First name
Sogol
Last name
Mostoufi-Moab

Title

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Pediatric Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Subtypes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1353-1361

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1557-9077

Abstract

Follicular patterned thyroid nodules with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) encompass a range of diagnostic categories with varying risks of metastatic behavior. Subtypes include the invasive encapsulated follicular variant of PTC (Ienc-fvPTC) and infiltrative fvPTC (inf-fvPTC), with tumors lacking invasive features classified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like features (NIFTPs). This study aimed to report the clinical and histological features of pediatric cases meeting criteria for these histological subtypes, with specific focus on Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC. In this retrospective cohort study, pediatric patients with thyroid neoplasms showing follicular patterned growth and nuclear features of PTC noted on surgical pathology between January 2010 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to the recent 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical and histopathologic parameters were described for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC subtypes, with specific comparison of Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC cases. The case cohort included 42 pediatric patients, with 6 (14%), 25 (60%), and 11 (26%) patients meeting criteria for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC, respectively. All cases were rereviewed, and 5 patients originally diagnosed with Ienc-fvPTC before 2017 were reappraised as having NIFTPs. The NIFTP cases were encapsulated tumors without invasive features, lymph node or distant metastasis, or disease recurrence. Ienc-fvPTC tumors demonstrated clearly demarcated tumor capsules and capsular/vascular invasion, while inf-fvPTC tumors displayed infiltrative growth lacking a capsule. inf-fvPTC cases had increased prevalence of malignant preoperative cytology, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis ( < 0.01). These cases were treated with total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and subsequent radioactive iodine therapy. Preliminary genetic findings suggest a predominance of fusions in inf-fvPTC cases versus point mutations in Ienc-fvPTC ( = 0.02). Pediatric NIFTP and fvPTC subtypes appear to demonstrate alignment between clinical and histological risk stratification, with indolent behavior in Ienc-fvPTC and invasive features in inf-fvPTC tumors.

DOI

10.1089/thy.2022.0239

Alternate Title

Thyroid

PMID

36103376

Title

Health-Related Quality of Life at Diagnosis for Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patients.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1945-7197

Abstract

CONTEXT: Pediatric thyroid cancer (TC) incidence rates are increasing, yet TC has one of the highest survival rates. Despite increased prevalence, little is known about youth adjustment to TC, particularly compared to other pediatric cancers.

OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric TC patients early after diagnosis compared to other pediatric cancer patients and healthy youth and examine predictors of HRQoL.

DESIGN: Patients completed psychosocial questionnaires as part of a clinic-based screening program around time of surgery. TC HRQoL was compared to other pediatric cancer and healthy youth reported norms. Clinical and demographic data extracted from the medical record were examined for predictors of HRQoL.

SETTING: Pediatric Thyroid Center.

PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric TC patients (ages 8.5-23.4 years) and their caregivers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (HRQoL) and distress thermometer.

RESULTS: Findings evidenced significantly higher HRQoL for TC patients than other pediatric cancers for all but emotional and school functioning. Compared to healthy youth, TC patients reported significantly lower functioning, except comparable social functioning. No significant differences in HRQoL were identified based on disease severity, thyroid disease history, or treatment. Patient distress was associated with HRQoL.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest general resilience in TC patients compared to youth with other cancers, yet worse HRQoL than peers. Early universal screening is warranted due to a short TC treatment regimen. If administrative barriers preclude comprehensive screening, the single-item distress thermometer may identify patients for further comprehensive screening.

DOI

10.1210/clinem/dgac648

Alternate Title

J Clin Endocrinol Metab

PMID

36330655

Title

Association Between Body Composition and Development of Glucose Intolerance after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

OF1-OF7

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1538-7755

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have increased risk of developing glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus (DM). The strongest risk factor for glucose intolerance is being overweight/obese, as determined by body mass index (BMI), which does not account for differences in body composition. We examined the association between body composition measures from pre-HCT CT and early-onset (≤30 days) de novo glucose intolerance after HCT, and determined its impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM).

METHODS: This study included 749 patients without pre-HCT DM. Skeletal muscle loss [abnormal skeletal muscle gauge (SMG)] and abnormal visceral adiposity (VA) were defined by sex-specific tertiles. Fine-Gray proportional subdistribution HR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained to determine the association between muscle loss and VA and development of glucose intolerance. 1 year NRM was calculated for patients alive at day 30.

