probable invasive fungal disease as adjudicated by blinded central review. Secondary outcomes were invasive aspergillosis, empirical antifungal therapy, and overall survival.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The second interim efficacy analysis and an unplanned futility analysis based on 394 patients appeared to have suggested futility, so the study was closed to accrual. Among the 517 participants who were randomized (median age, 9 years [range, 0-26 years]; 44% female), 508 (98%) completed the trial. The 23 proven or probable invasive fungal disease events (6 caspofungin vs 17 fluconazole) included 14 molds, 7 yeasts, and 2 fungi not further categorized. The 5-month cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease was 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3%-7.0%) in the caspofungin group vs 7.2% (95% CI, 4.4%-11.8%) in the fluconazole group (overall P = .03 by log-rank test) and for cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.1%-3.5%) with caspofungin vs 3.1% (95% CI, 1.4%-6.9%) with fluconazole (overall P = .046 by log-rank test). No statistically significant differences in empirical antifungal therapy (71.9% caspofungin vs 69.5% fluconazole, overall P = .78 by log-rank test) or 2-year overall survival (68.8% caspofungin vs 70.8% fluconazole, overall P = .66 by log-rank test) were observed. The most common toxicities were hypokalemia (22 caspofungin vs 13 fluconazole), respiratory failure (6 caspofungin vs 9 fluconazole), and elevated alanine transaminase (4 caspofungin vs 8 fluconazole).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>Among children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia, prophylaxis with caspofungin compared with fluconazole resulted in significantly lower incidence of invasive fungal disease. The findings suggest that caspofungin may be considered for prophylaxis against invasive fungal disease, although study interpretation is limited by early termination due to an unplanned interim analysis that appeared to have suggested futility.</p>

<p><strong>Trial Registration: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01307579.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jama.2019.15702

Alternate Title

JAMA

PMID

31688884

Title

Effect of Levofloxacin Prophylaxis on Bacteremia in Children With Acute Leukemia or Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

995-1004

Date Published

2018 Sep 11

ISSN Number

1538-3598

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Bacteremia causes considerable morbidity among children with acute leukemia and those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are limited data on the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in children.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the efficacy and risks of levofloxacin prophylaxis in children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia or undergoing HSCT.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>In this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, patients (6 months-21 years) receiving intensive chemotherapy were enrolled (September 2011-April 2016) in 2 separate groups-acute leukemia, consisting of acute myeloid leukemia or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and HSCT recipients-at 76 centers in the United States and Canada, with follow-up completed September 2017.</p>

<p><strong>Interventions: </strong>Patients with acute leukemia were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis for 2 consecutive cycles of chemotherapy (n = 100) or no prophylaxis (n = 100). Those undergoing HSCT were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis during 1 HSCT procedure (n = 210) or no prophylaxis (n = 214).</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcome was the occurrence of bacteremia during 2 chemotherapy cycles (acute leukemia) or 1 transplant procedure (HSCT). Secondary outcomes included fever and neutropenia, severe infection, invasive fungal disease, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and musculoskeletal toxic effects.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 624 patients, 200 with acute leukemia (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 11 years [6-15 years]; 46% female) and 424 undergoing HSCT (median [IQR] age, 7 years [3-14]; 38% female), were enrolled. Among 195 patients with acute leukemia, the likelihood of bacteremia was significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group than in the control group (21.9% vs 43.4%; risk difference, 21.6%; 95% CI, 8.8%-34.4%, P = .001), whereas among 418 patients undergoing HSCT, the risk of bacteremia was not significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group (11.0% vs 17.3%; risk difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, 0.3%-13.0%; P = .06). Fever and neutropenia were less common in the levofloxacin group (71.2% vs 82.1%; risk difference, 10.8%; 95% CI, 4.2%-17.5%; P = .002). There were no significant differences in severe infection (3.6% vs 5.9%; risk difference, 2.3%; 95% CI, -1.1% to 5.6%; P = .20), invasive fungal disease (2.9% vs 2.0%; risk difference, -1.0%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 1.5%, P = .41), C difficile-associated diarrhea (2.3% vs 5.2%; risk difference, 2.9%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 5.9%; P = .07), or musculoskeletal toxic effects at 2 months (11.4% vs 16.3%; risk difference, 4.8%; 95% CI, -1.6% to 11.2%; P = .15) or at 12 months (10.1% vs 14.4%; risk difference, 4.3%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 12.0%; P = .28) between the levofloxacin and control groups.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>Among children with acute leukemia receiving intensive chemotherapy, receipt of levofloxacin prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis resulted in a significant reduction in bacteremia. However, there was no significant reduction in bacteremia for levofloxacin prophylaxis among children undergoing HSCT.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jama.2018.12512

Alternate Title

JAMA

PMID

30208456

Title

Group-Wide, Prospective Study of Ototoxicity Assessment in Children Receiving Cisplatin Chemotherapy (ACCL05C1): A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

JCO2016692319

Date Published

2016 Dec 12

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>Purpose</strong> Optimal assessment methods and criteria for reporting hearing outcomes in children who receive treatment with cisplatin are uncertain. The objectives of our study were to compare different ototoxicity classification systems, to evaluate the feasibility of including otoacoustic emissions and extended high frequency audiometry, and to evaluate a central review mechanism for audiologic results for cisplatin-treated children in the cooperative group setting.</p>

<p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong> Eligible participants were 1 to 30 years, with planned cisplatin-containing treatment. Hearing evaluations were conducted at baseline, before each cisplatin cycle, and at the end of therapy. Audiologic results were assessed and graded by the testing audiologist and by two central review audiologists using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Ototoxicity Criteria (ASHA), Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE), and Brock Ototoxicity Grades (Brock). One central reviewer also used the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Ototoxicity Scale (SIOP).</p>

<p><strong>Results</strong> At the end of treatment, the prevalence of any degree of ototoxicity ranged from 40% to 56%, and severe ototoxicity ranged from 7% to 22%. Compared with CTCAE, SIOP detected significantly more ototoxicity ( P = .004), whereas Brock criteria detected significantly fewer patients with any or severe ototoxicity ( P &lt; .001 for both). SIOP detected ototoxicity earlier than did the other scales. Agreement between the central reviewers and the institutional audiologist was almost perfect for ASHA and Brock, whereas the poorest agreement occurred with CTCAE.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion</strong> The SIOP scale may be superior to ASHA, Brock, and CTCAE scales for classifying ototoxicity in pediatric patients who were treated with cisplatin. Future studies should evaluate inter-rater reliability of the SIOP scale.</p>

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

27937095

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