First name
Chén
Middle name
C
Last name
Kenyon

Title

Food Insufficiency Following Discontinuation of Monthly Child Tax Credit Payments Among Lower-Income US Households.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e224039

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

2689-0186

Abstract

Importance: The 2021 expanded Child Tax Credit provided advance monthly payments to many US families with children from July through December 2021 and was associated with a reduction in food insufficiency. Less is known about the effect of the discontinuation of monthly payments.

Objective: To assess whether the discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments was associated with subsequent changes in food insufficiency among lower-income US households with children.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the Household Pulse Survey, a recurring online survey of US households conducted by the US Census Bureau, from January 2021 to March 2022. This study estimated difference-in-differences regression models for households making less than $50 000, less than $35 000, and less than $25 000 annually, adjusting for demographic characteristics and state of residence. The estimation sample of households making less than $50 000/y included 114 705 responses, representing a weighted population size of 27 342 296 households.

Exposures: Receipt of monthly Child Tax Credit payments, as measured by living in a household with children during the period of monthly payments from July through December 2021.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Household food insufficiency, as measured by a respondent indicating that there was sometimes or often not enough food to eat in the household in the previous 7 days.

Results: Among 114 705 households making less than $50 000/y, respondents were predominantly female (57%); White (71%); not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (79%); had high school or equivalent education (38%); and were unmarried (70%). Following the discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments, food insufficiency in US households with children increased by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-5.7 percentage points) among households making less than $50 000/y, 4.9 percentage points (95% CI, 2.6-7.3 percentage points) among households making less than $35 000/y, and 6.2 percentage points (95% CI, 3.3-9.3 percentage points) among households making less than $25 000/y. These estimates represent a relative increase in food insufficiency of approximately 16.7% among households making less than $50 000/y, 20.8% among households making less than $35 000/y, and 23.2% among households making less than $25 000/y.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cross-sectional study, discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments in December 2021 was associated with a statistically significant increase in household food insufficiency among lower-income households, with the greatest increase occurring in the lowest-income households.

DOI

10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.4039

Alternate Title

JAMA Health Forum

PMID

36367738

Title

Food Insufficiency Following Discontinuation of Monthly Child Tax Credit Payments Among Lower-Income US Households.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e224039

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

2689-0186

Abstract

Importance: The 2021 expanded Child Tax Credit provided advance monthly payments to many US families with children from July through December 2021 and was associated with a reduction in food insufficiency. Less is known about the effect of the discontinuation of monthly payments.

Objective: To assess whether the discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments was associated with subsequent changes in food insufficiency among lower-income US households with children.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the Household Pulse Survey, a recurring online survey of US households conducted by the US Census Bureau, from January 2021 to March 2022. This study estimated difference-in-differences regression models for households making less than $50 000, less than $35 000, and less than $25 000 annually, adjusting for demographic characteristics and state of residence. The estimation sample of households making less than $50 000/y included 114 705 responses, representing a weighted population size of 27 342 296 households.

Exposures: Receipt of monthly Child Tax Credit payments, as measured by living in a household with children during the period of monthly payments from July through December 2021.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Household food insufficiency, as measured by a respondent indicating that there was sometimes or often not enough food to eat in the household in the previous 7 days.

Results: Among 114 705 households making less than $50 000/y, respondents were predominantly female (57%); White (71%); not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (79%); had high school or equivalent education (38%); and were unmarried (70%). Following the discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments, food insufficiency in US households with children increased by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-5.7 percentage points) among households making less than $50 000/y, 4.9 percentage points (95% CI, 2.6-7.3 percentage points) among households making less than $35 000/y, and 6.2 percentage points (95% CI, 3.3-9.3 percentage points) among households making less than $25 000/y. These estimates represent a relative increase in food insufficiency of approximately 16.7% among households making less than $50 000/y, 20.8% among households making less than $35 000/y, and 23.2% among households making less than $25 000/y.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cross-sectional study, discontinuation of monthly Child Tax Credit payments in December 2021 was associated with a statistically significant increase in household food insufficiency among lower-income households, with the greatest increase occurring in the lowest-income households.

