First name
Steven
Middle name
E
Last name
Lipshultz

Title

Survival Without Cardiac Transplantation Among Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

2663-2673

Date Published

2017 Nov 28

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have suggested that improved survival has been primarily due to utilization of heart transplantation.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine transplant-free survival for these children over 20 years and identify the clinical characteristics at diagnosis that predicted death.

METHODS: Children <18 years of age with some type of DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry were divided by year of diagnosis into an early cohort (1990 to 1999) and a late cohort (2000 to 2009). Competing risks and multivariable modeling were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death, transplant, and echocardiographic normalization by cohort and to identify the factors associated with death.

RESULTS: Of 1,953 children, 1,199 were in the early cohort and 754 were in the late cohort. Most children in both cohorts had idiopathic DCM (64% vs. 63%, respectively). Median age (1.6 vs. 1.7 years), left ventricular end-diastolic z-scores (+4.2 vs. +4.2), and left ventricular fractional shortening (16% vs. 17%) at diagnosis were similar between cohorts. Although the rates of echocardiographic normalization (30% and 27%) and heart transplantation (24% and 24%) were similar, the death rate was higher in the early cohort than in the late cohort (18% vs. 9%; p = 0.04). Being in the early cohort (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.9; p = 0.03) independently predicted death.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with DCM have improved survival in the more recent era. This appears to be associated with factors other than heart transplantation, which was equally prevalent in both eras. (Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry [PCMR]; NCT00005391).

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.1089

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

29169474

Title

The genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 10

ISSN Number

1537-6605

Abstract

<p>To understand the genetic contribution to primary pediatric cardiomyopathy, we performed exome sequencing in a large cohort of 528 children with cardiomyopathy. Using clinical interpretation guidelines and targeting genes implicated in cardiomyopathy, we identified a genetic cause in 32% of affected individuals. Cardiomyopathy sub-phenotypes differed by ancestry, age at diagnosis, and family history. Infants &lt; 1 year were less likely to have a molecular diagnosis (p &lt; 0.001). Using a discovery set of 1,703 candidate genes and informatic tools, we identified rare and damaging variants in 56% of affected individuals. We see an excess burden of damaging variants in affected individuals as compared to two independent control sets, 1000 Genomes Project (p &lt; 0.001) and SPARK parental controls (p &lt; 1&nbsp;× 10). Cardiomyopathy variant burden remained enriched when stratified by ancestry, variant type, and sub-phenotype, emphasizing the importance of understanding the contribution of these factors to genetic architecture. Enrichment in this discovery candidate gene set suggests multigenic mechanisms underlie sub-phenotype-specific causes and presentations of cardiomyopathy. These results identify important information about the genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy and support recommendations for clinical genetic testing in children while illustrating differences in genetic architecture by age, ancestry, and sub-phenotype and providing rationale for larger studies to investigate multigenic contributions.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.12.006

Alternate Title

Am J Hum Genet

PMID

35026164

Title

Late health outcomes after dexrazoxane treatment: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 13

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The objective of this study was to examine long-term outcomes among children newly diagnosed with cancer who were treated in dexrazoxane-containing clinical trials.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>P9404 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [ALL]), P9425 and P9426 (Hodgkin lymphoma), P9754 (osteosarcoma), and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 95-01 (ALL) enrolled 1308 patients between 1996 and 2001: 1066 were randomized (1:1) to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane, and 242 (from P9754) were nonrandomly assigned to receive dexrazoxane. Trial data were linked with the National Death Index, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), and Medicaid. Osteosarcoma survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; n&nbsp;=&nbsp;495; no dexrazoxane) served as comparators in subanalyses. Follow-up events were assessed with cumulative incidence, Cox regression, and Fine-Gray methods.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In randomized trials (cumulative prescribed doxorubicin dose, 100-360&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 18.6&nbsp;years), dexrazoxane was not associated with relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.13), second cancers (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.62-2.30), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78-1.47), or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.41-5.16). Among P9754 patients (all exposed to dexrazoxane; cumulative doxorubicin, 450-600&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 16.6-18.4&nbsp;years), no cardiovascular deaths or heart transplantation occurred. The 20-year heart transplantation rate among CCSS osteosarcoma survivors (mean doxorubicin, 377&nbsp;±&nbsp;145&nbsp;mg/m ) was 1.6% (vs 0% in P9754; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.13). Among randomized patients, serious cardiovascular outcomes (cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) ascertained by PHIS/Medicaid occurred less commonly with dexrazoxane (5.6%) than without it (17.6%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.02), although cardiomyopathy rates alone did not differ (4.4% vs 8.1%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.35).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Dexrazoxane did not appear to adversely affect long-term mortality, event-free survival, or second cancer risk.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.33974

