First name
Susan
Middle name
E
Last name
Coffin

Title

SafeHANDS: A Multimodal Hand Hygiene Intervention in a Resource-Limited Neonatal Unit.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

2414-6366

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a cornerstone of programmes to prevent healthcare associated infections (HAI) globally, but HH interventions are seldom reported from African neonatal units.

METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of a multi-modal intervention (SafeHANDS) on HH compliance rates, alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) usage, the Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) score, and healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (HA-BSI) rates at a 132-bed South African neonatal unit (4 wards and 1 neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). The intervention included a campaign logo, HH training, maternal education leaflets, ABHR bottles for staff, and the setting of HH performance targets with feedback. Three 5-month study phases were completed in July 2020 (baseline), December 2020 (early) and May 2021 (intensive).

RESULTS: A total of 2430 HH opportunities were observed: 1002 (41.3%) at baseline, 630 (25.9%) at early and 798 (32.8%) at intensive study phases. At baseline, the overall neonatal unit HH compliance rate was 61.6%, ABHR use was 70 mL/patient day, and the baseline HHSAF score was 'basic' (165). The overall neonatal unit HH compliance rate was unchanged from baseline to intensive phases (617/1002 [61.6%] vs. 497/798 [62.3%]; = 0.797). The ABHR use remained similar between phases (70 versus 73 mL/patient day). The HHSAF score improved to 'intermediate' level (262). There was no change in the neonatal unit HA-BSI rate.

CONCLUSION: Despite improvement in the HHSAF score, no improvement in overall HH compliance rates, ABHR usage, or HA-BSI rates was observed. Future HH interventions in resource-limited neonatal units should incorporate implementation science and behaviour modification strategies to better understand the barriers and facilitators of HH best practice.

DOI

10.3390/tropicalmed8010027

Alternate Title

Trop Med Infect Dis

PMID

36668933

Title

Association of Diagnostic Stewardship for Blood Cultures in Critically Ill Children With Culture Rates, Antibiotic Use, and Patient Outcomes: Results of the Bright STAR Collaborative.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

690-698

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

Importance: Blood culture overuse in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to unnecessary antibiotic use and contribute to antibiotic resistance. Optimizing blood culture practices through diagnostic stewardship may reduce unnecessary blood cultures and antibiotics.

Objective: To evaluate the association of a 14-site multidisciplinary PICU blood culture collaborative with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective quality improvement (QI) collaborative involved 14 PICUs across the United States from 2017 to 2020 for the Bright STAR (Testing Stewardship for Antibiotic Reduction) collaborative. Data were collected from each participating PICU and from the Children's Hospital Association Pediatric Health Information System for prespecified primary and secondary outcomes.

Exposures: A local QI program focusing on blood culture practices in the PICU (facilitated by a larger QI collaborative).

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was blood culture rates (per 1000 patient-days/mo). Secondary outcomes included broad-spectrum antibiotic use (total days of therapy and new initiations of broad-spectrum antibiotics ≥3 days after PICU admission) and PICU rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), Clostridioides difficile infection, mortality, readmission, length of stay, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock.

Results: Across the 14 PICUs, the blood culture rate was 149.4 per 1000 patient-days/mo preimplementation and 100.5 per 1000 patient-days/mo postimplementation, for a 33% relative reduction (95% CI, 26%-39%). Comparing the periods before and after implementation, the rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use decreased from 506 days to 440 days per 1000 patient-days/mo, respectively, a 13% relative reduction (95% CI, 7%-19%). The broad-spectrum antibiotic initiation rate decreased from 58.1 to 53.6 initiations/1000 patient-days/mo, an 8% relative reduction (95% CI, 4%-11%). Rates of CLABSI decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 per 1000 central venous line days/mo, a 36% relative reduction (95% CI, 20%-49%). Mortality, length of stay, readmission, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock were similar before and after implementation.

Conclusions and Relevance: Multidisciplinary diagnostic stewardship interventions can reduce blood culture and antibiotic use in the PICU. Future work will determine optimal strategies for wider-scale dissemination of diagnostic stewardship in this setting while monitoring patient safety and balancing measures.