RESULTS: Median age at HCT was 50.2 years. By day 30, 8.1% of patients developed glucose intolerance and 731 remained alive. In multivariable analysis, abnormal SMG was associated with increased risk of glucose intolerance in nonoverweight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) patients (HR = 3.00; 95% CI, 1.15-7.81; P = 0.024); abnormal VA was associated with increased risk of glucose intolerance in overweight/obese patients (HR = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.24-4.12; P = 0.008). Glucose intolerance was independently associated with NRM (HR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.39; P = 0.035).

CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal SMG and VA were associated with glucose intolerance in nonoverweight and overweight/obese patients, respectively, which contributed to increased risk of 1 year NRM.

IMPACT: This information may guide personalized interventions to decrease the risk of adverse outcomes after HCT.

DOI

10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-1449

Alternate Title

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev

PMID

35797113

Title

Indeterminate Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspirations in Pediatrics: Exploring the Clinicopathologic Features and Utility of Molecular Profiling.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1663-2826

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic utility of molecular profiling for the evaluation of indeterminate pediatric thyroid nodules is unclear. We aimed to assess pediatric cases with indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) alongside clinicopathologic features and mutational analysis.

METHODS: A retrospective review of 126 patients with indeterminate cytology who underwent FNA between January 2010 and December 2021 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was performed. Indeterminate cases defined by The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (AUS/FLUS or TBSRTC III; FN/SFN or TBSRTC IV; SM or TBSRTC V) were correlated to clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics.

RESULTS: Of the 114 surgical cases, 48% were malignant, with the majority of malignant cases diagnosed as follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (28/55). Risk of malignancy increased with TBSRTC category: 23% for AUS/FLUS, 51% for FN/SFN, and 100% for SM nodules. There were significant differences in surgical approach (p < 0.01), performance of lymph node dissection (p < 0.01), histological diagnosis (p < 0.01), primary tumor focality/laterality (p = 0.04), and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.02) based on TBSRTC classification, with resultant differences in post-surgical risk stratification per American Thyroid Association (ATA) pediatric guidelines (p = 0.01). Approximately 89% (49/55) of cases were classified as ATA low-risk, and 5 of 6 patients with ATA intermediate- or high-risk disease had SM cytology. Somatic molecular testing was performed in 40% (51/126) of tumors; 77% (27/35) of malignant cases and 38% (6/16) of benign cases harbored driver alteration(s). Of the driver-positive malignant cases, 52% (14/27) were associated with low-risk (DICER1, PTEN, RAS, and TSHR mutations), 33% (9/27) were associated with high-risk (BRAF mutations and ALK, NTRK, and RET fusions), and 15% (4/27) had unreported risk for invasive disease (APC, BLM, and PPM1D mutations and TG-FGFR1 fusion). Incidence of high-risk drivers increased with TBSRTC category. Approximately 23% (8/35) of patients harboring thyroid malignancy did not have an identifiable driver alteration.

CONCLUSIONS: Molecular analysis is useful to discriminate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Patients with driver genetic alteration(s) and indeterminate cytology should consider surgical management secondary to the high incidence (82%; 27/33) of thyroid malignancy in these patients.

DOI

10.1159/000526116

Alternate Title

Horm Res Paediatr

PMID

35871517

Title

Exercise training and NR supplementation to improve muscle mass and fitness in adolescent and young adult hematopoietic cell transplant survivors: a randomized controlled trial {1}.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

795

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1471-2407

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have led to marked improvements in survival. However, adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo HCT are at high risk of developing sarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle mass) due to the impact of HCT-related exposures on the developing musculoskeletal system. HCT survivors who have sarcopenia also have excess lifetime risk of non-relapse mortality. Therefore, interventions that increase skeletal muscle mass, metabolism, strength, and function are needed to improve health in AYA HCT survivors. Skeletal muscle is highly reliant on mitochondrial energy production, as reflected by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity. Exercise is one approach to target skeletal muscle mitochondrial OXPHOS, and in turn improve muscle function and strength. Another approach is to use "exercise enhancers", such as nicotinamide riboside (NR), a safe and well-tolerated precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a cofactor that in turn impacts muscle energy production. Interventions combining exercise with exercise enhancers like NR hold promise, but have not yet been rigorously tested in AYA HCT survivors.

METHODS/DESIGN: We will perform a randomized controlled trial testing 16 weeks of in-home aerobic and resistance exercise and NR in AYA HCT survivors, with a primary outcome of muscle strength via dynamometry and a key secondary outcome of cardiovascular fitness via cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We will also test the effects of these interventions on i) muscle mass via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; ii) muscle mitochondrial OXPHOS via an innovative non-invasive MRI-based technique, and iii) circulating correlates of NAD metabolism via metabolomics. Eighty AYAs (ages 15-30y) will be recruited 6-24 months post-HCT and randomized to 1 of 4 arms: exercise + NR, exercise alone, NR alone, or control. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and after the 16-week intervention.

