First name
Aseem
Middle name
R
Last name
Shukla

Title

Incidence and resolution of de novo hydronephrosis after pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

517.e1-517.e5

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: With the advent of robot-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation (RALUR) for primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), understanding and minimizing its complications continues to be critical. Incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR could be indicative of an outcome that needs further study or could be a benign transient finding.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we hypothesized that the incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR is low and resolves spontaneously.

METHODS: An IRB-approved prospective single-institutional registry was utilized to identify all patients undergoing RALUR via an extravesical approach from 2012 to 2020. Patients with primary VUR and minimal (Grade I SFU) or no hydronephrosis prior to surgery were included. Patients who had other associated pathology or underwent concomitant procedures were excluded. Preoperative characteristics including VUR and hydronephrosis grades as well as post-operative clinical details and hydronephrosis grades were aggregated and analyzed.

RESULTS: 86/172 (50%) patients (133 ureters), with median reflux grade of 3 (IQR: G2, G3) met the inclusion criteria. Patients underwent RALUR at a median age of 5.7 years (IQR: 3.4, 8.7) with median 36.2 months (IQR: 19.6, 63.6) follow-up. Renal ultrasound at 4-6 weeks post-op showed de novo hydronephrosis in 18 (13.5%) ureters; the complete resolution was seen in 13 ureters (72%) at a median of 4.5 months from surgery. Among the 5 with non-resolved hydronephrosis (SFU G2:4, G3:1), 2 patients (3 ureters) underwent subsequent interventions.

DISCUSSION: The present study evaluating the natural history of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR-EV performed for primary VUR, is to our knowledge the largest cohort of patients undergoing RALUR that this has been studied in. In our cohort, the incidence of de novo hydronephrosis after RALUR was 13.5%, similar to rates reported in two OUR cohorts, and significantly lower than reported incidence rates of 22-26% in several OUR cohorts, and 30% in a RALUR cohort. In the present cohort, hydronephrosis resolved spontaneously in more than 72% of cases. The median time from surgery until resolution of hydronephrosis was 4.5 (1.6, 10.5) months, which is shorter in comparison to the average time to resolution of 7.6 months, reported by Kim et al. in an earlier study.

CONCLUSIONS: De novo hydronephrosis after RALUR can be followed with serial renal ultrasounds. The majority of de novo hydronephrosis post-RALUR is transient and resolves spontaneously within a year of surgery with a very low re-intervention rate.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2022.04.005

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

35654725

Title

Identification and characterization of calyceal diverticula with MR urography (MRU) in children.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 23

ISSN Number

2366-0058

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To determine the MRU imaging findings of calyceal diverticula in a large cohort of children and to compare the frequency of calyceal diverticula in our cohort with what has been previously reported.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study of all patients with suspected CD based on their medical records. All patients in this study underwent MRU at our institution between 2010 and 2017. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed each MRU blinded to clinical information and other urologic imaging regarding the presence, size, location, and morphology of the cyst and presence/absence of contrast within it. The time when contrast first appeared within the cystic mass was recorded, and a χ test was used to determine significance on differences between the different characteristics of renal cysts and diverticula.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Fifty children (29 girls and 21 boys; median age of 11.5&nbsp;years, IQR 7-16) with a total of 66 individual cystic masses were included. 21 (21/66, 31.8%) Cystic masses demonstrated contrast filling and were characterized as diverticula, resulting in a frequency of 26.6 cases per 1000 patients (21/787). The remaining 45 cystic masses (45/66, 68.1%) were cysts. The median diameter of CD was 2.5&nbsp;cm (IQR 1.5-3.7). Contrast was observed within the cystic mass on average at 4.6&nbsp;min (SD ± 2.4; range 1.5-13&nbsp;min). The agreement between both radiologists was 91% (k = 0.78). 6 Cysts and 18 CD were confirmed surgically, MRU demonstrated accurate diagnosis in 100% of those cases.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Magnetic resonance urography is reliable in differentiating calyceal diverticula from renal cysts. On MRU, all diverticula were identified within 15&nbsp;min of contrast administration; hence longer delays in imaging are unnecessary.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00261-020-02623-2

Alternate Title

Abdom Radiol (NY)

PMID

32577781

Title

Outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery in children with and without congenital heart disease.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

1980-1988

Date Published

2018 Oct

ISSN Number

1531-5037

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) often require noncardiac surgery. We compared outcomes following open and laparoscopic intraabdominal surgery among children with and without CHD.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study using the 2013-2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Project-Pediatrics. We matched 45,012 children &lt;18years old who underwent laparoscopic surgery to 45,012 children who underwent open surgery. We determined the associations between laparoscopic (versus open) surgery and 30-day mortality, in-hospital mortality, 30-day morbidity, and postoperative length-of-stay.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among children with minor CHD, laparoscopic surgery was associated with lower 30-day mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.34 [95% Confidence Interval 0.15-0.79]), inhospital mortality (OR 0.42 [0.22-0.81]) and 30-day morbidity (OR 0.61 [0.50-0.73]). As CHD severity increased, this benefit of laparoscopic surgery decreased for 30-day morbidity (ptrend=0.01) and in-hospital mortality (ptrend=0.05), but not for 30-day mortality (ptrend=0.27). Length-of-stay was shorter for laparoscopic approaches for children at cost of higher readmissions. On subgroup analysis, laparoscopy was associated with lower odds of postoperative blood transfusion in all children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Intraabdominal laparoscopic surgery compared to open surgery is associated with decreased morbidity in patients with no CHD and lower morbidity and mortality in patients with minor CHD, but not in those with more severe CHD.</p>

