First name
Michael
Middle name
L
Last name
O'Byrne

Title

Transcatheter Thoracic Duct Decompression for Multicompartment Lymphatic Failure After Fontan Palliation.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e011733

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1941-7632

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic embolization therapy has proven effective for Fontan failure from plastic bronchitis or protein-losing enteropathy but not when multiple lymphatic compartments are involved; furthermore, embolization does not alter the underlying pathophysiology of lymphatic dysfunction. A technique for transcatheter thoracic duct decompression (TDD), rerouting the thoracic duct to the pulmonary venous atrium to treat multicompartment lymphatic failure is described and early outcomes presented.

METHODS: Initially covered stents were used to channel the innominate vein flow inside of the cavopulmonary pathway into the pulmonary venous atrium. A modified approach was developed where covered stents redirected innominate vein directly to the left atrium via an extravascular course. Baseline and follow-up data on all patients undergoing TDD were reviewed.

RESULTS: Twelve patients underwent TDD between March 2018 and February 2021 at a median age of 12 (range: 2-22) years. Lymphatic failure occurred in median of 3 compartments per patient (protein-losing enteropathy, ascites, pleural effusions, plastic bronchitis); 10 patients had lymphatic embolizations before TDD. TDD method was intra-Fontan tunnel in 4, direct approach in 7, and other in 1. There were no major procedural complications; 6 patients underwent subsequent procedures, most commonly to treat endoleaks. Lymphatic failure resolved in 6 patients, improved in 2, and was unchanged in 4 at 6 (range: 1-20) months follow-up. One patient died after TDD from Fontan failure.

CONCLUSIONS: TDD is a promising new treatment for the failing Fontan physiology from multicompartment lymphatic failure. Additional work is needed to refine the technique and define optimal candidates.

DOI

10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.121.011733

Alternate Title

Circ Cardiovasc Interv

PMID

35708032

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Comparative Costs of Management Strategies for Neonates With Symptomatic Tetralogy of Fallot.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1170-1180

Date Published

2022 Mar 29

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent data have demonstrated that overall mortality and adverse events are not significantly different for primary repair (PR) and staged repair (SR) approaches to management of neonates with symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot (sTOF). Cost data can be used to compare the relative value (cost for similar outcomes) of these approaches and are a potentially more sensitive measure of morbidity.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the economic costs associated with PR and SR in neonates with sTOF.

METHODS: Data from a multicenter retrospective cohort study of neonates with sTOF were merged with administrative data to compare total costs and cost per day alive over the first 18 months of life in a propensity score-adjusted analysis. A secondary analysis evaluated differences in department-level costs.

RESULTS: In total, 324 subjects from 6 centers from January 2011 to November 2017 were studied (40% PR). The 18-month cumulative mortality (P = 0.18), procedural complications (P = 0.10), hospital complications (P = 0.94), and reinterventions (P = 0.22) did not differ between PR and SR. Total 18-month costs for PR (median $179,494 [IQR: $121,760-$310,721]) were less than for SR (median: $222,799 [IQR: $167,581-$327,113]) (P < 0.001). Cost per day alive (P = 0.005) and department-level costs were also all lower for PR. In propensity score-adjusted analyses, PR was associated with lower total cost (cost ratio: 0.73; P < 0.001) and lower department-level costs.

CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of neonates with sTOF, PR was associated with lower costs. Given similar overall mortality between treatment strategies, this finding suggests that PR provides superior value.

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2021.12.036

Alternate Title

J Am Coll Cardiol

PMID

35331412

Title

Trends in Discharge Prescription of Digoxin After Norwood Operation: An Analysis of Data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Feb 02

