First name
Yi-Cheng
Last name
Wang

Title

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) versus pediatric patients with acute leukemia have a significantly increased risk of acute GVHD following unrelated donor (URD) stem cell transplantation (SCT): the Children's Oncology Group experience.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 06

ISSN Number

1476-5365

Abstract

<p>Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute leukemia (AL) have inferior outcomes in comparison to younger patients, and are more likely to develop acute and chronic GVHD than younger children following HLA matched sibling donor stem cell transplant (SCT). We compared the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and survival in AYA (age 13-21 years) to younger children (age 2-12 years) who received an unrelated donor SCT for acute leukemia on Children's Oncology Group trials between 2004-2017. One hundred and eighty-eight children and young adults ages 2-21 years underwent URD SCT. Sixty-three percent were aged 2-12 and 37% were age 13-21. Older age was a risk factor for grade II-IV acute GVHD in multivariate analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.10], but not for chronic GVHD, HR 1.25 [95% CI 0.57-2.71]. Younger patients relapsed more often (34.5 ± 4.4% vs. 22.8 ± 4.0%, p = 0.032), but their Event-Free Survival (42.6 ± 4.7% vs. 51.8 ± 6.1%, p = 0.18) and Overall Survival at 5 years (48.5 ± 4.9% vs. 51.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.56) were not different than AYA patients. AYA patients who receive an URD SCT for acute leukemia are significantly more likely to develop grade II-IV acute GVHD, though survival is similar.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41409-021-01558-6

Alternate Title

Bone Marrow Transplant

PMID

34992254

Title

Acute erythroid leukemia is enriched in NUP98 fusions: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

6000-6008

Date Published

2020 Dec 08

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

<p>Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primarily affecting older adults and was previously classified into erythroid/myeloid and pure erythroid subtypes. In this pediatric AEL study, we evaluated morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, molecular, and clinical data of 24 (1.2%) cases from all cases undergoing central pathology review in Children's Oncology Group trials AAML0531 and AAML1031. Of 24 cases, 5 had a pure erythroid phenotype, and 19 had an erythroid/myeloid phenotype. NUP98 fusions were highly enriched in patients with AEL, occurring in 7 of 22 cases for which molecular data were available (31.8% vs 6.7% in other AML subtypes). Of 5 cases of pure erythroid leukemias (PELs), 3 had NUP98 fusions, and 4 had complex karyotypes. Erythroid/myeloid leukemias were reclassified by using the 2017 World Health Organization hematopathology classification as: myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with excess blasts-1 (n = 3), MDS with excess blasts-2 (n = 7), AML (nonerythroid, n = 5), and unknown MDS/AML (n = 4); the 5 cases of nonerythroid AML included 1 with an NUP98-NSD1 fusion, 2 with myelodysplasia-related changes, and 1 with a complex karyotype. Three cases of MDS with excess blasts-2 also had NUP98 rearrangements. WT1 mutations were present in 5 of 14 cases, all erythroid/myeloid leukemia. Outcomes assessment revealed statistically poorer overall survival (5-year, 20% ± 36% vs 66% ± 23%; P = .004) and event-free survival (5-year, 20% ± 36% vs 46% ± 23%; P = .019) for those with PEL than those with erythroid/myeloid leukemia. Our study supports that AEL is a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous entity that is enriched in NUP98 fusions, with the pure erythroid subtype associated with particularly adverse outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002712

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

33284945

Title

Functional Properties of KIT Mutations are Associated with Differential Clinical Outcomes and Response to Targeted Therapeutics in CBF Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jun 10

ISSN Number

1078-0432

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong> mutations (+) are common in core binding factor (CBF) AML and have been associated with varying prognostic significance. We sought to define the functional and clinical significance of distinct mutations in CBF pediatric AML.</p>

<p><strong>EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: </strong>Following transfection of exon 17 (E17) and exon 8 (E8) mutations into HEK293 and Ba/F3 cells, KIT phosphorylation, cytokine independent growth, and response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes of patients treated on COG AAML0531 (NCT01407757), a phase III study of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), were analyzed according to mutation status (+ vs wild type (-)) and mutation location (E8 vs. E17).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong> mutations were detected in 63/205(31%) patients; 22 (35%) involved only E8, 32(51%) only E17, 6(10%) both exons, and 3(5%) alternative exons. Functional studies demonstrated that E17, but not E8, mutations result in aberrant KIT phosphorylation and growth. TKI exposure significantly impacted growth of E17, but not E8, transfected cells. + CBF AML patients had comparable overall survival (OS) to that of - (78%, vs. 81%, p=0.905) but higher relapse rates (RR 43% vs. 21%, p=0.005). E17 + outcomes were inferior to patients [disease free survival (DFS) 51% vs. 73%, p=0.027; RR 21% vs. 46%, p=0.007)] although GO abrogated this negative prognostic impact. E8 mutations lacked significant prognostic impact and GO failed to significantly improve outcome.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>E17 mutations impact prognosis in CBF AML, as well as response to GO and TKIs, thus clinical trials utilizing both agents should be considered for + patients.</p>

DOI

10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1897

Alternate Title

Clin. Cancer Res.