<p><strong>LEVEL-OF-EVIDENCE: </strong>Level III: Treatment Study.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.10.052

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr. Surg.

PMID

29157923

Title

The natural history of semen parameters in untreated asymptomatic adolescent varicocele patients: A retrospective cohort study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 24

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Adolescent males with varicoceles present a dilemma for surveillance and treatment. Testicular volumetrics have not been shown to predict SA outcomes. Serial SAs are thus recommended in asymptomatic adolescent males with varicoceles and normal testicular development, but the natural history of semen parameters is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To explore the natural history of semen parameters in adolescent boys with a left varicocele under active surveillance.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Adolescents with an asymptomatic unilateral left varicocele, Tanner V development, normal testicular volumes, and an initial SA were retrospectively reviewed in a single-institution prospectively followed cohort. Total motile count (TMC) was calculated. A cutoff of TMC Z 20 million was used to dichotomize SA results into "normal" or "poor." Those with poor SA were offered repeat SA. Cumulative probabilities of normal TMC over successive rounds of SA were calculated. Bivariate models were used to explore associations of a second consecutive poor TMC with age and varicocele grade.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 216 patients provided an initial SA between 1992 and 2015. We excluded 17 for a history of cryptorchidism or incomplete SA data for a final cohort of 199 patients with median follow-up of 3.3 years (interquartile range 1.5-5.6 years). The mean age at initial SA was 17.9 years (range 14.8-21.8 years). One hundred and nine out of 199 had an initial normal TMC. Of the 90 out of 199 with an initially poor TMC, 51 had repeat SA and 24 of the 51 patients improved to normal TMC. Of the 27 patients with two consecutive poor TMCs, 15 had a third SA and five out of 15 improved to normal TMC. Thus, cumulatively, 55%, 67%, and 69% of all patients had a normal TMC after an initial, second, and third SA, respectively. However, fewer patients in each round of SA normalized their TMC (Figure). Neither age nor varicocele grade was associated with a second consecutive poor TMC.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>Two-thirds of Tanner V boys with an uncorrected varicocele and normal testicular volumes achieve a normal TMC regardless of varicocele grade or age. Despite Tanner V development, 47% with an initial "poor" SA will improve to normal status without surgery. However, a small subgroup of patients will have persistently poor TMC and thus should be targeted in future research for timely intervention.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Semen parameters improve over time. SA should be followed and repeated at least once in symptomatic Tanner V boys with varicoceles.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.008

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27815047

Title

Does varicocelectomy improve semen analysis outcomes in adolescents without testicular asymmetry?

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 26

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The main indications for adolescent varicocelectomy are testicular hypotrophy or pain. However, we have previously shown that both serial total testicular volume and volume differential are weakly associated with semen quality. The ultimate patient goal is paternity, but semen analysis is critical to appropriate management of varicocele. We hypothesize that varicocelectomy improves total motile count (TMC) among patients who only have abnormal semen analysis (SA) parameters, but not among those with potential hormonal dysfunction such as Klinefelter syndrome or cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed our registry of adolescent males followed with a clinical left varicocele. For this study, subjects without sustained testicular asymmetry, who were Tanner V, and gave at least one preoperative SA were included. Subjects were excluded if they had embolization for their varicocele or no postoperative SA. Primary outcome was change in TMC before and after surgery, compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test after stratifying by surgical indication. Secondary outcomes included rates of improved TMC and normalized TMC (&gt;20 million) after surgery, compared across covariates using the Fisher exact test.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventeen patients met the eligibility criteria, 11 of whom underwent repair for only abnormal preoperative TMC. Overall, median age (interquartile range [IQR]) at first preoperative SA was 17.6 (15.9-17.9) years. The median preoperative TMC across all SA was 2.8 (0.7-7.4) million. The median age at surgery was 18.2 (16.8-18.9) years. Postoperatively, the median TMC across all SA increased to 18.2 (3.6-18.2) million (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.01; see Figure). The improvement in TMC occurred primarily in the group who only had abnormal preoperative TMC (82% improved, 55% normalized); lack of improvement was seen in patients who had a history of Klinefelter or orchiopexy for cryptorchidism.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adolescent varicocele patients should undergo SA after development of Tanner V. Varicocelectomy has a high success rate for improving TMC in adolescent or young adult males who only have abnormal TMC and no history of cryptorchidism.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.010

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

27818033

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