First name
Patrick
Middle name
W
Last name
Brady

Title

Sustainable deimplementation of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis: study protocol for the Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) type III effectiveness-deimplementation cluster-randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

72

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1748-5908

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methods of sustaining the deimplementation of overused medical practices (i.e., practices not supported by evidence) are understudied. In pediatric hospital medicine, continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of children with the common viral respiratory illness bronchiolitis is recommended only under specific circumstances. Three national guidelines discourage its use for children who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, but guideline-discordant practice (i.e., overuse) remains prevalent. A 6-hospital pilot of educational outreach with audit and feedback resulted in immediate reductions in overuse; however, the best strategies to optimize sustainment of deimplementation success are unknown.

METHODS: The Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) trial will compare two deimplementation strategies in a hybrid type III effectiveness-deimplementation trial. This longitudinal cluster-randomized design will be conducted in Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network hospitals and will include baseline measurement, active deimplementation, and sustainment phases. After a baseline measurement period, 16-19 hospitals will be randomized to a deimplementation strategy that targets unlearning (educational outreach with audit and feedback), and the other 16-19 will be randomized to a strategy that targets unlearning and substitution (adding an EHR-integrated clinical pathway decision support tool). The primary outcome is the sustainment of deimplementation in bronchiolitis patients who are not receiving any supplemental oxygen, analyzed as a longitudinal difference-in-differences comparison of overuse rates across study arms. Secondary outcomes include equity of deimplementation and the fidelity to, and cost of, each deimplementation strategy. To understand how the deimplementation strategies work, we will test hypothesized mechanisms of routinization (clinicians developing new routines supporting practice change) and institutionalization (embedding of practice change into existing organizational systems).

DISCUSSION: The EMO trial will advance the science of deimplementation by providing new insights into the processes, mechanisms, costs, and likelihood of sustained practice change using rigorously designed deimplementation strategies. The trial will also advance care for a high-incidence, costly pediatric lung disease.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05132322 . Registered on November 10, 2021.

DOI

10.1186/s13012-022-01246-z

Alternate Title

Implement Sci

PMID

36271399

Title

Evaluation of an Educational Outreach and Audit and Feedback Program to Reduce Continuous Pulse Oximetry Use in Hospitalized Infants With Stable Bronchiolitis: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2122826

Date Published

2021 Sep 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>National guidelines recommend against continuous pulse oximetry use for hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, yet guideline-discordant use remains high.</p>

<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate deimplementation outcomes of educational outreach and audit and feedback strategies aiming to reduce guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>A nonrandomized clinical single-group deimplementation trial was conducted in 14 non-intensive care units in 5 freestanding children's hospitals and 1 community hospital from December 1, 2019, through March 14, 2020, among 847 nurses and physicians caring for hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen.</p>

<p><strong>Interventions: </strong>Educational outreach focused on communicating details of the existing guidelines and evidence. Audit and feedback strategies included 2 formats: (1) weekly aggregate data feedback to multidisciplinary teams with review of unit-level and hospital-level use of continuous pulse oximetry, and (2) real-time 1:1 feedback to clinicians when guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use was discovered during in-person data audits.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Clinician ratings of acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, and perceived safety were assessed using a questionnaire. Guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use in hospitalized children was measured using direct observation of a convenience sample of patients with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 847 of 1193 eligible clinicians (695 women [82.1%]) responded to a Likert scale-based questionnaire (71% response rate). Most respondents rated the deimplementation strategies of education and audit and feedback as acceptable (education, 435 of 474 [92%]; audit and feedback, 615 of 664 [93%]), appropriate (education, 457 of 474 [96%]; audit and feedback, 622 of 664 [94%]), feasible (education, 424 of 474 [89%]; audit and feedback, 557 of 664 [84%]), and safe (803 of 847 [95%]). Sites collected 1051 audit observations (range, 47-403 per site) on 709 unique patient admissions (range, 31-251 per site) during a 3.5-month period of continuous pulse oximetry use in children with bronchiolitis not receiving supplemental oxygen, which were compared with 579 observations (range, 57-154 per site) from the same hospitals during the baseline 4-month period (prior season) to determine whether the strategies were associated with a reduction in use. Sites conducted 148 in-person educational outreach and aggregate data feedback sessions and provided real-time 1:1 feedback 171 of 236 times (72% of the time when guideline-discordant monitoring was identified). Adjusted for age, gestational age, time since weaning from supplemental oxygen, and other characteristics, guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use decreased from 53% (95% CI, 49%-57%) to 23% (95% CI, 20%-25%) (P &lt; .001) during the intervention period. There were no adverse events attributable to reduced monitoring.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this nonrandomized clinical trial, educational outreach and audit and feedback deimplementation strategies for guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use among hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen were positively associated with clinician perceptions of feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and safety. Evaluating the sustainability of deimplementation beyond the intervention period is an essential next step.</p>

