First name
Steven
Middle name
D
Last name
Colan

Title

Dexrazoxane and Long-Term Heart Function in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

2248-2257

Date Published

04/2023

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

PURPOSE: For survivors of childhood cancer treated with doxorubicin, dexrazoxane is cardioprotective for at least 5 years. However, longer-term data are lacking.

METHODS: Within the Children's Oncology Group and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute's Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Consortium, we evaluated four randomized trials of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or Hodgkin lymphoma, who received doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane, and a nonrandomized trial of patients with osteosarcoma who all received doxorubicin with dexrazoxane. Cumulative doxorubicin doses ranged from 100 to 600 mg/m across these five trials, and dexrazoxane was administered uniformly (10:1 mg/m ratio) as an intravenous bolus before doxorubicin. Cardiac function was prospectively assessed in survivors from these trials, plus a matched group of survivors of osteosarcoma treated with doxorubicin without dexrazoxane. Two-dimensional echocardiograms and blood biomarkers were analyzed centrally in blinded fashion. Multivariate analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, cumulative doxorubicin dose, and chest radiotherapy determined the differences and associations by dexrazoxane status.

RESULTS: From 49 participating institutions, 195 participants were assessed at 18.1 ± 2.7 years since cancer diagnosis (51% dexrazoxane-exposed; cumulative doxorubicin dose 297 ± 91 mg/m). Dexrazoxane administration was associated with superior left ventricular fractional shortening (absolute difference, +1.4% [95% CI, 0.3 to 2.5]) and ejection fraction (absolute difference, +1.6% [95% CI, 0.0 to 3.2]), and lower myocardial stress per B-type natriuretic peptide (-6.7 pg/mL [95% CI, -10.6 to -2.8]). Dexrazoxane was associated with a reduced risk of having lower left ventricular function (fractional shortening < 30% or ejection fraction < 50%; odds ratio, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.81]). This protective association was primarily seen in those treated with cumulative doxorubicin doses ≥ 250 mg/m.

CONCLUSION: Among young adult-aged survivors of childhood cancer, dexrazoxane was associated with a cardioprotective effect nearly 20 years after initial anthracycline exposure.

DOI

10.1200/JCO.22.02423

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

36669148
Featured Publication
No

Title

Survival Without Cardiac Transplantation Among Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

2663-2673

Date Published

2017 Nov 28

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have suggested that improved survival has been primarily due to utilization of heart transplantation.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine transplant-free survival for these children over 20 years and identify the clinical characteristics at diagnosis that predicted death.

METHODS: Children <18 years of age with some type of DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry were divided by year of diagnosis into an early cohort (1990 to 1999) and a late cohort (2000 to 2009). Competing risks and multivariable modeling were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death, transplant, and echocardiographic normalization by cohort and to identify the factors associated with death.

RESULTS: Of 1,953 children, 1,199 were in the early cohort and 754 were in the late cohort. Most children in both cohorts had idiopathic DCM (64% vs. 63%, respectively). Median age (1.6 vs. 1.7 years), left ventricular end-diastolic z-scores (+4.2 vs. +4.2), and left ventricular fractional shortening (16% vs. 17%) at diagnosis were similar between cohorts. Although the rates of echocardiographic normalization (30% and 27%) and heart transplantation (24% and 24%) were similar, the death rate was higher in the early cohort than in the late cohort (18% vs. 9%; p = 0.04). Being in the early cohort (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.9; p = 0.03) independently predicted death.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with DCM have improved survival in the more recent era. This appears to be associated with factors other than heart transplantation, which was equally prevalent in both eras. (Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry [PCMR]; NCT00005391).

