First name
Christopher
Middle name
J
Last name
Long

Title

Incidence and resolution of de novo hydronephrosis after pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

517.e1-517.e5

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: With the advent of robot-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation (RALUR) for primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), understanding and minimizing its complications continues to be critical. Incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR could be indicative of an outcome that needs further study or could be a benign transient finding.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we hypothesized that the incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR is low and resolves spontaneously.

METHODS: An IRB-approved prospective single-institutional registry was utilized to identify all patients undergoing RALUR via an extravesical approach from 2012 to 2020. Patients with primary VUR and minimal (Grade I SFU) or no hydronephrosis prior to surgery were included. Patients who had other associated pathology or underwent concomitant procedures were excluded. Preoperative characteristics including VUR and hydronephrosis grades as well as post-operative clinical details and hydronephrosis grades were aggregated and analyzed.

RESULTS: 86/172 (50%) patients (133 ureters), with median reflux grade of 3 (IQR: G2, G3) met the inclusion criteria. Patients underwent RALUR at a median age of 5.7 years (IQR: 3.4, 8.7) with median 36.2 months (IQR: 19.6, 63.6) follow-up. Renal ultrasound at 4-6 weeks post-op showed de novo hydronephrosis in 18 (13.5%) ureters; the complete resolution was seen in 13 ureters (72%) at a median of 4.5 months from surgery. Among the 5 with non-resolved hydronephrosis (SFU G2:4, G3:1), 2 patients (3 ureters) underwent subsequent interventions.

DISCUSSION: The present study evaluating the natural history of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR-EV performed for primary VUR, is to our knowledge the largest cohort of patients undergoing RALUR that this has been studied in. In our cohort, the incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR was 13.5%, similar to rates reported in two OUR cohorts, and significantly lower than reported incidence rates of 22-26% in several OUR cohorts, and 30% in a RALUR cohort. In the present cohort, hydronephrosis resolved spontaneously in more than 72% of cases. The median time from surgery until resolution of hydronephrosis was 4.5 (1.6, 10.5) months, which is shorter in comparison to the average time to resolution of 7.6 months, reported by Kim et al. in an earlier study.

CONCLUSIONS: De novo hydronephrosis after RALUR can be followed with serial renal ultrasounds. The majority of de novo hydronephrosis post-RALUR is transient and resolves spontaneously within a year of surgery with a very low re-intervention rate.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2022.04.005

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

35654725

Title

Deep learning imaging features derived from kidney ultrasounds predict chronic kidney disease progression in children with posterior urethral valves.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1432-198X

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We sought to use deep learning to extract anatomic features from postnatal kidney ultrasounds and evaluate their performance in predicting the risk and timing of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression for boys with posterior urethral valves (PUV). We hypothesized that these features would predict CKD progression better than clinical characteristics such as nadir creatinine alone.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of boys with PUV treated at two pediatric health systems from 1990 to 2021. Features of kidneys were extracted from initial postnatal kidney ultrasound images using a deep learning model. Three time-to-event prediction models were built using random survival forests. The Imaging Model included deep learning imaging features, the Clinical Model included clinical data, and the Ensemble Model combined imaging features and clinical data. Separate models were built to include time-dependent clinical data that were available at 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years.

RESULTS: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were included in the analysis. All models performed well with C-indices of 0.7 or greater. The Clinical Model outperformed the Imaging Model at all time points with nadir creatinine driving the performance of the Clinical Model. Combining the 6-month Imaging Model (C-index 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 0.79) with the 6-month Clinical Model (C-index 0.79; 95% CI 0.71, 0.86) resulted in a 6-month Ensemble Model that performed better (C-index 0.82; 95% CI 0.77, 0.88) than either model alone.

CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning imaging features extracted from initial postnatal kidney ultrasounds may improve early prediction of CKD progression among children with PUV. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

DOI

10.1007/s00467-022-05677-0

Alternate Title

Pediatr Nephrol

PMID

35867160

Title

Child Abuse Mimic: Avulsion Injury in a Child With Penoscrotal Webbing.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

265-267

Date Published

2017 Apr

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p>Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-…). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000000524

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

26425931

Title

The natural history of semen parameters in untreated asymptomatic adolescent varicocele patients: A retrospective cohort study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 24

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Adolescent males with varicoceles present a dilemma for surveillance and treatment. Testicular volumetrics have not been shown to predict SA outcomes. Serial SAs are thus recommended in asymptomatic adolescent males with varicoceles and normal testicular development, but the natural history of semen parameters is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To explore the natural history of semen parameters in adolescent boys with a left varicocele under active surveillance.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Adolescents with an asymptomatic unilateral left varicocele, Tanner V development, normal testicular volumes, and an initial SA were retrospectively reviewed in a single-institution prospectively followed cohort. Total motile count (TMC) was calculated. A cutoff of TMC Z 20 million was used to dichotomize SA results into "normal" or "poor." Those with poor SA were offered repeat SA. Cumulative probabilities of normal TMC over successive rounds of SA were calculated. Bivariate models were used to explore associations of a second consecutive poor TMC with age and varicocele grade.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 216 patients provided an initial SA between 1992 and 2015. We excluded 17 for a history of cryptorchidism or incomplete SA data for a final cohort of 199 patients with median follow-up of 3.3 years (interquartile range 1.5-5.6 years). The mean age at initial SA was 17.9 years (range 14.8-21.8 years). One hundred and nine out of 199 had an initial normal TMC. Of the 90 out of 199 with an initially poor TMC, 51 had repeat SA and 24 of the 51 patients improved to normal TMC. Of the 27 patients with two consecutive poor TMCs, 15 had a third SA and five out of 15 improved to normal TMC. Thus, cumulatively, 55%, 67%, and 69% of all patients had a normal TMC after an initial, second, and third SA, respectively. However, fewer patients in each round of SA normalized their TMC (Figure). Neither age nor varicocele grade was associated with a second consecutive poor TMC.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>Two-thirds of Tanner V boys with an uncorrected varicocele and normal testicular volumes achieve a normal TMC regardless of varicocele grade or age. Despite Tanner V development, 47% with an initial "poor" SA will improve to normal status without surgery. However, a small subgroup of patients will have persistently poor TMC and thus should be targeted in future research for timely intervention.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Semen parameters improve over time. SA should be followed and repeated at least once in symptomatic Tanner V boys with varicoceles.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.008

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27815047

Title

Does varicocelectomy improve semen analysis outcomes in adolescents without testicular asymmetry?

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 26

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The main indications for adolescent varicocelectomy are testicular hypotrophy or pain. However, we have previously shown that both serial total testicular volume and volume differential are weakly associated with semen quality. The ultimate patient goal is paternity, but semen analysis is critical to appropriate management of varicocele. We hypothesize that varicocelectomy improves total motile count (TMC) among patients who only have abnormal semen analysis (SA) parameters, but not among those with potential hormonal dysfunction such as Klinefelter syndrome or cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed our registry of adolescent males followed with a clinical left varicocele. For this study, subjects without sustained testicular asymmetry, who were Tanner V, and gave at least one preoperative SA were included. Subjects were excluded if they had embolization for their varicocele or no postoperative SA. Primary outcome was change in TMC before and after surgery, compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test after stratifying by surgical indication. Secondary outcomes included rates of improved TMC and normalized TMC (&gt;20 million) after surgery, compared across covariates using the Fisher exact test.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventeen patients met the eligibility criteria, 11 of whom underwent repair for only abnormal preoperative TMC. Overall, median age (interquartile range [IQR]) at first preoperative SA was 17.6 (15.9-17.9) years. The median preoperative TMC across all SA was 2.8 (0.7-7.4) million. The median age at surgery was 18.2 (16.8-18.9) years. Postoperatively, the median TMC across all SA increased to 18.2 (3.6-18.2) million (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.01; see Figure). The improvement in TMC occurred primarily in the group who only had abnormal preoperative TMC (82% improved, 55% normalized); lack of improvement was seen in patients who had a history of Klinefelter or orchiopexy for cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adolescent varicocele patients should undergo SA after development of Tanner V. Varicocelectomy has a high success rate for improving TMC in adolescent or young adult males who only have abnormal TMC and no history of cryptorchidism.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.010

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27818033

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