<p><strong>Trial Registration: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04178941.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22826

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34473258

Title

Validity of Continuous Pulse Oximetry Orders for Identification of Actual Monitoring Status in Bronchiolitis.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

665-668

Date Published

2020 11

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p>The accuracy of pulse oximetry monitor orders for identifying infants with bronchiolitis who are being continuously monitored is unknown. In this 56-hospital repeated cross-sectional study, investigators used direct bedside observation to determine continuous pulse oximetry monitor use and then assessed if an active continuous monitoring order was present in the electronic health record. Investigators completed 3,612 observations of infants aged 8 weeks to 23 months hospitalized with bronchiolitis and on room air. Most monitored infants did not have an active monitoring order (sensitivity 49% [95% CI, 41-57]). The positive predictive value of a monitoring order was 77% (95% CI, 72-82), and the negative predictive value was 69% (95% CI, 61-77). Teams intending to measure continuous pulse oximetry use should understand the limitations of using electronic health record orders as a stand-alone measure.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3443

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

33147128

Title

Characteristics of Pediatric Rapid Response Systems: Results From a Survey of PRIS Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 25

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Many hospitals use rapid response systems (RRSs) to identify and intervene on hospitalized children at risk for deterioration.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe RRS characteristics across hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We developed the survey through a series of prospective respondent, expert, and cognitive interviews. One institutional expert per PRIS hospital ( = 109) was asked to complete the web survey. We summarized responses using descriptive statistics with a secondary analysis of univariate associations between RRS characteristics and perceived effectiveness.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The response rate was 72% (79 of 109). Respondents represented diverse hospital types and were primarily physicians (97%) with leadership roles in care escalation. Many hospitals used an early warning score (77%) for identification with variable characteristics (46% automated versus 54% full or partially manual calculation; inputs included vital signs [98%], physical examination findings [88%], diagnoses [23%], medications [19%], and diagnostic tests [14%]). Few incorporated a validated prediction model (9%). Similarly, many RRSs used a rapid response team for intervention (93%) with variable team composition (respiratory therapists [94%], ICU nurses [93%], ICU providers [67%], and pharmacists [27%]). Some used the early warning score to trigger the rapid response team (50%). Only a few staffed a clinician to proactively surveil hospitalized children for risk of deterioration (18%), and these tended to be larger hospitals (annual admissions 12 000 vs 6000, = .007). Most responding experts stated their RRSs improved patient outcomes (92%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>RRS characteristics varied across PRIS hospitals.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-002659

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33495251

Title

Barriers and Facilitators to Guideline-Adherent Pulse Oximetry Use in Bronchiolitis.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

23-30

Date Published

2021 Jan

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring (cSpO) in children with bronchiolitis does not improve clinical outcomes and has been associated with increased resource use and alarm fatigue. It is critical to understand the factors that contribute to cSpO overuse in order to reduce overuse and its associated harms.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multicenter qualitative study took place in the context of the Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) SpO study, a cross-sectional study to establish rates of cSpO in bronchiolitis. We conducted semistructured interviews, informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, with a purposive sample of stakeholders at sites with high and low cSpO use rates to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing cSpO overuse. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Analyses were conducted using an integrated approach.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Participants (n = 56) included EMO study site principal investigators (n = 12), hospital administrators (n = 8), physicians (n = 15), nurses (n = 12), and respiratory therapists (n = 9) from 12 hospitals. Results suggest that leadership buy-in, clear authoritative guidelines for SpO use incorporated into electronic order sets, regular education about cSpO in bronchiolitis, and visual reminders may be needed to reduce cSpO utilization. Parental perceptions and individual clinician comfort affect cSpO practice.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We identified barriers and facilitators to deimplementation of cSpO for stable patients with bronchiolitis across children's hospitals with high- and low-cSpO use. Based on these data, future deimplementation efforts should focus on clear protocols for cSpO, EHR changes, and education for hospital staff on bronchiolitis features and rationale for reducing cSpO.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3535