DOI

10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.4039

Alternate Title

JAMA Health Forum

PMID

36367738

Title

Childhood Asthma Hospital Discharge Medication Fills and Risk of Subsequent Readmission.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

1121-7

Date Published

05/2015

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between posthospitalization prescription fills for recommended asthma discharge medication classes and subsequent hospital readmission.

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of Medicaid Analytic Extract files from 12 geographically diverse states from 2005-2007. We linked inpatient hospitalization, outpatient, and prescription claims records for children ages 2-18 years with an index hospitalization for asthma to identify those who filled a short-acting beta agonist, oral corticosteroid, or inhaled corticosteroid within 3 days of discharge. We used a multivariable extended Cox model to investigate the association of recommended medication fills and hospital readmission within 90 days.

RESULTS: Of 31,658 children hospitalized, 55% filled a beta agonist prescription, 57% an oral steroid, and 37% an inhaled steroid. Readmission occurred for 1.3% of patients by 14 days and 6.3% by 90 days. Adjusting for patient and billing provider factors, beta agonist (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% CI 0.51, 0.87) and inhaled steroid (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42, 0.85) fill were associated with a reduction in readmission at 14 days. Between 15 and 90 days, inhaled steroid fill was associated with decreased readmission (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77, 0.98). Patients who filled all 3 medications had the lowest readmission hazard within both intervals.

CONCLUSIONS: Filling of beta agonists and inhaled steroids was associated with diminished hazard of early readmission. For inhaled steroids, this effect persisted up to 90 days. Efforts to improve discharge care for asthma should include enhancing recommended discharge medication fill rates.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.019

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

25641244

Title

Does Living near Trees and Other Vegetation Affect the Contemporaneous Odds of Asthma Exacerbation among Pediatric Asthma Patients?

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 25

ISSN Number

1468-2869

Abstract

<p>Vegetation may influence asthma exacerbation through effects on aeroallergens, localized climates, air pollution, or children's behaviors and stress levels. We investigated the association between residential vegetation and asthma exacerbation by conducting a matched case-control study based on electronic health records of asthma patients, from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Our study included 17,639 exacerbation case events and 34,681 controls selected from non-exacerbation clinical visits for asthma, matched to cases by age, sex, race/ethnicity, public payment source, and residential proximity to the CHOP main campus ED and hospital. Overall greenness, tree canopy, grass/shrub cover, and impervious surface were assessed near children's homes (250&nbsp;m) using satellite imagery and high-resolution landcover data. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between each vegetation/landcover measure and asthma exacerbation, with adjustment for seasonal and sociodemographic factors-for all cases, and for cases defined by diagnosis setting and exacerbation frequency. Lower odds of asthma exacerbation were observed in association with greater levels of tree canopy near the home, but only for children who experienced multiple exacerbations in a year (OR = 0.94 per 10.2% greater tree canopy coverage, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99). Our findings suggest possible protection for asthma patients from tree canopy, but differing results by case frequency suggest that potential benefits may be specific to certain subpopulations of asthmatic children.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s11524-022-00633-7

Alternate Title

J Urban Health

PMID

35467328

Title

Associations between high ambient temperatures and asthma exacerbation among children in Philadelphia, PA: a time series analysis.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 04

ISSN Number

1470-7926

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>High ambient temperatures may contribute to acute asthma exacerbation, a leading cause of morbidity in children. We quantified associations between hot-season ambient temperatures and asthma exacerbation in children ages 0-18 years in Philadelphia, PA.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We created a time series of daily counts of clinical encounters for asthma exacerbation at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia linked with daily meteorological data, June-August of 2011-2016. We estimated associations between mean daily temperature (up to a 5-day lag) and asthma exacerbation using generalised quasi-Poisson distributed models, adjusted for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, mean relative humidity,and US holiday. In secondary analyses, we ran models with adjustment for aeroallergens, air pollutants and respiratory virus counts. We quantified overall associations, and estimates stratified by encounter location (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient), sociodemographics and comorbidities.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The analysis included 7637 asthma exacerbation events. High mean daily temperatures that occurred 5 days before the index date were associated with higher rates of exacerbation (rate ratio (RR) comparing 33°C-13.1°C days: 1.37, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.82). Associations were most substantial for children ages 2 to &lt;5 years and for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children. Adjustment for air pollutants, aeroallergens and respiratory virus counts did not substantially change RR estimates.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This research contributes to evidence that ambient heat is associated with higher rates of asthma exacerbation in children. Further work is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.</p>

DOI

10.1136/oemed-2021-107823

Alternate Title

Occup Environ Med

PMID

35246484

Title

The West Philadelphia asthma care implementation study (NHLBI# U01HL138687).

