First name
Brian
Middle name
R
Last name
Lee

Title

Inappropriate antibiotic surgical prophylaxis in pediatric patients: A national point-prevalence study.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

477-479

Date Published

2020 04

ISSN Number

1559-6834

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.28

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

32127068
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Title

Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing in U.S. Children's Hospitals: A National Point Prevalence Survey.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Jan 16

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Studies estimate that 30-50% of antibiotics prescribed for hospitalized patients are inappropriate, but pediatric data are limited. Characterization of inappropriate prescribing practices for children are needed to guide pediatric antimicrobial stewardship.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional analysis of antibiotic prescribing at 32 US children's hospitals. Subjects included hospitalized children with ≥1 antibiotic order at 0800 on one day per calendar quarter, over six quarters (Quarter 3 2016 - Quarter 4 2017). Antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) physicians and/or pharmacists used a standardized survey to collect data on antibiotic orders and evaluate appropriateness. The primary outcome was the percentage of antibiotics prescribed for infectious use that were classified as suboptimal, defined as inappropriate or needing modification.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 34 927 children hospitalized on survey days, 12 213 (35.0%) had ≥1 active antibiotic order. Among 11 784 patients receiving antibiotics for infectious use, 25.9% were prescribed ≥1 suboptimal antibiotic. Of the 17 110 antibiotic orders prescribed for infectious use, 21.0% were considered suboptimal. Most common reasons for inappropriate use were bug-drug mismatch (27.7%), surgical prophylaxis &gt;24 hours (17.7%), overly broad empiric therapy (11.2%), and unnecessary treatment (11.0%). The majority of recommended modifications were to stop (44.7%) or narrow (19.7%) the drug. ASPs would not have routinely reviewed 46.1% of suboptimal orders.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Across 32 children's hospitals, approximately 1 in 3 hospitalized children are receiving one or more antibiotics at any given time. One quarter of these children are receiving suboptimal therapy, and nearly half of suboptimal use is not captured by current ASP practices.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciaa036

Alternate Title

Clin. Infect. Dis.

PMID

31942952
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Title

Application of an antibiotic spectrum index in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-3

Date Published

2019 Jul 29

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>Antimicrobial stewardship programs typically use days of therapy to assess antimicrobial use. However, this metric does not account for the antimicrobial spectrum of activity. We applied an antibiotic spectrum index to a population of very-low-birth-weight infants to assess its utility to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2019.221

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

31352907
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Title

Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in patients admitted to freestanding pediatric hospitals, 2009-2016.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-4

Date Published

2018 Oct 29

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2018.259

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

30370879
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Title

Variability in Antibiotic Use Across PICUs.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

519-27

Date Published

2018 Jun

ISSN Number

1529-7535

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To characterize and compare antibiotic prescribing across PICUs to evaluate the degree of variability.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective analysis from 2010 through 2014 of the Pediatric Health Information System.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Forty-one freestanding children's hospital.</p>

<p><strong>SUBJECTS: </strong>Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to a PICU in children's hospitals contributing data to Pediatric Health Information System.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>To normalize for potential differences in disease severity and case mix across centers, a subanalysis was performed of children admitted with one of the 20 All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups and the seven All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups shared by all PICUs with the highest antibiotic use.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study included 3,101,201 hospital discharges from 41 institutions with 386,914 PICU patients. All antibiotic use declined during the study period. The median-adjusted antibiotic use among PICU patients was 1,043 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 977-1,147 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) compared with 893 among non-ICU children (interquartile range, 805-968 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days). For PICU patients, the median adjusted use of broad-spectrum antibiotics was 176 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 152-217 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) and was 302 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 220-351 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) for antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents, compared with 153 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 130-182 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) and 244 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 203-270 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) for non-ICU children. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant institutional variability existed in antibiotic use in PICU patients, in the 20 All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups with the highest antibiotic usage and in the seven All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups shared by all 41 PICUs.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The wide variation in antibiotic use observed across children's hospital PICUs suggests inappropriate antibiotic use.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PCC.0000000000001535

Alternate Title

Pediatr Crit Care Med

PMID

29533352
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Title

Characteristics of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Current Status of the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

