First name
Xiaoyan
Last name
Han

Title

Combined Biomarkers Predict Acute Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With Suspected Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1106-1113

Date Published

2018 Jul

ISSN Number

1530-0293

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Sepsis is associated with high early and total in-hospital mortality. Despite recent revisions in the diagnostic criteria for sepsis that sought to improve predictive validity for mortality, it remains difficult to identify patients at greatest risk of death. We compared the utility of nine biomarkers to predict mortality in subjects with clinically suspected bacterial sepsis.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Cohort study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>The medical and surgical ICUs at an academic medical center.</p>

<p><strong>SUBJECTS: </strong>We enrolled 139 subjects who met two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) criteria and received new broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>We assayed nine biomarkers (α-2 macroglobulin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, procalcitonin, serum amyloid A, serum amyloid P, and tissue plasminogen activator) at onset of suspected sepsis and 24, 48, and 72 hours thereafter. We compared biomarkers between groups based on both 14-day and total in-hospital mortality and evaluated the predictive validity of single and paired biomarkers via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: </strong>Fourteen-day mortality was 12.9%, and total in-hospital mortality was 29.5%. Serum amyloid P was significantly lower (4/4 timepoints) and tissue plasminogen activator significantly higher (3/4 timepoints) in the 14-day mortality group, and the same pattern held for total in-hospital mortality (Wilcoxon p ≤ 0.046 for all timepoints). Serum amyloid P and tissue plasminogen activator demonstrated the best individual predictive performance for mortality, and combinations of biomarkers including serum amyloid P and tissue plasminogen activator achieved greater predictive performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve &gt; 0.76 for 14-d and 0.74 for total mortality).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Combined biomarkers predict risk for 14-day and total mortality among subjects with suspected sepsis. Serum amyloid P and tissue plasminogen activator demonstrated the best discriminatory ability in this cohort.</p>

DOI

10.1097/CCM.0000000000003137

Alternate Title

Crit. Care Med.

PMID

29912095

Title

Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 are associated with extensive efavirenz pharmacokinetics and CNS toxicities in an HIV cohort in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jun 01

ISSN Number

1473-1150

Abstract

<p>Inter-individual variability in efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics and dynamics is dominantly driven by the polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2B6 516G&gt;T. We hypothesized that additional CYP polymorphisms mediate the relationship between CYP2B6 516G&gt;T, EFV metabolism, and clinical events. We investigated 21 SNPs in 814 HIV-infected adults initiating EFV-based therapy in Botswana for population pharmacokinetics, CNS toxicities, and treatment outcomes. Two SNPs (rs28399499 and rs28399433) showed reduced apparent oral EFV clearance. Four SNPs (rs2279345, rs4803417, rs4802101, and rs61663607) showed extensive clearance. Composite CYP2B-mediated EFV metabolism was significantly associated with CNS toxicity (p = 0.04), with extensive metabolizers reporting more and slow and very slow metabolizers reporting less toxicity after 1 month compared to intermediate metabolizers. Composite CYP2B6 metabolism was not associated with composite early treatment failure. In conclusion, our data suggest that CNS-related toxicities might not be solely the result of super-therapeutic parent EFV concentrations in HIV-infected individuals in patients of African ancestry.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41397-018-0028-2

Alternate Title

Pharmacogenomics J.

PMID

29855606

Title

Effects of sex and alcohol use on antiretroviral therapy outcomes in Botswana: a cohort study.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

73-81

Date Published

2017 Jan

ISSN Number

1360-0443

Abstract

<p><strong>AIMS: </strong>To determine alcohol use effect on HIV treatment success and whether alcohol use mediates the relation between male sex and treatment failure.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Longitudinal cohort study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Eight HIV clinics in and near Gaborone, Botswana.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>A total of 938 HIV-infected treatment-naive adults initiating regimens containing the antiretroviral medication efavirenz between June 2009 and February 2013, including 478 (51%) males, median age 38&nbsp;years, and plasma HIV RNA 4.9 logcopies/ml.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS: </strong>Primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure over 6&nbsp;months including death, lost to care or plasma HIV RNA &gt; 25 copies/ml. Exposures included alcohol use and gender.</p>