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

33357326

Title

Cardiorespiratory and Pulse Oximetry Monitoring in Hospitalized Children: A Delphi Process.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 17

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Cardiorespiratory and pulse oximetry monitoring in children who are hospitalized should balance benefits of detecting deterioration with potential harms of alarm fatigue. We developed recommendations for monitoring outside the ICU on the basis of available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies addressing the utility of cardiorespiratory and pulse oximetry monitoring in common pediatric conditions and drafted candidate monitoring recommendations based on our findings. We convened a panel of nominees from national professional organizations with diverse expertise: nursing, medicine, respiratory therapy, biomedical engineering, and family advocacy. Using the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method, panelists rated recommendations for appropriateness and necessity in 3 sequential rating sessions and a moderated meeting.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The panel evaluated 56 recommendations for intermittent and continuous monitoring for children hospitalized outside the ICU with 7 common conditions (eg, asthma, croup) and/or receiving common therapies (eg, supplemental oxygen, intravenous opioids). The panel reached agreement on the appropriateness of monitoring recommendations for 55 of 56 indications and on necessity of monitoring for 52. For mild or moderate asthma, croup, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, the panel recommended intermittent vital sign or oximetry measurement only. The panel recommended continuous monitoring for severe disease in each respiratory condition as well as for a new or increased dose of intravenous opiate or benzodiazepine.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Expert panel members agreed that intermittent vital sign assessment, rather than continuous monitoring, is appropriate management for a set of specific conditions of mild or moderate severity that require hospitalization.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-3336

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32680879

Title

Prevalence of Continuous Pulse Oximetry Monitoring in Hospitalized Children With Bronchiolitis Not Requiring Supplemental Oxygen.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

1467-1477

Date Published

2020 Apr 21

ISSN Number

1538-3598

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>US national guidelines discourage the use of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who do not require supplemental oxygen.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>Measure continuous pulse oximetry use in children with bronchiolitis.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed in pediatric wards in 56 US and Canadian hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network from December 1, 2018, through March 31, 2019. Participants included a convenience sample of patients aged 8 weeks through 23 months with bronchiolitis who were not receiving active supplemental oxygen administration. Patients with extreme prematurity, cyanotic congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, home respiratory support, neuromuscular disease, immunodeficiency, or cancer were excluded.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Hospitalization with bronchiolitis without active supplemental oxygen administration.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcome, receipt of continuous pulse oximetry, was measured using direct observation. Continuous pulse oximetry use percentages were risk standardized using the following variables: nighttime (11 pm to 7 am), age combined with preterm birth, time after weaning from supplemental oxygen or flow, apnea or cyanosis during the present illness, neurologic impairment, and presence of an enteral feeding tube.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The sample included 3612 patient observations in 33 freestanding children's hospitals, 14 children's hospitals within hospitals, and 9 community hospitals. In the sample, 59% were male, 56% were white, and 15% were black; 48% were aged 8 weeks through 5 months, 28% were aged 6 through 11 months, 16% were aged 12 through 17 months, and 9% were aged 18 through 23 months. The overall continuous pulse oximetry monitoring use percentage in these patients, none of whom were receiving any supplemental oxygen or nasal cannula flow, was 46% (95% CI, 40%-53%). Hospital-level unadjusted continuous pulse oximetry use ranged from 2% to 92%. After risk standardization, use ranged from 6% to 82%. Intraclass correlation coefficient suggested that 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) of observed variation was attributable to unmeasured hospital-level factors.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In a convenience sample of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis who were not receiving active supplemental oxygen administration, monitoring with continuous pulse oximetry was frequent and varied widely among hospitals. Because of the apparent absence of a guideline- or evidence-based indication for continuous monitoring in this population, this practice may represent overuse.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jama.2020.2998

Alternate Title

JAMA

PMID

32315058

Title

A National Approach to Pediatric Sepsis Surveillance.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Nov 27