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.1089

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

29169474

Title

The genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 10

ISSN Number

1537-6605

Abstract

<p>To understand the genetic contribution to primary pediatric cardiomyopathy, we performed exome sequencing in a large cohort of 528 children with cardiomyopathy. Using clinical interpretation guidelines and targeting genes implicated in cardiomyopathy, we identified a genetic cause in 32% of affected individuals. Cardiomyopathy sub-phenotypes differed by ancestry, age at diagnosis, and family history. Infants &lt; 1 year were less likely to have a molecular diagnosis (p &lt; 0.001). Using a discovery set of 1,703 candidate genes and informatic tools, we identified rare and damaging variants in 56% of affected individuals. We see an excess burden of damaging variants in affected individuals as compared to two independent control sets, 1000 Genomes Project (p &lt; 0.001) and SPARK parental controls (p &lt; 1&nbsp;× 10). Cardiomyopathy variant burden remained enriched when stratified by ancestry, variant type, and sub-phenotype, emphasizing the importance of understanding the contribution of these factors to genetic architecture. Enrichment in this discovery candidate gene set suggests multigenic mechanisms underlie sub-phenotype-specific causes and presentations of cardiomyopathy. These results identify important information about the genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy and support recommendations for clinical genetic testing in children while illustrating differences in genetic architecture by age, ancestry, and sub-phenotype and providing rationale for larger studies to investigate multigenic contributions.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.12.006

Alternate Title

Am J Hum Genet

PMID

35026164

Title

Valsartan in early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a randomized phase 2 trial.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 23

ISSN Number

1546-170X

Abstract

<p>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by pathogenic variants in sarcomeric genes and characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. There are no existing therapies to modify disease progression. In this study, we conducted a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan in attenuating disease evolution in early HCM. In total, 178 participants with early-stage sarcomeric HCM were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan (320 mg daily in adults; 80-160 mg daily in children) or placebo for 2 years ( NCT01912534 ). Standardized changes from baseline to year 2 in LV wall thickness, mass and volumes; left atrial volume; tissue Doppler diastolic and systolic velocities; and serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic protein were integrated into a single composite z-score as the primary outcome. Valsartan (n = 88) improved cardiac structure and function compared to placebo (n = 90), as reflected by an increase in the composite z-score (between-group difference +0.231, 95% confidence interval (+0.098, +0.364); P = 0.001), which met the primary endpoint of the study. Treatment was well-tolerated. These results indicate a key opportunity to attenuate disease progression in early-stage sarcomeric HCM with an accessible and safe medication.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41591-021-01505-4

Alternate Title

Nat Med

PMID

34556856

Title

Genetic Causes of Cardiomyopathy in Children: First Results From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Genes Study.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e017731

Date Published

2021 Apr 28

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>Background Pediatric cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend genetic testing in children with hypertrophic, dilated, or restrictive cardiomyopathy, but practice variations exist. Robust data on clinical testing practices and diagnostic yield in children are lacking. This study aimed to identify the genetic causes of cardiomyopathy in children and to investigate clinical genetic testing practices. Methods and Results Children with familial or idiopathic cardiomyopathy were enrolled from 14 institutions in North America. Probands underwent exome sequencing. Rare sequence variants in 37 known cardiomyopathy genes were assessed for pathogenicity using consensus clinical interpretation guidelines. Of the 152 enrolled probands, 41% had a family history of cardiomyopathy. Of 81 (53%) who had undergone clinical genetic testing for cardiomyopathy before enrollment, 39 (48%) had a positive result. Genetic testing rates varied from 0% to 97% between sites. A positive family history and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy subtype were associated with increased likelihood of genetic testing (=0.005 and =0.03, respectively). A molecular cause was identified in an additional 21% of the 63 children who did not undergo clinical testing, with positive results identified in both familial and idiopathic cases and across all phenotypic subtypes. Conclusions A definitive molecular genetic diagnosis can be made in a substantial proportion of children for whom the cause and heritable nature of their cardiomyopathy was previously unknown. Practice variations in genetic testing are great and should be reduced. Improvements can be made in comprehensive cardiac screening and predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives. Overall, our results support use of routine genetic testing in cases of both familial and idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01873963.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.017731