DISCUSSION: We expect that exercise with NR will produce larger changes than exercise alone in key outcomes, and that changes will be mediated by increases in muscle OXPHOS. We will apply the insights gained from this trial to develop individualized, evidence-supported precision initiatives that will reduce chronic disease burden in high-risk cancer survivors.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05194397. Registered January 18, 2022, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05194397 {2a}.

DOI

10.1186/s12885-022-09845-1

Alternate Title

BMC Cancer

PMID

35854224

Title

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Pediatric Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Subtypes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1557-9077

Abstract

Follicular patterned thyroid nodules with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma encompass a range of diagnostic categories with varying risks of metastatic behavior. Subtypes include invasive encapsulated fvPTC (Ienc-fvPTC) and infiltrative fvPTC (inf-fvPTC) with tumors lacking invasive features classified as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like features (NIFTP). This study aimed to report the clinical and histologic features of pediatric cases meeting criteria for these histological subtypes with specific focus on Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC. In this retrospective cohort study, pediatric patients with thyroid neoplasms showing follicular patterned growth and nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma noted on surgical pathology between January 2010 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to the recent 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical and histopathologic parameters were described for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC subtypes, with specific comparison of Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC cases. The case cohort included 42 pediatric patients, with 6 (14%), 25 (60%), and 11 (26%) patients meeting criteria for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC, respectively. All cases were re-reviewed, and 5 patients originally diagnosed with Ienc-fvPTC prior to 2017 were reappraised as NIFTP. The NIFTP cases were encapsulated tumors without invasive features, lymph node or distant metastasis, or disease recurrence. Ienc-fvPTC tumors demonstrated clearly demarcated tumor capsules and capsular/vascular invasion, while inf-fvPTC tumors displayed infiltrative growth lacking a capsule. Inf-fvPTC cases had increased prevalence of malignant pre-operative cytology, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis ( < 0.01). These cases were treated with total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and subsequent radioactive iodine therapy. Preliminary genetic findings suggest a predominance of fusions in inf-fvPTC cases versus point mutations in Ienc-fvPTC ( < 0.01). Pediatric NIFTP and fvPTC subtypes appear to demonstrate alignment between clinical and histological risk stratification, with indolent behavior in Ienc-fvPTC and invasive features in inf-fvPTC tumors.

DOI

10.1089/thy.2022.0239

Alternate Title

Thyroid

PMID

36103376

Title

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Knee to Predict Childhood Growth.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

210484

Date Published

2022 Mar 22

ISSN Number

1527-1315

Abstract

<p>Background Accurate and precise methods to predict growth remain lacking. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) depicts the columnar structure of the physis and metaphyseal spongiosa and provides measures of tract volume and length that may help predict growth. Purpose To validate physeal DTI metrics as predictors of height velocity (1-year height gain from time of MRI examination) and total height gain (height gain from time of MRI examination until growth stops) and compare the prediction accuracy with bone age-based models. Materials and Methods Femoral DTI studies ( values = 0 and 600 sec/mm; directions = 20) of healthy children who underwent MRI of the knee between February 2012 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Children with height measured at MRI and either 1 year later (height velocity) or after growth cessation (total height gain, mean = 34 months from MRI) were included. Physeal DTI tract volume and length were correlated with height velocity and total height gain. Multilinear regression was used to assess the potential of DTI metrics in the prediction of both parameters. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare root mean square error (RMSE) and bias in height prediction using DTI versus bone age methods. Results Eighty-nine children (mean age, 13 years ± 3 [SD]; 47 boys) had height velocity measured, and 70 (mean age, 14 years ± 1; 36 girls) had total height gain measured. Tract volumes correlated with height velocity ( = 0.49) and total height gain ( = 0.46) ( &lt; .001 for both) after controlling for age and sex. Tract volume was the strongest predictor for height velocity and total height gain. An optimal multilinear model including tract volume improved prediction of height velocity ( = 0.63, RMSE = 1.7 cm) and total height gain ( = 0.59, RMSE = 1.8 cm) compared with bone age-based methods (height velocity: = 0.32, RMSE = 2.9 cm; total height gain: = 0.42, RMSE = 5.0 cm). Conclusion Models using tract volume derived from diffusion tensor imaging may perform better than bone age-based models in children for the prediction of height velocity and total height gain. © RSNA, 2022.</p>