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

34644414

Title

Genetic Causes of Cardiomyopathy in Children: First Results From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Genes Study.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e017731

Date Published

2021 Apr 28

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>Background Pediatric cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend genetic testing in children with hypertrophic, dilated, or restrictive cardiomyopathy, but practice variations exist. Robust data on clinical testing practices and diagnostic yield in children are lacking. This study aimed to identify the genetic causes of cardiomyopathy in children and to investigate clinical genetic testing practices. Methods and Results Children with familial or idiopathic cardiomyopathy were enrolled from 14 institutions in North America. Probands underwent exome sequencing. Rare sequence variants in 37 known cardiomyopathy genes were assessed for pathogenicity using consensus clinical interpretation guidelines. Of the 152 enrolled probands, 41% had a family history of cardiomyopathy. Of 81 (53%) who had undergone clinical genetic testing for cardiomyopathy before enrollment, 39 (48%) had a positive result. Genetic testing rates varied from 0% to 97% between sites. A positive family history and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy subtype were associated with increased likelihood of genetic testing (=0.005 and =0.03, respectively). A molecular cause was identified in an additional 21% of the 63 children who did not undergo clinical testing, with positive results identified in both familial and idiopathic cases and across all phenotypic subtypes. Conclusions A definitive molecular genetic diagnosis can be made in a substantial proportion of children for whom the cause and heritable nature of their cardiomyopathy was previously unknown. Practice variations in genetic testing are great and should be reduced. Improvements can be made in comprehensive cardiac screening and predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives. Overall, our results support use of routine genetic testing in cases of both familial and idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01873963.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.017731

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33906374

Title

Elevated Heart Rate and Survival in Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Multicenter Study From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e015916

Date Published

2020 Aug 04

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> In adults with heart failure, elevated heart rate is associated with lower survival. We determined whether an elevated heart rate was associated with an increased risk of death or heart transplant in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. <strong>Methods and Results </strong>The study is an analysis of the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry and includes baseline data, annual follow-up, and censoring events (transplant or death) in 557 children (51% male, median age 1.8&nbsp;years) with dilated cardiomyopathy diagnosed between 1994 and 2011. An elevated heart rate was defined as 2 or more SDs above the mean heart rate of children, adjusted for age. The primary outcomes were heart transplant and death. Heart rate was elevated in 192 children (34%), who were older (median age, 2.3 versus 0.9&nbsp;years; &lt;0.001), more likely to have heart failure symptoms (83% versus 67%; &lt;0.001), had worse ventricular function (median fractional shortening score, -9.7 versus -9.1; =0.02), and were more often receiving anticongestive therapies (96% versus 86%; &lt;0.001) than were children with a normal heart rate. Controlling for age, ventricular function, and cardiac medications, an elevated heart rate was independently associated with death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.6; &lt;0.001) and with death or transplant (adjusted HR 1.5; =0.01). <strong>Conclusions</strong> In children with dilated cardiomyopathy, elevated heart rate was associated with an increased risk of death and cardiac transplant. Further study is warranted into the association of elevated heart rate and disease severity in children with dilated cardiomyopathy and as a potential target of therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.119.015916

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

32750307

Title

Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy: Study Design and Recruitment Results from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-10

Date Published

2019 Jun

ISSN Number

1058-9813

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Cardiomyopathies are a rare cause of pediatric heart disease, but they are one of the leading causes of heart failure admissions, sudden death, and need for heart transplant in childhood. Reports from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry (PCMR) have shown that almost 40% of children presenting with symptomatic cardiomyopathy either die or undergo heart transplant within 2 years of presentation. Little is known regarding circulating biomarkers as predictors of outcome in pediatric cardiomyopathy.</p>

<p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy (PCM Biomarkers) study is a multi-center prospective study conducted by the PCMR investigators to identify serum biomarkers for predicting outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients less than 21 years of age with either DCM or HCM were eligible. Those with DCM were enrolled into cohorts based on time from cardiomyopathy diagnosis: categorized as new onset or chronic. Clinical endpoints included sudden death and progressive heart failure.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 288 children diagnosed at a mean age of 7.2±6.3 years who enrolled in the PCM Biomarkers Study at a median time from diagnosis to enrollment of 1.9 years. There were 80 children enrolled in the new onset DCM cohort, defined as diagnosis at or 12 months prior to enrollment. The median age at diagnosis for the new onset DCM was 1.7 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 0.1 years. There were 141 children enrolled with either chronic DCM or chronic HCM, defined as children ≥2 years from diagnosis to enrollment. Among children with chronic cardiomyopathy, median age at diagnosis was 3.4 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 4.8 years.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The PCM Biomarkers study is evaluating the predictive value of serum biomarkers to aid in the prognosis and management of children with DCM and HCM. The results will provide valuable information where data are lacking in children.</p>

<p><strong>Clinical Trial Registration NCT01873976: </strong>https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01873976?term=PCM+Biomarker&amp;…;

DOI

10.1016/j.ppedcard.2019.02.004

Alternate Title

Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol.

