First name
Kathleen
Last name
Chiotos

Title

Mixed-methods process evaluation of a respiratory-culture diagnostic stewardship intervention.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

1-9

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a process evaluation of a respiratory culture diagnostic stewardship intervention.

DESIGN: Mixed-methods study.

SETTING: Tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

PARTICIPANTS: Critical care, infectious diseases, and pulmonary attending physicians and fellows; PICU nurse practitioners and hospitalist physicians; pediatric residents; and PICU nurses and respiratory therapists.

METHODS: This mixed-methods study was conducted concurrently with a diagnostic stewardship intervention to reduce the inappropriate collection of respiratory cultures in mechanically ventilated children. We quantified baseline respiratory culture utilization and indications for ordering using quantitative methods. Semistructured interviews informed by these data and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) were then performed, recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify salient themes. Finally, themes identified in these interviews were used to create a cross-sectional survey.

RESULTS: The number of cultures collected per day of service varied between attending physicians (range, 2.2-27 cultures per 100 days). In total, 14 interviews were performed, and 87 clinicians completed the survey (response rate, 47%) and 77 nurses or respiratory therapists completed the survey (response rate, 17%). Clinicians varied in their stated practices regarding culture ordering, and these differences both clustered by specialty and were associated with perceived utility of the respiratory culture. Furthermore, group "default" practices, fear, and hierarchy were drivers of culture orders. Barriers to standardization included fear of a missed diagnosis and tension between practice standardization and individual decision making.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant variation in utilization and perceptions of respiratory cultures as well as several key barriers to implementation of this diagnostic test stewardship intervention.

DOI

10.1017/ice.2022.299

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

36594433

Title

Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Hospitalized Children With Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Multisystem Inflammatory Condition: An Analysis of the VIRUS COVID-19 Registry.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

751-758

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1532-0987

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Describe the incidence and associated outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in hospitalized children (MIS-C).

METHODS: Retrospective review of the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry, a prospective observational, multicenter international cohort study of hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C from March 2020 to November 2020. The primary outcome measure was critical COVID-19 illness. Multivariable models were performed to assess for associations of GI involvement with the primary composite outcome in the entire cohort and a subpopulation of patients with MIS-C. Secondary outcomes included prolonged hospital length of stay defined as being >75th percentile and mortality.

RESULTS: Of the 789 patients, GI involvement was present in 500 (63.3%). Critical illness occurred in 392 (49.6%), and 18 (2.3%) died. Those with GI involvement were older (median age of 8 yr), and 18.2% had an underlying GI comorbidity. GI symptoms and liver derangements were more common among patients with MIS-C. In the adjusted multivariable models, acute COVID-19 was no associated with the primary or secondary outcomes. Similarly, despite the preponderance of GI involvement in patients with MIS-C, it was also not associated with the primary or secondary outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: GI involvement is common in hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. GI involvement is not associated with critical illness, hospital length of stay or mortality in acute COVID-19 or MIS-C.

DOI

10.1097/INF.0000000000003589

Alternate Title

Pediatr Infect Dis J

PMID

35622434

Title

Early combination therapy with immunoglobulin and steroids is associated with shorter ICU length of stay in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort analysis from 28 U.S. Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

529-539

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1875-9114

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Suggested therapeutic options for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) include intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and steroids. Prior studies have shown the benefit of combination therapy with both agents on fever control or the resolution of organ dysfunction. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the impact of IVIG and steroids on hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) in patients with MIS-C associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study on 356 hospitalized patients with MIS-C from March 2020 to September 2021 (28 sites in the United States) in the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 Registry. The effect of IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission, alone or in combination, on LOS was analyzed. Adjustment for confounders was made by multivariable mixed regression with a random intercept for the site.

RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 8.8 (Interquartile range (IQR) 4.0, 13) years. 247/356 (69%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission during hospitalization. Overall hospital mortality was 2% (7/356). Of the total patients, 153 (43%) received IVIG and steroids, 33 (9%) received IVIG only, 43 (12%) received steroids only, and 127 (36%) received neither within 2 days of admission. After adjustment of confounders, only combination therapy showed a significant decrease of ICU LOS by 1.6 days compared to no therapy (exponentiated coefficient 0.71 [95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.97, p = 0.03]). No significant difference was observed in hospital LOS or the secondary outcome variable of the normalization of inflammatory mediators by Day 3.

CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission favorably impacts ICU but not the overall hospital LOS in children with MIS-C.

