First name
Karen
Last name
Glanz

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 25

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2-4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Associations of Neighborhood Safety and Collective Efficacy with Dietary Intake among Preschool-Aged Children and Mothers.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 05

ISSN Number

2153-2176

Abstract

<p>Positive neighborhood environments may promote healthier behaviors, yet few studies have examined associations between neighborhood social environment and diet. We examined associations of neighborhood perceived safety, collective efficacy, and violent crime with dietary intake among preschool-aged children and their mothers. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2- to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Mothers reported their own and their child's dietary intake using the validated Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Mixed-effects linear regression models assessed associations of perceived neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and census tract-level violent crime with parent and child dietary intake, adjusted for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Among mothers, higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with higher daily intake of fruits/vegetables (β = 0.35 cups, 95% CI: 0.12-0.58 and β = 0.30 cups, 95% CI: 0.08-0.52, comparing the highest with lowest tertile). Higher neighborhood-perceived safety was also associated with higher whole-grain intake among mothers (β = 0.14 ounces, 95% CI: 0.02-0.27) and children (β = 0.07 ounces, 95% CI: 0.01-0.13, comparing the highest with lowest tertile). Neighborhood social exposures were not associated with intake of added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverages for mothers or children, nor were lower levels of violent crime associated with any outcome. More favorable perceptions of neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with a slightly higher consumption of some healthy foods among mothers and their young children. Future prospective research is needed to confirm these findings, explore potential mechanisms, and determine whether intervening on the social environment improves diet.</p>

DOI

10.1089/chi.2021.0144

Alternate Title

Child Obes

PMID

34613834

Title

Psychosocial assessments for HIV+ African adolescents: establishing construct validity and exploring under-appreciated correlates of adherence.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

e109302

Date Published

2014

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p><strong>STUDY OBJECTIVES: </strong>Psychosocial factors such as outcome expectancy, perceived stigma, socio-emotional support, consideration of future consequences, and psychological reactance likely influence adolescent adherence to antiretroviral treatments. Culturally-adapted and validated tools for measuring these factors in African adolescents are lacking. We aimed to identify culturally-specific factors of importance to establishing local construct validity in Botswana.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using in-depth interviews of 34 HIV+ adolescents, we explored how the psychosocial factors listed above are perceived in this cultural context. We evaluated six scales that have been validated in other contexts. We also probed for additional factors that the adolescents considered important to their HIV medication adherence. Analyses were conducted with an analytic framework approach using NVivo9 software.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>While the construct validity of some Western-derived assessment tools was confirmed, other tools were poorly representative of their constructs in this cultural context. Tools chosen to evaluate HIV-related outcome expectancy and perceived stigma were well-understood and relevant to the adolescents. Feedback from the adolescents suggested that tools to measure all other constructs need major modifications to obtain construct validity in Botswana. The scale regarding future consequences was poorly understood and contained several items that lacked relevance for the Batswana adolescents. They thought psychological reactance played an important role in adherence, but did not relate well to many components of the reactance scale. Measurement of socio-emotional support needs to focus on the adolescent-parent relationship, rather than peer-support in this cultural context. Denial of being HIV-infected was an unexpectedly common theme. Ambivalence about taking medicines was also expressed.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>In-depth interviews of Batswana adolescents confirmed the construct validity of some Western-developed psychosocial assessment tools, but demonstrated limitations in others. Previously underappreciated factors related to HIV medication adherence, such as denial and ambivalence, should be further explored.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0109302

Alternate Title

PLoS ONE

PMID

25279938

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