PMID

31745384

Title

No Obesity Paradox in Pediatric Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

222-230

Date Published

2018 Mar

ISSN Number

2213-1787

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>This study aimed to examine the role of nutrition in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).</p>

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>In adults with DCM, malnutrition is associated with mortality, whereas obesity is associated with survival.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry was used to identify patients with DCM and categorized by anthropometric measurements: malnourished (MN) (body mass index [BMI]&nbsp;&lt;5% for&nbsp;≥2 years or weight-for-length&nbsp;&lt;5% for&nbsp;&lt;2 years), obesity (BMI &gt;95% for age&nbsp;≥2 years or weight-for-length &gt;95% for&nbsp;&lt;2 years), or normal bodyweight (NB). Of 904 patients with DCM, 23.7% (214) were MN, 13.3% (120) were obese, and 63.1% (570) were NB.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Obese patients were older (9.0 vs. 5.7 years for NB; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) and more likely to have a family history of DCM (36.1% vs. 23.5% for NB; p&nbsp;= 0.023). MN patients were younger (2.7 years vs. 5.7 years for NB; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) and more likely to have heart failure (79.9% vs. 69.7% for NB; p&nbsp;= 0.012), cardiac dimension z-scores &gt;2, and higher ventricular mass compared with NB. In multivariable analysis, MN was associated with increased risk of death (hazard&nbsp;ratio [HR]: 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66 to 3.65; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001); whereas obesity was not (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.72 to 3.08). Competing outcomes analysis demonstrated increased risk of mortality for MN compared with NB (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.03), but no difference in transplant rate (p&nbsp;= 0.159).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality and other unfavorable echocardiographic and clinical&nbsp;outcomes compared with those of NB. The same effect of obesity on survival was not observed. Further studies are needed investigating the long-term impact of abnormal anthropometric measurements on outcomes in pediatric DCM. (Pediatric&nbsp;Cardiomyopathy Registry; NCT00005391).</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jchf.2017.11.015

Alternate Title

JACC Heart Fail

PMID

29428438

Title

Pediatric Cardiomyopathies.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

855-873

Date Published

2017 Sep 15

ISSN Number

1524-4571

Abstract

<p>Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100 000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent. Pediatric cardiomyopathies often occur in the absence of comorbidities, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus; as a result, they offer insights into the primary pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction. Large international registries have characterized the epidemiology, cause, and outcomes of pediatric cardiomyopathies. Although adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies have similar morphological and clinical manifestations, their outcomes differ significantly. Within 2 years of presentation, normalization of function occurs in 20% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40% die or undergo transplantation. Infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 2-year mortality of 30%, whereas death is rare in older children. Sudden death is rare. Molecular evidence indicates that gene expression differs between adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies, suggesting that treatment response may differ as well. Clinical trials to support evidence-based treatments and the development of disease-specific therapies for pediatric cardiomyopathies are in their infancy. This compendium summarizes current knowledge of the genetic and molecular origins, clinical course, and outcomes of the most common phenotypic presentations of pediatric cardiomyopathies and highlights key areas where additional research is required.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02549664 and NCT01912534.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309386

Alternate Title

Circ. Res.

PMID

28912187

Title

Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of cardiorenal syndrome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy: a report from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

2177-88

Date Published

2015 Dec

ISSN Number

1432-198X

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The association of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) with mortality in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>With a modified Schwartz formula, we estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) for children ≥1 year of age with DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry at the time of DCM diagnosis and annually thereafter. CRS was defined as an eGFR of &lt;90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Children with and without CRS were compared on survival and serum creatinine concentrations (SCr). The association between eGFR and echocardiographic measures was assessed with linear mixed-effects regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 285 eligible children with DCM diagnosed at ≥1 year of age, 93 were evaluable. CRS was identified in 57 of these 93 children (61.3%). Mean (standard deviation) eGFR was 62.0 (22.6) mL/min/1.73 m(2) for children with CRS and 108.0 (14.0) for those without (P &lt; 0.001); median SCr concentrations were 0.9 and 0.5 mg/dL, respectively (P &lt; 0.001). The mortality hazard ratio of children with CRS versus those with no CRS was 2.4 (95% confidence interval 0.8-7.4). eGFR was positively correlated with measures of left ventricular function and negatively correlated with age.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>CRS in children newly diagnosed with DCM may be associated with higher 5-year mortality. Children with DCM, especially those with impaired left ventricular function, should be monitored for renal disease.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00467-015-3165-8

Alternate Title

Pediatr. Nephrol.

PMID

26210985

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