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1024

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

35499841

Title

Dodging the bundle-Persistent healthcare-associated rhinovirus infection throughout the pandemic.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1140-1144

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1527-3296

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated viral infections (HAVI) are a common cause of patient harm in the pediatric population. We implemented a HAVI prevention bundle in 2015, which included 6 core elements: caregiver screening, symptom-based isolation, personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, staff illness procedures, and monitoring of environmental cleanliness. Enhanced bundle elements were introduced at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, which provided an opportunity to observe the effectiveness of the bundle with optimal adherence to prevention practices, and to measure the impact on respiratory HAVI epidemiology.

METHODS: Respiratory HAVIs were confirmed through review of medical records and application of the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criteria for upper respiratory infections (URIs) with predetermined incubation periods for unit attribution. Descriptive statistics of the study population were examined, and comparative analyses were performed on demographic and process metrics. Data analysis was conducted using R statistical software.

RESULTS: We observed an overall decrease in respiratory HAVI of 68%, with prepandemic rates of 0.19 infections per 1,000 patient significantly decreased to a rate of 0.06 per 1,000 patient days in the pandemic period (P < .01). Rhinovirus made up proportionally more of our respiratory HAVI in the pandemic period (64% vs 53%), with respiratory HAVI secondary only to rhinovirus identified during 8 of 16 months in the pandemic period. Compliance with our HAVI prevention bundle significantly improved during pandemic period.

CONCLUSIONS: Enhancement of our HAVI bundle during the COVID-19 pandemic contributed toward significant reduction in nosocomial transmission of respiratory HAVI. Even with prevention practices optimized, respiratory HAVIs secondary to rhinovirus continued to be reported, likely due to the capacity of rhinovirus to evade bundle elements in hospital, and infection prevention efforts at large in the community, leaving vulnerable patients at continued risk.

DOI

10.1016/j.ajic.2022.04.016

Alternate Title

Am J Infect Control

PMID

35588914

Title

The power of feedback: Implementing a comprehensive hand hygiene observer program.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1527-3296

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a fundamental component of infection prevention within all healthcare settings. We implemented a hospital-wide program built on overt HH observation, real-time feedback, and thematic analysis of HH misses.

METHODS: A robust observer training program was established to include foundational training in the WHO's My Five Moments of HH. Observational data from 2011 to 2019 were analyzed by unit, provider type, and thematic analyses of misses.

RESULTS: During the study period, we conducted 160,917 hospital-wide observations on 29 units (monthly average of 1,490 observations). Institutional compliance remained above 95% from 2013 to 2019. Thematic analysis revealed "touching self" and "touching phone" as common, institution-wide reasons for HH misses.

DISCUSSION: Overt observations facilitated communication between HH program and healthcare staff to better understand workflow and educate staff on HH opportunities. This program is an integral part of the Infection Prevention team and has been deployed to collect supplemental data during clusters and outbreaks investigations.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to having rich HH data, successes of this program, include increased awareness of IPC practices, enhanced communication about patient safety, enriched dialog and feedback around HH misses, and relationship building among program observers, unit staff and leaders.

DOI

10.1016/j.ajic.2022.06.003

Alternate Title

Am J Infect Control

PMID

35691447

Title

Association of Diagnostic Stewardship for Blood Cultures in Critically Ill Children With Culture Rates, Antibiotic Use, and Patient Outcomes: Results of the Bright STAR Collaborative.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

690-698

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

Importance: Blood culture overuse in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to unnecessary antibiotic use and contribute to antibiotic resistance. Optimizing blood culture practices through diagnostic stewardship may reduce unnecessary blood cultures and antibiotics.

Objective: To evaluate the association of a 14-site multidisciplinary PICU blood culture collaborative with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective quality improvement (QI) collaborative involved 14 PICUs across the United States from 2017 to 2020 for the Bright STAR (Testing Stewardship for Antibiotic Reduction) collaborative. Data were collected from each participating PICU and from the Children's Hospital Association Pediatric Health Information System for prespecified primary and secondary outcomes.