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

Quality improvement efforts have focused on reducing interstage mortality for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). In 1/2016, two publications reported that use of digoxin was associated with reduced interstage mortality. The degree to which these findings have affected real world practice has not been evaluated. The discharge medications of neonates with HLHS undergoing Norwood operation between 1/2007 and 12/2018 at Pediatric Health Information Systems Database hospitals were studied. Mixed effects models were calculated to evaluate the hypothesis that the likelihood of digoxin prescription increased after 1/2016, adjusting for measurable confounders with furosemide and aspirin prescription measured as falsification tests. Interhospital practice variation was measured using the median odds ratio. Over the study period, 6091 subjects from 45 hospitals were included. After adjusting for measurable covariates, discharge after 1/2016 was associated with increased odds of receiving digoxin (OR 3.9, p < 0.001). No association was seen between date of discharge and furosemide (p = 0.26) or aspirin (p = 0.12). Prior to 1/2016, the likelihood of receiving digoxin was decreasing (OR 0.9 per year, p < 0.001), while after 1/2016 the rate has increased (OR 1.4 per year, p < 0.001). However, there remains significant interhospital variation in the likelihood of receiving digoxin even after adjusting for known confounders (median odds ratio = 3.5, p < 0.0001). Following publication of studies describing an association between digoxin and improved interstage survival, the likelihood of receiving digoxin at discharge increased without similar changes for furosemide or aspirin. Despite concerted efforts to standardize interstage care, interhospital variation in pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable population persists.

DOI

10.1007/s00246-021-02543-y

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

33528619

Title

Outcomes of Operator-Directed Sedation and Anesthesiologist Care in the Pediatric/Congenital Catheterization Laboratory: A Study Utilizing Data From the IMPACT Registry.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

401-413

Date Published

2021 Feb 22

ISSN Number

1876-7605

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess contemporary use of operator directed sedation (ODS) and anesthesiologist care (AC) in the pediatric/congenital cardiac catheterization laboratory (PCCL), specifically evaluating whether the use of operator-directed sedation was associated with increased risk of major adverse events.

BACKGROUND: The safety of ODS relative to AC during PCCL procedures has been questioned.

METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was performed studying procedures habitually performed with ODS or AC at IMPACT (Improving Adult and Congenital Treatment) registry hospitals using ODS for ≥5% of cases. The risks for major adverse events (MAE) for ODS and AC cases were compared, adjusted for case mix. Current recommendations were evaluated by comparing the ratio of observed to expected MAE for cases in which ODS was inappropriate (inconsistent with those guidelines) with those for similar risk AC cases, as well as those in which ODS or AC was appropriate.

RESULTS: Of the hospitals submitting data to IMPACT, 28 of 101 met inclusion criteria. Of the 7,042 cases performed using ODS at these centers, 88% would be inappropriate. Use of ODS was associated with lower likelihood of MAE both in observed results (p < 0.0001) and after adjusting for case-mix (odds ratio: 0.81; p = 0.006). Use of AC was also associated with longer adjusted fluoroscopy and procedure times (p < 0.0001 for both). The observed/expected ratio for ODS cases with high pre-procedural risk (inappropriate for ODS) was significantly lower than that for AC cases with comparable pre-procedural risk. Across a range of pre-procedural risks, there was no stratum in which risk for MAE was lower for AC than ODS.

CONCLUSIONS: Across a range of hospitals, ODS was used safely and with improved efficiency. Clinical judgment better identified cases in which ODS could be used than pre-procedural risk score. This should inform future guidelines for the use of ODS and AC in the catheterization laboratory.

DOI

10.1016/j.jcin.2020.10.054

Alternate Title

JACC Cardiovasc Interv

PMID

33602437

Title

Comparison of outcomes of pulmonary valve replacement in adult versus paediatric hospitals: institutional influence†.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 08

ISSN Number

1873-734X

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists in ascertaining the ideal location for adults with congenital heart disease requiring surgical intervention. In this study, we sought to compare the perioperative management between our paediatric and adult hospitals and to determine how clinical factors and the location affect the length of stay after pulmonary valve replacement.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients, ≥18 years of age, undergoing pulmonary valve replacement was conducted at our paediatric and adult hospitals between 1 January 2000 and 30 October 2014. Patients with previous Ross or concomitant left heart procedures were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographics and clinical characteristics. Inverse probability weight-adjusted models were used to determine differences in the number of surgical complications, duration of mechanical ventilation and postoperative length of stay between paediatric and adult hospitals. Additional models were calculated to identify factors associated with prolonged length of stay.