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Pediatric sepsis is a major public health concern, and robust surveillance tools are needed to characterize its incidence, outcomes, and trends. The increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States creates an opportunity to conduct reliable, pragmatic, and generalizable population-level surveillance using routinely collected clinical data rather than administrative claims or resource-intensive chart review. In 2015, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recruited sepsis investigators and representatives of key professional societies to develop an approach to adult sepsis surveillance using clinical data recorded in EHRs. This led to the creation of the adult sepsis event definition, which was used to estimate the national burden of sepsis in adults and has been adapted into a tool kit to facilitate widespread implementation by hospitals. In July 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a new multidisciplinary pediatric working group to tailor an EHR-based national sepsis surveillance approach to infants and children. Here, we describe the challenges specific to pediatric sepsis surveillance, including evolving clinical definitions of sepsis, accommodation of age-dependent physiologic differences, identifying appropriate EHR markers of infection and organ dysfunction among infants and children, and the need to account for children with medical complexity and the growing regionalization of pediatric care. We propose a preliminary pediatric sepsis event surveillance definition and outline next steps for refining and validating these criteria so that they may be used to estimate the national burden of pediatric sepsis and support site-specific surveillance to complement ongoing initiatives to improve sepsis prevention, recognition, and treatment.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-1790

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31776196

Title

Measuring overuse of continuous pulse oximetry in bronchiolitis and developing strategies for large-scale deimplementation: study protocol for a feasibility trial.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

68

Date Published

2019

ISSN Number

2055-5784

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Deimplementation, the systematic elimination of low-value practices, has emerged as an important focus within implementation science. Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant hospitalization. Among stable inpatients with bronchiolitis who do not require supplemental oxygen, continuous pulse oximetry monitoring is recognized as an overused, low-value practice in pediatric hospital medicine. There is strong scientific evidence and practice guideline support for limiting pulse oximetry monitoring of stable children with bronchiolitis who do not require supplemental oxygen, yet the practice remains common. This study aims to (1) characterize the extent of this overuse in hospitals located in the USA and Canada, (2) identify barriers and facilitators of successful deimplementation of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in bronchiolitis, and (3) develop consensus strategies for large-scale deimplementation. In addition to identifying feasible strategies for deimplementation, this study will test the feasibility of data collection approaches to be employed in a large-scale deimplementation trial.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>This multicenter study will be performed in approximately 38 hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network. In Aim 1, we will determine the rate of overuse within each hospital by performing repeated cross-sectional observational sampling of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of stable bronchiolitis patients age 8 weeks through 23 months who do not require supplemental oxygen. In Aim 2, we will use the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as a framework for semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (physician, nurse, respiratory therapist, administrator, and parent) at the highest- and lowest-overuse hospitals to understand barriers and facilitators of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring deimplementation. In Aim 3, we will use a theory-based causal model to match the identified barriers and facilitators to potential strategies for deimplementation. Candidate strategies will be discussed with a panel of stakeholders from hospitals with high rates of overuse to assess feasibility and acceptability. A questionnaire ranking strategies based on feasibility, acceptability, and impact will be administered to a broader group of stakeholders to arrive at consensus about promising strategies for large-scale deimplementation to be tested in a subsequent trial.</p>

<p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Effective strategies for deimplementing continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of stable patients with bronchiolitis have not been well characterized. The findings of this study will provide further understanding of factors that facilitate deimplementation in pediatric hospital settings and provide pilot and feasibility data to inform a trial of large-scale deimplementation of this overused practice.</p>

<p><strong>Trial registration: </strong>Not applicable. This study does not meet the World Health Organization definition of a clinical trial.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s40814-019-0453-2

Alternate Title

Pilot Feasibility Stud

PMID

31123593

Title

Elevated Heart Rate and Risk of Revisit With Admission in Pediatric Emergency Patients.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jul 16

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify emergency department (ED) heart rate (HR) values that identify children at elevated risk of ED revisit with admission.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 0 to 18 years old discharged from a tertiary-care pediatric ED from January 2013 to December 2014. We created percentile curves for the last recorded HR for age using data from calendar year 2013 and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to characterize the performance of the percentiles for predicting ED revisit with admission within 72 hours. In a held-out validation data set (calendar year 2014 data), we evaluated test characteristics of last-recorded HR-for-age cut points identified as promising on the ROC curves, as well as those identifying the highest 5% and 1% of last recorded HRs for age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We evaluated 183,433 eligible ED visits. Last recorded HR for age had poor discrimination for predicting revisit with admission (area under the curve, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.63). No promising cut points were identified on the ROC curves. Cut points identifying the highest 5% and 1% of last recorded HRs for age showed low sensitivity (10.1% and 2.5%) with numbers needed to evaluate of 62 and 50, respectively, to potentially prevent 1 revisit with admission.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Last recorded ED HR discriminates poorly between children who are and are not at risk of revisit with admission in a pediatric ED. The use of single-parameter HR in isolation as an automated trigger for mandatory reevaluation prior to discharge may not improve revisit outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000001552

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

30020247

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