Exposures: A local QI program focusing on blood culture practices in the PICU (facilitated by a larger QI collaborative).

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was blood culture rates (per 1000 patient-days/mo). Secondary outcomes included broad-spectrum antibiotic use (total days of therapy and new initiations of broad-spectrum antibiotics ≥3 days after PICU admission) and PICU rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), Clostridioides difficile infection, mortality, readmission, length of stay, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock.

Results: Across the 14 PICUs, the blood culture rate was 149.4 per 1000 patient-days/mo preimplementation and 100.5 per 1000 patient-days/mo postimplementation, for a 33% relative reduction (95% CI, 26%-39%). Comparing the periods before and after implementation, the rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use decreased from 506 days to 440 days per 1000 patient-days/mo, respectively, a 13% relative reduction (95% CI, 7%-19%). The broad-spectrum antibiotic initiation rate decreased from 58.1 to 53.6 initiations/1000 patient-days/mo, an 8% relative reduction (95% CI, 4%-11%). Rates of CLABSI decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 per 1000 central venous line days/mo, a 36% relative reduction (95% CI, 20%-49%). Mortality, length of stay, readmission, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock were similar before and after implementation.

Conclusions and Relevance: Multidisciplinary diagnostic stewardship interventions can reduce blood culture and antibiotic use in the PICU. Future work will determine optimal strategies for wider-scale dissemination of diagnostic stewardship in this setting while monitoring patient safety and balancing measures.

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1024

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

35499841

Title

The effect of a hospital-wide urine culture screening intervention on the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.

Year of Publication

2013

Number of Pages

1160-6

Date Published

2013 Nov

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Optimal strategies for limiting the transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp (ESBL-EK) in the hospital setting remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a urine culture screening strategy on the incidence of ESBL-EK.

DESIGN: Prospective quasi-experimental study.

SETTING: Two intervention hospitals and one control hospital within a university health system from 2005 to 2009.

PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: All clinical urine cultures with E. coli or Klebsiella spp were screened for ESBL-EK. Patients determined to be colonized or infected with ESBL-EK were placed in a private room with contact precautions. The primary outcome of interest was nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence in nonurinary clinical cultures (cases occurring more than 48 hours after admission). Changes in monthly ESBL-EK incidence rates were evaluated with mixed-effects Poisson regression models, with adjustment for institution-level characteristics (eg, total admissions).

RESULTS: The overall incidence of ESBL-EK increased from 1.42/10,000 patient-days to 2.16/10,000 patient-days during the study period. The incidence of community-acquired ESBL-EK increased nearly 3-fold, from 0.33/10,000 patient-days to 0.92/10,000 patient-days (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the intervention was not significantly associated with a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence (incidence rate ratio, 1.38 [95% confidence interval, 0.83-2.31]; P - .21).

CONCLUSIONS: Universal screening of clinical urine cultures for ESBL-EK did not result in a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence rates, most likely because of increases in importation of ESBL-EK cases from the community. Further studies are needed on elucidating optimal infection control interventions to limit spread of ESBL-producing organisms in the hospital setting.

DOI

10.1086/673453

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

24113599

Title

Risk factors for gastrointestinal tract colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in hospitalized patients.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

1242-5

Date Published

2012 Dec

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

We describe the prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of colonization with ESBL-EK was 2.6%. Colonization was associated with cirrhosis, longer duration of hospital stay prior to surveillance, and prior exposure to clindamycin or meropenem.