RESULTS: There were altogether 98 patients in the adult (48 patients) and paediatric (50 patients) hospitals. Patients in the adult hospital were older with more comorbidities (arrhythmia, hypertension, depression and a history of cardiac arrest, all P < 0.05). Those at the paediatric hospital had better preoperative right ventricular function and less tricuspid regurgitation. The cardiopulmonary bypass time, the length of intubation and the length of stay were higher at the adult hospital, despite no difference in the number of complications between locations. Factors contributing to the increased length of stay include patient characteristics and postoperative management strategies. There were no deaths.

CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary valve replacement may be performed safely with no deaths and with a comparable complication rate at both hospitals. Patients undergoing surgery at the adult hospital have longer intubation times and length of stay. Opportunities exist to streamline management strategies.

DOI

10.1093/ejcts/ezz102

Alternate Title

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg

PMID

30957859

Title

The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and early adverse events following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry(®).

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

102-111

Date Published

2017 Jan

ISSN Number

1522-726X

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on early outcomes is not well studied.

METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim <5 and ≥5 mm. Primary outcomes were technical failure and major early adverse events. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major early adverse event in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major early adverse event (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified.

CONCLUSION: Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or early adverse events. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI

10.1002/ccd.26585

Alternate Title

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv

PMID

27189502

Title

Pediatric Chest Pain-Low-Probability Referral: A Multi-Institutional Analysis From Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs®), the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

1201-1208

Date Published

2017 Nov

ISSN Number

1938-2707

Abstract

We conducted a study to assess test characteristics of red-flag criteria for identifying cardiac disease causing chest pain and technical charges of low-probability referrals. Accuracy of red-flag criteria was ascertained through study of chest pain Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs®) data. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group1 (concerning clinical elements) and Group2 (without). We compared incidence of cardiac disease causing chest pain between these 2 groups. Technical charges of Group 2 were analyzed using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Potential savings for the US population was estimated using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data. Fifty-two percent of subjects formed Group 1. Cardiac disease causing chest pain was identified in 8/1656 (0.48%). No heart disease was identified in patients in Group 2 ( P = .03). Applying red-flags in determining need for referral identified patients with cardiac disease causing chest pain with 100% sensitivity. Median technical charges for Group 2, over a 4-year period, were US2014$775 559. Eliminating cardiac testing of low-probability referrals would save US2014$3 775 182 in technical charges annually. Red-flag criteria were an effective screen for children with chest pain. Eliminating cardiac testing in children without red-flags for referral has significant technical charge savings.

DOI

10.1177/0009922816684605

Alternate Title

Clin Pediatr (Phila)

PMID

28081617

Title

Variations in Practice Patterns and Consistency With Published Guidelines for Balloon Aortic and Pulmonary Valvuloplasty: An Analysis of Data From the IMPACT Registry.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

529-538

Date Published

2018 Mar 26

ISSN Number

1876-7605

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to study variation in the practice of balloon aortic (BAV) and pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV).

BACKGROUND: The IMPACT (IMProving Adult and Congenital Treatment) registry provides an opportunity to study practice variation in transcatheter interventions for congenital heart disease.

METHODS: The authors studied BAV and BPV in the IMPACT registry from January 1, 2011, to September 30, 2015, using hierarchical multivariable models to measure hospital-level variation in: 1) the distribution of indications for intervention; and 2) in cases with "high resting gradient" as the indication, consistency with published guidelines.

RESULTS: A total of 1,071 BAV cases at 60 hospitals and 2,207 BPV cases at 75 hospitals were included. The indication for BAV was high resting gradient in 82%, abnormal stress test or electrocardiogram (2%), left ventricular dysfunction (11%), and symptoms (5%). Indications for BPV were high resting gradient in 82%, right-left shunt (6%), right ventricular dysfunction (7%), and symptoms (5%). No association between hospital characteristics and distribution of indications was demonstrated. Among interventions performed for "high resting gradient," there was significant adjusted hospital-level variation in the rates of cases performed consistently with guidelines. For BAV, significant differences were seen across census regions, with hospitals in the East and South more likely to practice consistently than those in the Midwest and West (p = 0.005). For BPV, no association was found between hospital factors and rates of consistent practice, but there was significant interhospital variation (median rate ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 1.6; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: There is measurable hospital-level variation in the practice of BAV and BPV. Further research is necessary to determine whether this affects outcomes or resource use.

DOI

10.1016/j.jcin.2018.01.253

Alternate Title

JACC Cardiovasc Interv

PMID

29566797

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