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

100864

Date Published

2021 Dec

ISSN Number

2451-8654

Abstract

<p>Asthma is the most common chronic condition among children, with low-income families living in urban areas experiencing significantly higher rates. Evidence based interventions for asthma are routinely implemented in either the home, school, or primary care setting. However, even when caregivers of poor children are engaged in asthma interventions in one setting, they often have to navigate challenges in another setting, such as an under-resourced home, non-supportive school, or disengaged health care provider. The West Philadelphia Asthma Care Implementation Plan aims to compare the effectiveness of a primary care-based intervention, school-based intervention, and combined primary care and school intervention to usual care for improving asthma control in school-age children to explore if the synergistic effect of Community Health Worker (CHW) support in the home, school, and health care environments will result in improved asthma control. Children ages 5-13 with uncontrolled asthma from four West Philadelphia recruitment sites will be eligible for enrollment. The families of school age children interested in participating will be randomized to receive a primary care CHW or usual care. Those identified as attending a participating school will have a CHW-led school intervention or usual care in school. If proven effective, this care coordination program will assist caregivers in assessing resources, improving self-management skills, and ultimately reducing asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations as well as provide additional information for healthcare systems and policy makers to inform their decisions about how and where to focus additional resources and investments in childhood asthma care to improve health outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.conctc.2021.100864

Alternate Title

Contemp Clin Trials Commun

PMID

34926863

Title

Variation in Dexamethasone Dosing and Use Outcomes for Inpatient Croup.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 01

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Evaluate the association between dexamethasone dosing and outcomes for children hospitalized with croup.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This study was nested within a multisite prospective cohort study of children aged 6 months to 6 years admitted to 1 of 5 US children's hospitals between July 2014 and June /2016. Multivariable linear and logistic mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the association between the number of dexamethasone doses (1 vs &gt;1) and outcomes (length of stay [LOS], cost, and 30-day same-cause reuse). All multivariable analyses included a site-specific random effect to account for clustering within hospital and were adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, presenting severity, medical complexity, insurance, caregiver education, and hospital. In cost analyses, we controlled for LOS.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 234 children hospitalized with croup, patient characteristics did not differ by number of doses. The proportion receiving &gt;1 dose varied by hospital (range 27.9%-57.1%). In adjusted analyses, &gt;1 dose was not associated with same-cause reuse (odds ratio 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 2.95]) but was associated with 45% longer LOS (relative risk = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.30 to 1.62]). When we controlled for LOS, &gt;1 dose was not associated with differential cost ($-31.2 [95% CI $-424.4 to $362.0]). Eighty-two (35%) children received dexamethasone before presentation.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We found significant interhospital variation in dexamethasone dosing and LOS. When we controlled for severity on presentation, &gt;1 dexamethasone dose was associated with longer LOS but not reuse. Although incomplete adjustment for severity is one possible explanation, some providers may routinely keep children hospitalized to administer multiple dexamethasone doses.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-005854

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34846064

Title

COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Reductions in Pediatric Asthma Exacerbations Corresponded with an Overall Decrease in Respiratory Viral Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 13