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33906374

Title

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 26

ISSN Number

1522-9645

Abstract

<p><strong>AIMS: </strong>Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is far less common than adult-onset disease, thus natural history is not well characterized. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS AND RESULTS: </strong>We performed an observational cohort study of 7677 HCM patients from the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [&lt;1 year (infancy), 1-18 years (childhood), &gt;18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints reflecting heart failure (HF), life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), and an overall composite that also included stroke and death. Stratifying by age of diagnosis, 184 (2.4%) patients were diagnosed in infancy; 1128 (14.7%) in childhood; and 6365 (82.9%) in adulthood. Childhood-onset HCM patients had an ∼2%/year event rate for the overall composite endpoint, with ventricular arrhythmias representing the most common event in the 1st decade following baseline visit, but HF and AF becoming more common by the end of the 2nd decade. Sarcomeric variants were more common in childhood-onset HCM (63%) and carried a worse prognosis than non-sarcomeric disease, including a greater than two-fold increased risk of HF [HRadj 2.39 (1.36-4.20), P = 0.003] and 67% increased risk of the overall composite outcome [HRadj 1.67 (1.16-2.41), P = 0.006]. When compared with adult-onset HCM, childhood-onset was 36% more likely to develop life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias [HRadj 1.36 (1.03-1.80)] and twice as likely to require transplant or ventricular assist device [HRadj 1.99 (1.23-3.23)].</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Patients with childhood-onset HCM are more likely to have sarcomeric disease, carry a higher risk of life-threatening ventricular arrythmias, and have greater need for advanced HF therapies. These findings provide insight into the natural history of disease and can help inform clinical risk stratification.</p>

DOI

10.1093/eurheartj/ehab148

Alternate Title

Eur Heart J

PMID

33769460

Title

Associations Between Female Sex, Sarcomere Variants and Clinical Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Dec 07

ISSN Number

2574-8300

Abstract

<p><strong>Background&nbsp;</strong>- The impact of sex on phenotypic expression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has not been well characterized in genotyped cohorts. <strong>Methods&nbsp;</strong>- Retrospective cohort study from an international registry of patients receiving care at experienced HCM centers. Sex-based differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were assessed. <strong>Results&nbsp;</strong>- Of 5,873 patients (3,788 genotyped), 2,226 (37.9%) were women. At baseline, women were older (49.0±19.9 vs. 42.9±18.4 years, p&lt;0.001) and more likely to have pathogenic/likely-pathogenic sarcomeric variants (SARC+; 51% vs 43%, p&lt;0.001) despite equivalent utilization of genetic testing. Age at diagnosis varied by sex and genotype despite similar distribution of causal genes. Women were 3.6 to 7.1 years older at diagnosis (p&lt;0.02) except for patients with variants where age at diagnosis was comparable for women and men (n=492; 34.8±19.2 vs 33.3±16.8 years, p=0.39). Over 7.7 median years of follow up, NYHA III-IV heart failure (HF) was more common in women (HR 1.87, CI 1.48-2.36, p&lt;0.001), after controlling for their higher burden of symptoms and outflow tract obstruction at baseline, reduced ejection fraction, SARC+, age and hypertension. All-cause mortality was increased in women (HR 1.50, CI 1.13-1.99, p&lt;0.01), but neither ICD utilization nor ventricular arrhythmia varied by sex. <strong>Conclusions&nbsp;</strong>- In HCM, women are older at diagnosis, partly modified by genetic substrate. Regardless of genotype, women were at higher risk of mortality and developing severe HF symptoms. This points to a sex-effect on long-term myocardial performance in HCM, which should be investigated further.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003062

Alternate Title

Circ Genom Precis Med

PMID

33284039

Title

A Validated Model for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Prediction in Pediatric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 18

ISSN Number

1524-4539

Abstract

<p>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and young adults. Our objective was to develop and validate a SCD risk prediction model in pediatric HCM to guide SCD prevention strategies. In an international multi-center observational cohort study, phenotype-positive patients with isolated HCM &lt;18 years at diagnosis were eligible. The primary outcome variable was the time from diagnosis to a composite of SCD events at 5-year follow-up: SCD, resuscitated sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), and aborted SCD, i.e. appropriate shock following primary prevention ICD. Competing risk models with cause-specific hazard regression were used to identify and quantify clinical and genetic factors associated with SCD. The cause-specific regression model was implemented using boosting, and tuned with ten repeated four-fold cross-validations. The final model was fitted using all data with the tuned hyperparameter value that maximizes the c-statistic, and its performance was characterized using c-statistic for competing risk models. The final model was validated in an independent external cohort (SHaRe, n=285). Overall, 572 patients met eligibility criteria with 2855 patient-years of follow-up. The 5-year cumulative proportion of SCD events was 9.1% (14 SCD, 25 resuscitated SCA, 14 aborted SCD). Risk predictors included age at diagnosis, documented non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, unexplained syncope, septal diameter z-score, LV posterior wall diameter z-score, LA diameter z-score, peak LV outflow tract (LVOT) gradient, and presence of a pathogenic variant. Unlike adults, LVOT gradient had an inverse association, and family history of SCD had no association with SCD. Clinical and clinical/genetic models were developed to predict 5-year freedom from SCD. Both models adequately discriminated patients with and without SCD events with a c-statistic of 0.75 and 0.76 respectively and demonstrated good agreement between predicted and observed events in the primary and validation cohorts (validation c-statistic 0.71 and 0.72 respectively). Our study provides a validated SCD risk prediction model with over 70% prediction accuracy and incorporates risk factors that are unique to pediatric HCM. An individualized risk prediction model has the potential to improve the application of clinical practice guidelines and shared decision-making for ICD insertion. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT04036799.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047235

