First name
Hari
Middle name
K
Last name
Narayan

Title

Minimizing cardiac toxicity in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

368-375

Date Published

2021 12 10

ISSN Number

1520-4383

Abstract

<p>Anthracycline chemotherapy remains an integral component of modern pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) regimens and is often delivered at high doses to maximize cancer survival. Unfortunately, high-dose anthracyclines are associated with a significant risk of cardiotoxicity, which may result in early and/or long-term left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Moreover, the development of cardiotoxicity during pediatric AML therapy is associated with lower event-free and overall survival, which may be partially attributable to incomplete anthracycline delivery. A combined strategy of primary cardioprotection and close cardiac monitoring can maximize chemotherapy delivery while reducing the toxicity of intensive AML therapy. Primary cardioprotection using dexrazoxane reduces short-term cardiotoxicity without compromising cancer survival. Liposomal anthracycline formulations, which are under active investigation, have the potential to mitigate cardiotoxicity while also improving antitumor efficacy. Primary cardioprotective strategies may reduce but not eliminate the risk of cardiotoxicity; therefore, close cardiac monitoring is also needed. Standard cardiac monitoring consists of serial echocardiographic assessments for left ventricular ejection fraction decline. Global longitudinal strain has prognostic utility in cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity and may be used as an adjunct assessment. Additional cardioprotective measures should be considered in response to significant cardiotoxicity; these include cardiac remodeling medications to support cardiac recovery and anthracycline dose interruption and/or regimen modifications. However, the withholding of anthracyclines should be limited to avoid compromising cancer survival. A careful approach to cardioprotection during AML therapy is critical to maximize the efficacy of leukemia treatment while minimizing the short- and long-term risks of cardiotoxicity.</p>

DOI

10.1182/hematology.2021000268

Alternate Title

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program

PMID

34889355

Title

A Comparison of Anterograde Versus Retrograde Approaches for Neonatal Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

450-458

Date Published

2018 Mar

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

<p>In neonates requiring balloon aortic valvuloplasty, both anterograde and retrograde approaches are feasible. A recent comparison of these two approaches is lacking. A retrospective cohort study of neonates at a single center undergoing BAV from 9/00 to 7/14 was performed. Records were reviewed including pre- and post-intervention echocardiograms and catheterization data. Comparisons of acute efficacy and procedural safety were made based on type of approach utilized. Forty-two neonates underwent BAV. Eleven cases utilized exclusively an anterograde approach, while 31 included a retrograde approach (including 4 with both approaches used). There were no significant differences between groups in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Additionally, by both pre-intervention echocardiogram and catheterization, there were no differences based on approach in aortic valve gradient, degree of aortic insufficiency (AI), or degree of mitral regurgitation (MR). Both approaches were equally efficacious in gradient reduction (45&nbsp;±&nbsp;17 vs. 44&nbsp;±&nbsp;21&nbsp;mmHg, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.97), and there was no difference in post-intervention AI as assessed by both catheterization and echocardiogram (52% vs. 64% none or trivial, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.74). Additionally, there was no difference in the proportion of patients with an increased severity of MR after BAV (15% vs. 22%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.52). The retrograde approach required a larger arterial catheter and was associated with a higher rate of arterial thrombosis (61% vs. 18%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.014). Both anterograde and retrograde approaches to neonatal BAV appear to be equally efficacious in the short term. The anterograde approach avoids the need for a larger arterial catheter and may reduce the risk of arterial thrombosis.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00246-017-1772-9

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

29134238

Title

Bifurcating stents in the pulmonary arteries: A novel technique to relieve bilateral branch pulmonary artery obstruction.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

714-8

Date Published

2015 Oct

ISSN Number

1522-726X

Abstract

<p>Balloon angioplasty and stent placement in close proximity to the bifurcation of the branch pulmonary arteries can be challenging. Multiple approaches have been previously described, though none of these approaches both treats bilateral proximal branch pulmonary artery stenosis and provides an anchor for a transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement. We report a novel approach that involves serial stent placement and balloon dilation through the struts of the stent in each pulmonary artery, along with balloon expansion of the proximal portion of the stents to the diameter of the main pulmonary artery. In the two cases we describe, this strategy resulted in significant relief of branch pulmonary artery obstruction without compromising the anatomy of the main pulmonary artery segment. This technique can be an effective way to alleviate stenoses of the bilateral proximal branch pulmonary arteries and provides a landing zone for a future transcatheter pulmonary valve.</p>

DOI

10.1002/ccd.25956

Alternate Title

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv

PMID

26256829

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