DOI

10.1002/phar.2709

Alternate Title

Pharmacotherapy

PMID

35661394

Title

Maternal Vaccination and Risk of Hospitalization for Covid-19 among Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

109-119

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1533-4406

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants.

METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022).

RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

DOI

10.1056/NEJMoa2204399

Alternate Title

N Engl J Med

PMID

35731908

Title

Comparison of tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in the microbiological diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

2405-2410

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1099-0496

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bacterial cultures from tracheal aspirates (TA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens can be used to assess patients with artificial airways for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). TA collection may be advantageous in situations of limited resources or critical illness. Literature comparing these diagnostic modalities in pediatric populations is scarce.

METHODS: Single-center, retrospective analysis of 52 pediatric patients with an artificial airway undergoing evaluation for LRTI. All patients had a TA specimen collected for semiquantitative Gram stain and culture followed by BAL within 48 h. Microbiologic diagnosis of LRTI was defined as a BAL sample with >25% neutrophils and growth of >10 colony-forming units/ml of one or more bacterial species. The test characteristics of TA were compared with these BAL results as the reference standard. Concordance in microorganism identification was also assessed.

RESULTS: Overall, 24 patients (47%) met criteria for LRTI using BAL as the diagnostic standard. TA samples positive for an isolated organism had poor sensitivity for acute LRTI when compared with BAL, regardless of semiquantitative white blood cell (WBC) count by Gram stain. Using a TA diagnostic threshold of organism growth and at least "moderate" WBC yielded a specificity of 93%. Positive predictive value was highest when an organism was identified by TA. Negative predictive value was >70% for TA samples with no WBC by semiquantitative analysis, with or without growth of an organism. Complete concordance of cultured species was 58% for all patients, with a higher rate seen among those with endotracheal tubes.

CONCLUSIONS: The role of cultures obtained by TA remains limited for the diagnosis of acute LRTI as demonstrated by the poor correlation to BAL results within our cohort. Optimal strategies for diagnosing LRTI across patient populations and airway types remain elusive.

DOI

10.1002/ppul.26049

Alternate Title

Pediatr Pulmonol

PMID

35781810

Title

Development of an Electronic Algorithm to Target Outpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Efforts for Acute Bronchitis and Pharyngitis.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

ofac273

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2328-8957

Abstract

Background: A major challenge for antibiotic stewardship programs is the lack of accurate and accessible electronic data to target interventions. We developed and validated separate electronic algorithms to identify inappropriate antibiotic use for adult outpatients with bronchitis and pharyngitis.

Methods: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, diagnostic codes to identify patient encounters for acute bronchitis and pharyngitis at outpatient practices between 3/15/17 and 3/14/18. Exclusion criteria included immunocompromising conditions, complex chronic conditions, and concurrent infections. We randomly selected 300 eligible subjects each with bronchitis and pharyngitis. Inappropriate antibiotic use based on chart review served as the gold standard for assessment of the electronic algorithm, which was constructed using only data in the electronic data warehouse. Criteria for appropriate prescribing, choice of antibiotic, and duration were based on established guidelines.

Results: Of 300 subjects with bronchitis, 167 (55.7%) received an antibiotic inappropriately based on chart review. The electronic algorithm demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 95.3% specificity for detection of inappropriate prescribing. Of 300 subjects with pharyngitis, 94 (31.3%) had an incorrect prescribing decision. Among 29 subjects with a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test, 27 (93.1%) received an appropriate antibiotic and 29 (100%) received the correct duration. The electronic algorithm demonstrated very high sensitivity and specificity for all outcomes.

Conclusions: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for bronchitis and pharyngitis is common. Electronic algorithms for identifying inappropriate prescribing, antibiotic choice, and duration showed excellent test characteristics. These algorithms could be used to efficiently assess prescribing among practices and individual clinicians. Interventions based on these algorithms should be tested in future work.

DOI

10.1093/ofid/ofac273

Alternate Title

Open Forum Infect Dis

PMID

35854991

Title

Antibiotic indications and appropriateness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a ten-center point prevalence study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are prescribed to most pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients, but data evaluating indications and appropriateness of antibiotic orders in this population are lacking.

METHODS: We performed a multicenter point prevalence study including children admitted to 10 geographically diverse PICUs over four study days in 2019. Antibiotic orders were reviewed for indication, and appropriateness was assessed using a standardized rubric.