ISSN Number

2213-2201

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and aeroallergens are all implicated in worsening pediatric asthma symptoms, but their relative contributions to asthma exacerbations are poorly understood. A significant decrease in asthma exacerbations has been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a unique opportunity to study how major asthma triggers correlate with asthma activity.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine whether changes in respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and/or aeroallergens during the COVID-19 pandemic were concomitant with decreased asthma exacerbations.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Health care utilization and respiratory viral testing data between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2020 were extracted from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) Care Network's electronic health record. Air pollution and allergen data were extracted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public databases and a National Allergy Bureau-certified station, respectively. Pandemic data (2020) were compared to historical data.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Recovery of in-person asthma encounters during phased re-opening (June 6 - November 15, 2020) was uneven: primary care well and specialty encounters reached 94% and 74% of pre-pandemic levels, respectively, while primary care sick and hospital encounters reached 21% and 40% of pre-pandemic levels, respectively. During the pandemic, influenza A and influenza B decreased to negligible frequency when compared to pre-pandemic cases, while RSV and rhinovirus infections decreased to low (though non-negligible) pre-pandemic levels, as well. No changes in air pollution or aeroallergen levels relative to historical observations were noted.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Our results suggest that viral respiratory infections are a primary driver of pediatric asthma exacerbations. These findings have broad relevance to both clinical practice and the development of health policies aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jaip.2021.10.067

Alternate Title

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract

PMID

34785388

Title

Depression and Anxiety Symptoms During and After Pediatric Asthma Hospitalization.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 20

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Depression and anxiety are common in children with asthma, and asthma hospitalization is an underused opportunity to identify mental health concerns. We assessed depression and anxiety symptoms during asthma hospitalization and 1 to 2 months post discharge.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This prospective cohort study included children aged 7 to 17 years who were hospitalized for asthma exacerbation. Participants completed the self-report PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) depression and anxiety symptom scales (T score mean = 50, SD = 10) during hospitalization and 1 to 2 months after discharge. Higher scores indicate more symptoms and/or greater severity. We compared patients' scores during hospitalization and at follow-up using paired tests and examined individual patients' depression and anxiety symptom trajectories using a Sankey diagram.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 96 participants who completed the study, 53% had elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both either during hospitalization or after discharge. During hospitalization, 38% had elevated depression symptoms and 45% had elevated anxiety symptoms. At postdischarge follow-up, 18% had elevated depression symptoms and 20% had elevated anxiety symptoms. We observed all possible symptom trajectories: symptoms during hospitalization that persisted (especially if both depression and anxiety symptoms were present), symptoms that resolved, and symptoms that were present at follow-up only.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Just more than half of youth hospitalized for asthma exacerbation experienced depression and/or anxiety symptoms during hospitalization or at follow-up. Patients who had both depression and anxiety symptoms during hospitalization were the most likely to have persistent symptoms at follow-up. Screening at both time points may be useful to identify mental health symptoms.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-000950

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34670757

Title

Factors Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity in US Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

603-610

Date Published

2021 10

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Little is known about the clinical factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study across 45 US children's hospitals between April 2020 to September 2020 of pediatric patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed factors associated with hospitalization and factors associated with clinical severity (eg, admission to inpatient floor, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], admission to ICU with mechanical ventilation, shock, death) among those hospitalized.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 19,976 COVID-19 encounters, 15,913 (79.7%) patients were discharged from the emergency department (ED) and 4063 (20.3%) were hospitalized. The clinical severity distribution among those hospitalized was moderate (3222, 79.3%), severe (431, 11.3%), and very severe (380, 9.4%). Factors associated with hospitalization vs discharge from the ED included private payor insurance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR],1.16; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) (aOR, 10.4; 95% CI, 8.9-13.3), asthma (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6), cardiovascular disease, (aOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 4.3- 5.8), immunocompromised condition (aOR, 5.9; 95% CI, 5.0-6.7), pulmonary disease (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.4-8.2), and neurologic disease (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.7-5.8). Among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19, greater disease severity was associated with Black or other non-White race; age greater than 4 years; and obesity/type 2 DM, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and pulmonary conditions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Among children and adolescents presenting to US children's hospital EDs with COVID-19, 20% were hospitalized; of these, 21% received care in the ICU. Older children and adolescents had a lower risk for hospitalization but more severe illness when hospitalized. There were differences in disease severity by race and ethnicity and the presence of selected comorbidities. These factors should be taken into consideration when prioritizing mitigation and vaccination strategies.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3689

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

34613896

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