Date Published

2018 Jan 25

ISSN Number

2079-6382

Abstract

<p>In response to the growing epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) have been rapidly implemented in the United States (US). This study examines the prevalence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) seven core elements of a successful ASP within a large subset of US Children's Hospitals. In 2016, a survey was conducted of 52 pediatric hospitals assessing the presence of the seven core elements: leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Forty-nine hospitals (94%) had established ASPs and 41 hospitals (79%) included all seven core elements. Physician accountability (87%) and a dedicated ASP pharmacist or drug expert (88%) were present in the vast majority of hospitals. However, substantial variability existed in the financial support allotted to these positions. This variability did not predict program actions, tracking, reporting, and education. When compared with previous surveys, these results document a dramatic increase in the prevalence and resources of pediatric stewardship programs, although continued expansion is warranted. Further research is required to understand the feasibility of various core stewardship activities and the impact on patient outcomes in the setting of finite resources.</p>

DOI

10.3390/antibiotics7010004

Alternate Title

Antibiotics (Basel)

PMID

29370071
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Title

Trends in Intravenous Antibiotic Duration for Urinary Tract Infections in Young Infants.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

Date Published

2017 Nov 02

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To assess trends in the duration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants ≤60 days old between 2005 and 2015 and determine if the duration of IV antibiotic treatment is associated with readmission.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective analysis of infants ≤60 days old diagnosed with a UTI who were admitted to a children's hospital and received IV antibiotics. Infants were excluded if they had a previous surgery or comorbidities, bacteremia, or admission to the ICU. Data were analyzed from the Pediatric Health Information System database from 2005 through 2015. The primary outcome was readmission within 30 days for a UTI.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The proportion of infants ≤60 days old receiving 4 or more days of IV antibiotics (long IV treatment) decreased from 50% in 2005 to 19% in 2015. The proportion of infants ≤60 days old receiving long IV treatment at 46 children's hospitals varied between 3% and 59% and did not correlate with readmission (correlation coefficient 0.13; P = .37). In multivariable analysis, readmission for a UTI was associated with younger age and female sex but not duration of IV antibiotic therapy (adjusted odds ratio for long IV treatment: 0.93 [95% confidence interval 0.52-1.67]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The proportion of infants ≤60 days old receiving long IV treatment decreased substantially from 2005 to 2015 without an increase in hospital readmissions. These findings support the safety of short-course IV antibiotic therapy for appropriately selected neonates.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2017-1021

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

29097611
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Title

Accuracy of Administrative Data for Antimicrobial Administration in Hospitalized Children.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

Date Published

2017 Aug 18

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>Administrative data are often used as a proxy for medication-administration record (MAR) data. Multicenter MAR data were compared retrospectively with administrative data from January 2010 through June 2013 from the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We found that administrative data were more concordant with bill-upon-administration than bill-upon-dispense data.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/pix064

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

28992185
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Title

Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS): A Quality Improvement Collaborative.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

124-8

Date Published

2018 May 15

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>Background.: </strong>Although many children's hospitals have established antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), data-driven benchmarks for optimizing antimicrobial use across centers are lacking. We developed a multicenter quality improvement collaborative focused on sharing data reports and benchmarking antimicrobial use to improve antimicrobial prescribing among hospitalized children.</p>

<p><strong>Methods.: </strong>A national antimicrobial stewardship collaborative among children's hospitals, Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS), was established in 2013. Characteristics of the hospitals and their ASPs were obtained through a standardized survey. Antimicrobial-use data reports were developed on the basis of input from the participating hospitals. Collaborative learning opportunities were provided through monthly webinars and annual meetings.</p>

<p><strong>Results.: </strong>Since 2013, 36 US hospitals have participated in the SHARPS collaborative. The median full-time equivalent (pharmacist and physician) dedicated to 30 of these ASPs was 0.75 (interquartile range, 0.45-1.4). To date, the collaborative has developed 26 data reports that include benchmarking reports according to specific antimicrobial agents, indications, and clinical service lines. The collaborative has conducted 27 webinars and 3 in-person meetings to highlight the stewardship work being conducted in the hospitals. The data reports and learning opportunities have resulted in approximately 36 distinct stewardship interventions.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion.: </strong>A pediatric antimicrobial stewardship collaborative has been successful in promoting the development of and innovation among pediatric ASPs. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of these efforts.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/pix020

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

28379408
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