RESULTS: Of 1462 patients admitted to participating PICUs, 843 (58%) had at least one antibiotic order. A total of 1277 antibiotic orders were reviewed. Common indications were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infections without sepsis or septic shock (260 orders, 21%), non-operative prophylaxis (164 orders, 13%), empiric therapy for sepsis or septic shock (155 orders, 12%), community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (118 orders, 9%), and post-operative prophylaxis (94 orders, 8%). Appropriateness was assessed for 985 orders for which an evidence-based rubric for appropriateness could be created. Of these, 331 (34%) were classified as inappropriate. Indications with the most orders classified as inappropriate were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infection without sepsis or septic shock (78 orders, 24%), sepsis or septic shock (55 orders, 17%), CAP (51 orders, 15%), ventilator-associated infections (47 orders, 14%), and post-operative prophylaxis (44 orders, 14%). The proportion of antibiotics classified as inappropriate varied across institutions (range: 19%-43%).

CONCLUSIONS: Most PICU patients receive antibiotics, and based on our study, we estimate that one-third of antibiotic orders are inappropriate. Improved antibiotic stewardship and research focused on strategies to optimize antibiotic use in critically ill children are needed.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac698

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

36048543

Title

Administration of a β-lactam Prior to Vancomycin as the First Dose of Antibiotic Therapy Improves Survival in Patients with Bloodstream Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 04

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy improves the survival of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI). We sought to determine if the sequence of administration of the first dose of antibiotic therapy (i.e., β-lactam or vancomycin, if both cannot be administered simultaneously) impacts early mortality for patients with BSI.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational study of patients ≥13 years with BSIs to evaluate the association of the sequence of antibiotic administration with 7-day mortality using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) incorporating propensity scores. Propensity scores were generated based on: demographics, Pitt bacteremia score, ICU status, highest lactate, highest WBC count, Charlson Comorbidity index, severe immunocompromise, administration of active empiric therapy, combination therapy, and time from emergency department arrival to first antibiotic dose.

RESULTS: Of 3,376 eligible patients, 2,685 (79.5%) received a β-lactam and 691 (20.5%) received vancomycin as their initial antibiotic. In the IPTW cohort, exposed and unexposed patients were similar on all baseline variables. Administration of a β-lactam agent prior to vancomycin protected against 7-day mortality (aOR 0.48 (95% CI: 0.33-0.69)]. Similar results were observed when evaluating 48-hour mortality (aOR 0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.83]). Administration of vancomycin prior to a β-lactam was not associated with improved survival in the subgroup of 524 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BSI (aOR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.33-2.63]).

CONCLUSIONS: For ill-appearing patients likely to be experiencing a BSI, prioritizing administration of a β-lactam over vancomycin may reduce early mortality, underscoring the significant impact of a relatively simple practice change on improving patient survival.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciab865

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

34606585

Title

BNT162b2 Protection against the Omicron Variant in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 30

ISSN Number

1533-4406

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant, which led to increased U.S. hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines in children and adolescents.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using a case-control, test-negative design, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 leading to hospitalization and against critical Covid-19 (i.e., leading to receipt of life support or to death). From July 1, 2021, to February 17, 2022, we enrolled case patients with Covid-19 and controls without Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine) at least 14 days before illness among case patients and controls, according to time since vaccination for patients 12 to 18 years of age and in periods coinciding with circulation of B.1.617.2 (delta) (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and omicron (December 19, 2021, to February 17, 2022) among patients 5 to 11 and 12 to 18 years of age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We enrolled 1185 case patients (1043 [88%] of whom were unvaccinated, 291 [25%] of whom received life support, and 14 of whom died) and 1627 controls. During the delta-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 95) 2 to 22 weeks after vaccination and was 92% (95% CI, 80 to 97) at 23 to 44 weeks. Among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (median interval since vaccination, 162 days) during the omicron-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI, 9 to 60) against hospitalization for Covid-19, 79% (95% CI, 51 to 91) against critical Covid-19, and 20% (95% CI, -25 to 49) against noncritical Covid-19. During the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age was 68% (95% CI, 42 to 82; median interval since vaccination, 34 days).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risk of omicron-associated hospitalization by two thirds among children 5 to 11 years of age. Although two doses provided lower protection against omicron-associated hospitalization than against delta-associated hospitalization among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age, vaccination prevented critical illness caused by either variant. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).</p>

DOI

10.1056/NEJMoa2202826

Alternate Title

N Engl J Med

PMID

35353976

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