DOI

10.1148/radiol.210484

Alternate Title

Radiology

PMID

35315716

Title

Surgical outcomes in survivors of childhood cancer undergoing thyroidectomy: A single-institution experience.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e29674

Date Published

2022 Mar 26

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk for thyroid disease, and many require definitive management with thyroid surgery. Despite this, there is limited evidence on surgical outcomes among CCS. We sought to evaluate postoperative outcomes at our institution among CCS undergoing thyroid surgery compared to patients without a history of primary childhood malignancy.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>Medical records were reviewed for 638 patients treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Pediatric Thyroid Center between 2009 and 2020. Rates of surgical complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paralysis and hypoparathyroidism, among CCS were compared to patients with sporadic/familial thyroid cancer, Graves' disease, and other benign thyroid conditions. Operative time and intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels were also evaluated.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>There were no significant differences in long-term surgical complication rates, such as permanent RLN paralysis and hypoparathyroidism, between CCS and patients without a history of primary childhood malignancy (all p&nbsp;&gt;&nbsp;.05). For all surgical outcomes, there were no significant differences in complication rates when CCS were compared to those undergoing surgery for sporadic/familial thyroid cancer or Graves' disease (all p&nbsp;&gt;&nbsp;.05). CCS with benign final pathology had significantly higher rates of transient hypoparathyroidism compared to patients with benign thyroid conditions (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Our study suggests that CCS are not at higher risk of long-term complications from thyroid surgery when treated by high-volume surgeons within a multidisciplinary team.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29674

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

35338690

Title

Fusion Oncogenes Are Associated With Increased Metastatic Capacity and Persistent Disease in Pediatric Thyroid Cancers.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

JCO2101861

Date Published

2022 Jan 11

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>In 2014, data from a comprehensive multiplatform analysis of 496 adult papillary thyroid cancer samples reported by The Cancer Genome Atlas project suggested that reclassification of thyroid cancer into molecular subtypes, -like and -like, better reflects clinical behavior than sole reliance on pathologic classification. The aim of this study was to categorize the common oncogenic variants in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and investigate whether mutation subtype classification correlated with the risk of metastasis and response to initial therapy in pediatric DTC.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Somatic cancer gene panel analysis was completed on DTC from 131 pediatric patients. DTC were categorized into -mutant (), -mutant ( p.V600E), and / fusion (, , and fusions) to determine differences between subtype classification in regard to pathologic data (American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM) as well as response to therapy 1 year after initial treatment had been completed.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Mutation-based subtype categories were significant in most variables, including age at diagnosis, metastatic behavior, and the likelihood of remission at 1 year. Patients with / fusions were significantly more likely to have advanced lymph node and distant metastasis and less likely to achieve remission at 1 year than patients within or -mut subgroups.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Our data support that genetic subtyping of pediatric DTC more accurately reflects clinical behavior than sole reliance on pathologic classification with patients with / fusions having worse outcomes than those with -mutant disease. Future trials should consider inclusion of molecular subtype into risk stratification.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.21.01861

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

35015563

Title

Hypothalamic-Pituitary and Other Endocrine Surveillance Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 20

ISSN Number

1945-7189

Abstract

<p>Endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancers are associated with substantial adverse physical and psychosocial effects. To improve appropriate and timely endocrine screening and referral to a specialist, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group (IGHG) aims to develop evidence and expert consensus-based guidelines for healthcare providers that harmonize recommendations for surveillance of endocrine disorders in CAYA cancer survivors. Existing IGHG surveillance recommendations for premature ovarian insufficiency, gonadotoxicity in males, fertility preservation, and thyroid cancer are summarized. For hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) dysfunction, new surveillance recommendations were formulated by a guideline panel consisting of 42 interdisciplinary international experts. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE (through PubMed) for clinically relevant questions concerning HP dysfunction. Literature was screened for eligibility. Recommendations were formulated by drawing conclusions from quality assessment of all evidence, considering the potential benefits of early detection and appropriate management. Healthcare providers should be aware that CAYA cancer survivors have an increased risk for endocrine disorders, including HP dysfunction. Regular surveillance with clinical history, anthropomorphic measures, physical examination, and laboratory measurements is recommended in at-risk survivors. When endocrine disorders are suspected, healthcare providers should proceed with timely referrals to specialized services. These international evidence-based recommendations for surveillance of endocrine disorders in CAYA cancer survivors inform healthcare providers and highlight the need for long-term endocrine follow-up care in subgroups of survivors and elucidate opportunities for further research.</p>

DOI

10.1210/endrev/bnab040

Alternate Title

Endocr Rev

PMID

34962573

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