Alternate Title

Circulation

PMID

32418493

Title

Baseline Characteristics of the VANISH Cohort.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

e006231

Date Published

2019 Dec

ISSN Number

1941-3297

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The VANISH trial (Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) targeted young sarcomeric gene mutation carriers with early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to test whether valsartan can modify disease progression. We describe the baseline characteristics of the VANISH cohort and compare to previous trials evaluating angiotensin receptor blockers.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Applying a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 178 participants with nonobstructive HCM (age, 23.3±10.1 years; 61% men) were randomized in the primary cohort and 34 (age, 16.5±4.9 years; 50% men) in the exploratory cohort of sarcomeric mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In the primary cohort, maximal left ventricular wall thickness was 17±4 mm for adults and score 7.0±4.5 for children. Nineteen percent had late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. Mean peak oxygen consumption was 33 mL/kg per minute, and 92% of participants were New York Heart Association functional class I. New York Heart Association class II was associated with older age, variants, and more prominent imaging abnormalities. Six previous trials of angiotensin receptor blockers in HCM enrolled a median of 24 patients (range, 19-133) with mean age of 51.2 years; 42% of patients were in New York Heart Association class ≥II, and sarcomeric mutations were not required.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The VANISH cohort is much larger, younger, less heterogeneous, and has less advanced disease than prior angiotensin receptor blocker trials in HCM. Participants had relatively normal functional capacity and mild HCM features. New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms were associated with older age, more prominent imaging abnormalities, and variants, suggesting both phenotype and genotype contribute to disease manifestations.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01912534.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006231

Alternate Title

Circ Heart Fail

PMID

31813281

Title

Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy: Study Design and Recruitment Results from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-10

Date Published

2019 Jun

ISSN Number

1058-9813

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Cardiomyopathies are a rare cause of pediatric heart disease, but they are one of the leading causes of heart failure admissions, sudden death, and need for heart transplant in childhood. Reports from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry (PCMR) have shown that almost 40% of children presenting with symptomatic cardiomyopathy either die or undergo heart transplant within 2 years of presentation. Little is known regarding circulating biomarkers as predictors of outcome in pediatric cardiomyopathy.</p>

<p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy (PCM Biomarkers) study is a multi-center prospective study conducted by the PCMR investigators to identify serum biomarkers for predicting outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients less than 21 years of age with either DCM or HCM were eligible. Those with DCM were enrolled into cohorts based on time from cardiomyopathy diagnosis: categorized as new onset or chronic. Clinical endpoints included sudden death and progressive heart failure.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 288 children diagnosed at a mean age of 7.2±6.3 years who enrolled in the PCM Biomarkers Study at a median time from diagnosis to enrollment of 1.9 years. There were 80 children enrolled in the new onset DCM cohort, defined as diagnosis at or 12 months prior to enrollment. The median age at diagnosis for the new onset DCM was 1.7 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 0.1 years. There were 141 children enrolled with either chronic DCM or chronic HCM, defined as children ≥2 years from diagnosis to enrollment. Among children with chronic cardiomyopathy, median age at diagnosis was 3.4 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 4.8 years.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The PCM Biomarkers study is evaluating the predictive value of serum biomarkers to aid in the prognosis and management of children with DCM and HCM. The results will provide valuable information where data are lacking in children.</p>

<p><strong>Clinical Trial Registration NCT01873976: </strong>https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01873976?term=PCM+Biomarker&amp;…;

DOI

10.1016/j.ppedcard.2019.02.004

Alternate Title

Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol.

PMID

31745384

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.