<p><strong>FINDINGS: </strong>Failure in 339 (36%) participants included 40 (4%) deaths, 194 (21%) lost to care and 105 (11%) with HIV RNA&nbsp;&gt;&nbsp;25 copies/ml. Both hazardous alcohol use in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.0, 1.9] and male sex (aOR&nbsp;=&nbsp;2.1, 95% CI&nbsp;=&nbsp;1.5, 2.9) were associated with failure. Hazardous alcohol use in the year prior to enrollment was more common in men (57%) than women (24%), P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001. There was no difference in alcohol use effect on failure between sexes (P for interaction&nbsp;&gt;&nbsp;0.5). Controlling for hazardous alcohol use did not change the relation between sex and failure.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Alcohol use among HIV-infected adults in Botswana appears to worsen HIV treatment outcomes. Alcohol use does not appear to have either a mediating or a moderating effect on the relation between gender and HIV treatment outcome failure.</p>

DOI

10.1111/add.13538

Alternate Title

Addiction

PMID

27447841

Title

CYP2B6 genotypes and early efavirenz-based hiv treatment outcomes in botswana.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Jul 07

ISSN Number

1473-5571

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the association between cytochrome p450 2B6 genotypes and efavirenz-based HIV treatment outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Observational cohort study of HIV infected adults initiating efavirenz-based regimens in Botswana.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The primary endpoint was a composite of death or loss to care or HIV RNA&gt;25 copies/ml at 6 months. CYP2B6 516G&gt;T and 983T&gt;C genotyping was done with Taqman Open Array platform. Adverse experiences were measured using the Subject Experience Questionnaire. Metabolism alleles were included in logistic regression models of the composite endpoint.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>801 individuals included 406 (51%) males, median age 37 years, median baseline CD4 count 195 cells/mm and plasma HIV RNA 4·9 log10 copies/ml. 277 (35%) reached the endpoint including 34 (4%) deaths, 151 (19%) lost to care, and 92 (11%) with plasma HIV RNA&gt;25 copies/ml. Metabolism variant alleles were common with 396 (49%) intermediate and 192 (24%) slow metabolizers. There were no statistically significant associations between metabolism and treatment endpoints. However, slower metabolism was associated with fewer adverse experiences.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Slow metabolism alleles were associated with lower efavirenz clearance but not any of the treatment endpoints. Slow efavirenz metabolism did not exacerbate CNS toxicity. These results should allay concern that slow efavirenz metabolism adversely impacts individuals in sub-Saharan African settings in which these alleles are common.</p>

DOI

10.1097/QAD.0000000000001593

Alternate Title

AIDS

PMID

28692529

Title

CYP2B6 516G>T Minor Allele Protective of Late Virologic Failure in Efavirenz-treated HIV-Infected Patients in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 May 05

ISSN Number

1944-7884

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>CYPB2B6 polymorphisms that affect efavirenz (EFV) concentrations are common, but the effect of this polymorphism on HIV virologic failure in clinical practice settings has not fully been elucidated. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the CYPB2B6 516G&gt;T genotype and late virologic failure in patients treated with EFV in Gaborone, Botswana.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>We performed a case-control study that included 1,338 HIV-infected black Batswana on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were approached for enrollment during regular visits at one of the outpatient HIV clinics between 7/2013-4/2014.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cases experienced late HIV failure, defined as plasma HIV RNA &gt;1000 copies/mL after maintaining viral suppression (&lt;400 copies/mL) for at least 6 months. For each case, a total of 4 control patients were randomly sampled from the same population. Controls had plasma HIV RNA &lt;400 copies/mL on ART for at least 6 months. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds of late HIV failure by 516G&gt;T genotype.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>After adjustment for the confounding variables age and CD4 count, the CYPB2B6 516 T-allele was protective against late HIV virologic breakthrough, adjusted OR 0.70; 95%CI 0.50-0.97.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The CYPB2B6 516 T-allele was protective against late virologic breakthrough in patients with initial (6 month) HIV RNA suppression on EFV-based ART. Future studies are needed to assess long-term viral benefits of identifying and offering EFV containing ART to black African HIV-infected patients with CYPB2B6 T-alleles, especially given the wider availability of a single pill EFV in this setting.</p>

DOI

10.1097/QAI.0000000000001442

Alternate Title

J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.