PMID

31182436

Title

ABCB1 SNP predicts outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with Gemtuzumab ozogamicin: a report from Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 Trial.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

51

Date Published

2019 May 21

ISSN Number

2044-5385

Abstract

<p>Gemtuzumab-ozogamicin (GO), a humanized-anti-CD33 antibody linked with the toxin-calicheamicin-γ is a reemerging and promising drug for AML. Calicheamicin a key element of GO, induces DNA-damage and cell-death once the linked CD33-antibody facilitates its uptake. Calicheamicin efflux by the drug-transporter PgP-1 have been implicated in GO response thus in this study, we evaluated impact of ABCB1-SNPs on GO response. Genomic-DNA samples from 942 patients randomized to receive standard therapy with or without addition of GO (COG-AAML0531) were genotyped for ABCB1-SNPs. Our most interesting results show that for rs1045642, patients with minor-T-allele (CT/TT) had better outcome as compared to patients with CC genotype in GO-arm (Event-free survival-EFS: p = 0.022; and risk of relapse-RR, p = 0.007). In contrast, no difference between genotypes was observed for any of the clinical endpoints within No-GO arm (all p &gt; 0.05). Consistent results were obtained when genotype groups were compared by GO and No-GO arms. The in vitro evaluation using HL60-cells further demonstrated consistent impact of rs1045642-T-allele on calicheamicin induced DNA-damage and cell-viability. Our results show the significance of ABCB1 SNPs on GO response in AML and warrants the need to investigate this in other cohorts. Once validated, ABCB1-SNPs in conjunction with CD33-SNPs can open up opportunities to personalize GO-therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41408-019-0211-y

Alternate Title

Blood Cancer J

PMID

31113932

Title

CD33 Splicing Polymorphism Determines Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Response in De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Report From Randomized Phase III Children's Oncology Group Trial AAML0531.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

JCO2016712513

Date Published

2017 Jun 23

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p>Purpose Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a CD33-targeted immunoconjugate, is a re-emerging therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 single nucleotide polymorphism rs12459419 C&gt;T in the splice enhancer region regulates the expression of an alternatively spliced CD33 isoform lacking exon2 (D2-CD33), thus eliminating the CD33 IgV domain, which is the antibody-binding site for GO, as well as diagnostic immunophenotypic panels. We aimed to determine the impact of the genotype of this splicing polymorphism in patients with AML treated with GO-containing chemotherapy. Patients and Methods CD33 splicing single nucleotide polymorphism was evaluated in newly diagnosed patients with AML randomly assigned to receive standard five-course chemotherapy alone (No-GO arm, n = 408) or chemotherapy with the addition of two doses of GO once during induction and once during intensification (GO arm, n = 408) as per the Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 trial. Results The rs12459419 genotype was CC in 415 patients (51%), CT in 316 patients (39%), and TT in 85 patients (10%), with a minor allele frequency of 30%. The T allele was significantly associated with higher levels of D2-CD33 transcript ( P &lt; 1.0E(-6)) and with lower diagnostic leukemic cell surface CD33 intensity ( P &lt; 1.0E(-6)). Patients with the CC genotype had significantly lower relapse risk in the GO arm than in the No-GO arm (26% v 49%; P &lt; .001). However, in patients with the CT or TT genotype, exposure to GO did not influence relapse risk (39% v 40%; P = .85). Disease-free survival was higher in patients with the CC genotype in the GO arm than in the No-GO arm (65% v 46%, respectively; P = .004), but this benefit of GO addition was not seen in patients with the CT or TT genotype. Conclusion Our results suggest that patients with the CC genotype for rs12459419 have a substantial response to GO, making this a potential biomarker for the selection of patients with a likelihood of significant response to GO.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2016.71.2513

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

28644774

Title

Genomic architecture and treatment outcome in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group report.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

3051-8

Date Published

2017 Jun

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

<p>Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently characterized by chromosomal instability. Approximately 50% of patients have disease relapse, and novel prognostic markers are needed to improve risk stratification. We performed genome-wide genotyping in 446 pediatric patients with de novo AML enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) studies, AAML0531 (NCT01407757), AAML03P1 (NCT00070174), and CCG2961 (NCT00003790). Affymetrix and Illumina Omni 2.5 platforms were used to evaluate copy number alterations (CNAs) and determine their associations with treatment outcome. Data from Affymetrix and Illumina studies were jointly analyzed with ASCAT and GISTIC software. An average of 1.14 somatically acquired CNAs per patient were observed. Novel reoccurring altered genomic regions were identified, and the presence of CNAs was found to be associated with decreased 3-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and relapse risk from the end of induction I (HR 1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.4, HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-1.8, and HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0, respectively). Analyses by risk group demonstrated decreased OS and EFS in the standard risk group only (HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.3, and HR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.6, respectively). Further studies are required to test the prognostic significant of CNA presence in disease relapse in AML patients.</p>

DOI

10.1182/blood-2017-03-772384

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

28411282

Title

Association between Prolonged Neutropenia and Reduced Relapse Risk in Pediatric AML: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Jun 16

ISSN Number

1097-0215

Abstract

<p>Objective was to describe the relationship between the number of sterile site infections and duration of neutropenia during the first four cycles of chemotherapy and the risk of recurrence and overall survival. AAML0531 was a Children's Oncology Group (COG) randomized phase 3 clinical trial that included 1022 children with de novo AML. For this analysis, we focused on non-Down syndrome favorable and standard risk patients who completed at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy without recurrence or withdrawal during protocol therapy. Those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission were excluded. 569 patients were included; 274 (48.2%) were favorable risk. The median cumulative time with neutropenia between Induction II to completion of Intensification II was 96 (range 54-204) days. Number of sterile site infections did not influence the risk of relapse or overall survival. However, longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio 0.81 per 20 days neutropenia, P=0.007). Longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a reduced risk of relapse for children with favorable and standard risk AML. Toxicity may be influenced by pharmacogenomics suggesting that individualized chemotherapy dosing may be an effective strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>

DOI

10.1002/ijc.30236

Alternate Title

Int. J. Cancer

PMID

27312107

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.