DOI

10.1086/668443

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

23143363

Title

The Effectiveness Of Government Masking Mandates On COVID-19 County-Level Case Incidence Across The United States, 2020.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

101377hlthaff202101072

Date Published

2022 Feb 16

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>Evidence for the effectiveness of masking on SARS-CoV-2 transmission at the individual level has accumulated, but the additional benefit of community-level mandates is less certain. In this observational study of matched cohorts from 394 US counties between March 21 and October 20, 2020, we estimated the association between county-level public masking mandates and daily COVID-19 case incidence. On average, the daily case incidence per 100,000 people in masked counties compared with unmasked counties declined by 23&nbsp;percent at four weeks, 33&nbsp;percent at six weeks, and 16&nbsp;percent across six weeks postintervention. The beneficial effect varied across regions of different population densities and political leanings. The most concentrated effects of masking mandates were seen in urban counties; the benefit of the mandates was potentially stronger within Republican-leaning counties. Although benefits were not equally distributed in all regions, masking mandates conferred benefit in reducing community case incidence during an early period of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01072

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

35171693

Title

Comparison of Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention and Control Activities and Resources Between Low-/Middle- and High-income Countries.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

S3-S9

Date Published

2022 Mar 01

ISSN Number

1532-0987

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The growth of antimicrobial resistance worldwide has led to increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, although primarily in high-income countries (HIC). We aimed to compare pediatric AMS and IPC resources/activities between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and HIC and to determine the barriers and priorities for AMS and IPC in LMIC as assessed by clinicians in those settings.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>An online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians working in HIC and LMIC healthcare facilities in 2020.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Participants were from 135 healthcare settings in 39 LMIC and 27 HIC. Formal AMS and IPC programs were less frequent in LMIC than HIC settings (AMS 42% versus 76% and IPC 58% versus 89%). Only 47% of LMIC facilities conducted audits of antibiotic use for pediatric patients, with less reliable availability of World Health Organization Access list antibiotics (29% of LMIC facilities). Hand hygiene promotion was the most common IPC intervention in both LMIC and HIC settings (82% versus 91%), although LMIC hospitals had more limited access to reliable water supply for handwashing and antiseptic hand rub. The greatest perceived barrier to pediatric AMS and IPC in both LMIC and HIC was lack of education: only 17% of LMIC settings had regular/required education on antimicrobial prescribing and only 25% on IPC.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Marked differences exist in availability of AMS and IPC resources in LMIC as compared with HIC. A collaborative international approach is urgently needed to combat antimicrobial resistance, using targeted strategies that address the imbalance in global AMS and IPC resource availability and activities.</p>

DOI

10.1097/INF.0000000000003318

Alternate Title

Pediatr Infect Dis J

PMID

35134034

Title

Implementation of the Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program to Improve Infection Prevention and Control Practices in Four Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Pune, India.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

794637

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2296-2360

Abstract

<p>To implement the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) in four neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Pune, India, to improve infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. In this quasi-experimental study, we implemented CUSP in four NICUs in Pune, India, to improve IPC practices in three focus areas: hand hygiene, aseptic technique for invasive procedures, and medication and intravenous fluid preparation and administration. Sites received training in CUSP methodology, formed multidisciplinary teams, and selected interventions for each focus area. Process measures included fidelity to CUSP, hand hygiene compliance, and central line insertion checklist completion. Outcome measures included the rate of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (HA-BSI), all-cause mortality, patient safety culture, and workload. A total of 144 healthcare workers and administrators completed CUSP training. All sites conducted at least 75% of monthly meetings. Hand hygiene compliance odds increased 6% per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.06 (95% CI 1.03-1.10)]. Providers completed insertion checklists for 68% of neonates with a central line; 83% of checklists were fully completed. All-cause mortality and HA-BSI rate did not change significantly after CUSP implementation. Patient safety culture domains with greatest improvement were management support for patient safety (+7.6%), teamwork within units (+5.3%), and organizational learning-continuous improvement (+4.7%). Overall workload increased from a mean score of 46.28 ± 16.97 at baseline to 65.07 ± 19.05 at follow-up ( &lt; 0.0001). CUSP implementation increased hand hygiene compliance, successful implementation of a central line insertion checklist, and improvements in safety culture in four Indian NICUs. This multimodal strategy is a promising framework for low- and middle-income country healthcare facilities to reduce HAI risk in neonates.</p>

DOI

10.3389/fped.2021.794637

Alternate Title

Front Pediatr

PMID

35071137

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