PMID

28481785

Title

The Effect of Total Household Decolonization on Clearance of Colonization With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

1-8

Date Published

2016 Jul 28

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. DESIGN Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial. SETTING Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members. INTERVENTION Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case. RESULTS Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018). CONCLUSIONS Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00966446 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2016.138

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

27465112

Title

A Pragmatic Biomarker-Driven Algorithm to Guide Antibiotic Use in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: The Optimizing Antibiotic Strategies in Sepsis (OASIS) Study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 May 4

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Biomarkers that identify critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at low risk for bacterial infection may help clinicians reduce unnecessary antibiotic use.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a prospective cohort study of children with SIRS and suspected infection admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from January 5, 2012 to March 7, 2014. We enrolled patients upon initiation of new antibiotics (Time 0) and measured a panel of 8 serum biomarkers daily over 72 hours. Microbiology, imaging, and clinical data were reviewed to classify bacterial infections using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. We identified cut points of biomarker combinations to maximize the negative predictive value (NPV) and specificity for bacterial infection. Excess antibiotics were calculated as days of therapy beyond day 2 after SIRS onset in patients without bacterial infection.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Infections were identified in 46 of 85 patients: bacterial (n = 22) and viral (24), whereas 39 patients had no infection identified. At Time 0, C-reactive protein (CRP) &lt;5 mg/dL plus serum amyloid A &lt;15.0 µg/mL had an NPV of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.0) and specificity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42-0.66) to identify patients without bacterial infection, whereas CRP &lt;4 mg/dL plus procalcitonin &lt;1.75 ng/mL had an NPV of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-1.0) and specificity of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.30-0.55). Patients without bacterial infection received a mean of 3.8 excess days of therapy.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Early measurement of select biomarkers can identify children with SIRS in whom antibiotics might be safely discontinued when there is no other objective evidence of infection at 48 hours.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piw023

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

27147715

Title

Combined biomarkers discriminate a low likelihood of bacterial infection among surgical intensive care unit patients with suspected sepsis.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Jan 8

ISSN Number

1879-0070

Abstract

<p>Among surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients, it is difficult to distinguish bacterial sepsis from other causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Biomarkers have proven useful to identify the presence of bacterial infection. We enrolled a prospective cohort of 69 SICU patients with suspected sepsis and assayed the concentrations of 9 biomarkers (α-2 macroglobulin [A2M], C-reactive protein, ferritin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, procalcitonin [PCT], serum amyloid A, serum amyloid P, and tissue plasminogen activator) at baseline, 24, 48, and 72hours. Forty-two patients (61%) had bacterial sepsis by chart review. A2M concentrations were significantly lower, and PCT concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with bacterial sepsis at 3 of 4 time points. Using optimal cutoff values, the combination of baseline A2M and 72-hour PCT achieved a negative predictive value of 75% (95% confidence interval, 54-96%). The combination of A2M and PCT discriminated bacterial sepsis from other SIRS among SICU patients with suspected sepsis.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2016.01.003

Alternate Title

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.

PMID

26971636

Title

Use of a Combination Biomarker Algorithm To Identify Medical Intensive Care Unit Patients with Suspected Sepsis at Very Low Likelihood of Bacterial Infection.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

6494-500

Date Published

2015 Oct

ISSN Number

1098-6596

Abstract

<p>Sepsis remains a diagnostic challenge in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the use of biomarkers may help in differentiating bacterial sepsis from other causes of systemic inflammatory syndrome (SIRS). The goal of this study was to assess test characteristics of a number of biomarkers for identifying ICU patients with a very low likelihood of bacterial sepsis. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a medical ICU of a university hospital. Immunocompetent patients with presumed bacterial sepsis were consecutively enrolled from January 2012 to May 2013. Concentrations of nine biomarkers (α-2 macroglobulin, C-reactive protein [CRP], ferritin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, procalcitonin [PCT], serum amyloid A, serum amyloid P, and tissue plasminogen activator) were determined at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after enrollment. Performance characteristics were calculated for various combinations of biomarkers for discrimination of bacterial sepsis from other causes of SIRS. Seventy patients were included during the study period; 31 (44%) had bacterial sepsis, and 39 (56%) had other causes of SIRS. PCT and CRP values were significantly higher at all measured time points in patients with bacterial sepsis. A number of combinations of PCT and CRP, using various cutoff values and measurement time points, demonstrated high negative predictive values (81.1% to 85.7%) and specificities (63.2% to 79.5%) for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. Combinations of PCT and CRP demonstrated a high ability to discriminate bacterial sepsis from other causes of SIRS in medical ICU patients. Future studies should focus on the use of these algorithms to improve antibiotic use in the ICU setting.</p>

DOI

10.1128/AAC.00958-15

Alternate Title

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.

PMID

26239984

Title

Risk factors for recurrent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-dwelling adults and children.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

786-93

Date Published

07/2015

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. DESIGN Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. SETTING Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. METHODS Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36-84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses. CONCLUSION A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2015.76

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

25869756

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