First name
Julia
Middle name
S
Last name
Sammons

Title

The power of feedback: Implementing a comprehensive hand hygiene observer program.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1527-3296

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a fundamental component of infection prevention within all healthcare settings. We implemented a hospital-wide program built on overt HH observation, real-time feedback, and thematic analysis of HH misses.

METHODS: A robust observer training program was established to include foundational training in the WHO's My Five Moments of HH. Observational data from 2011 to 2019 were analyzed by unit, provider type, and thematic analyses of misses.

RESULTS: During the study period, we conducted 160,917 hospital-wide observations on 29 units (monthly average of 1,490 observations). Institutional compliance remained above 95% from 2013 to 2019. Thematic analysis revealed "touching self" and "touching phone" as common, institution-wide reasons for HH misses.

DISCUSSION: Overt observations facilitated communication between HH program and healthcare staff to better understand workflow and educate staff on HH opportunities. This program is an integral part of the Infection Prevention team and has been deployed to collect supplemental data during clusters and outbreaks investigations.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to having rich HH data, successes of this program, include increased awareness of IPC practices, enhanced communication about patient safety, enriched dialog and feedback around HH misses, and relationship building among program observers, unit staff and leaders.

DOI

10.1016/j.ajic.2022.06.003

Alternate Title

Am J Infect Control

PMID

35691447

Title

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Viral Infections in Children.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 27

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Healthcare-associated viral infections (HA-VIs) are common in hospitalized children and are increasingly recognized as a cause of preventable harm; however, the epidemiology and modifiable risk factors for pediatric HA-VIs are poorly understood.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective case-control study to identify risk factors and outcomes associated with pediatric HA-VIs at a quaternary care children's hospital. HA-VI surveillance was performed hospital-wide using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. We abstracted data from the electronic medical record and conducted semi-structured interviews with patient caregivers to identify potential exposures 4 days before the HA-VI onset.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During the 20-month study period, we identified 143 eligible patients with HA-VIs and enrolled 64 matched case-control pairs. In total, 79 viruses were identified among 64 case patients. During the exposure period, case, as compared with control, patients were more frequently exposed to a sick visitor (odds ratio = 5.19; P = .05). During the 7 days after the HA-VI onset, case, as compared with control, patients had a greater length of antibacterial therapy per patient-days (mean 411 vs 159) as well as greater days of antibacterial therapy per patient-days (mean 665 vs 247).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The results of this study show that exposure to a sick visitor is a potentially modifiable risk factor for pediatric HA-VIs. Hospitalized children with HA-VIs also have increased exposure to antibacterial agents when compared with matched controls. Our findings suggest that hospital policies may need to be revised, with emphasis on visitor screening and partnership with families, to reduce the incidence of pediatric HA-VIs during hospitalization.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab015

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34313773

Title

The Utility of Paired Upper and Lower COVID-19 Sampling in Patients with Artificial Airways.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1-8

Date Published

2021 May 10

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC recommended collection of a lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimen for SARS-CoV-2 testing in addition to the routinely recommended upper respiratory tract (URT) testing in mechanically ventilated patients. Significant operational challenges were noted at our institution using this approach. In this report, we describe our experience with routine collection of paired URT and LRT sample testing. Our results revealed a high concordance between the two sources, and that all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 were appropriately diagnosed with URT testing alone. There was no added benefit to LRT testing. Based on these findings, our institutional approach was therefore adjusted to sample the URT alone for most patients, with LRT sampling reserved for patients with ongoing clinical suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 after a negative URT test.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2021.222

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

33966664

Title

Implementation of a Mandatory Influenza Vaccine Policy: A 10-Year Experience.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 17

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been recommended for more than 30 years. In 2009, HCWs were designated as a priority group by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current HCW vaccination rates are 78% across all settings and reach approximately 92% among those employed in hospital settings. Over the last decade, it has become clear that mandatory vaccine policies result in maximal rates of HCW immunization.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this observational 10-year study, we describe the implementation of a mandatory influenza vaccination policy in a dedicated quaternary pediatric hospital setting by a multidisciplinary team. We analyzed 10 years of available data from deidentified occupational health records from 2009-2010 through the 2018-2019 influenza seasons. Descriptive statistics were performed using Stata v15 and Excel.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Sustained increases in HCW immunization rates above 99% were observed in the 10 years postimplementation, in addition to a reduction in exemption requests and healthcare-associated influenza. In the year of implementation, 145 (1.6%) HCWs were placed on temporary suspension for failure to receive the vaccine without documentation of an exemption, with 9 (0.06%) subsequently being terminated. Since then, between 0 and 3 HCWs are terminated yearly for failure to receive the vaccine.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Implementation of our mandatory influenza vaccination program succeeded in successfully increasing the proportion of immunized HCWs at a quaternary care children's hospital, reducing annual exemption requests with a small number of terminations secondary to vaccine refusal. Temporal trends suggest a positive impact on the safety of our patients.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciaa782

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

33372217

Title

The Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in a Pediatric Healthcare Network in the United States.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 19

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Understanding the prevalence and clinical presentation of COVID-19 in pediatric patients can help healthcare providers and systems prepare and respond to this emerging pandemic.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective case series of patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 across a pediatric healthcare network, including the clinical features and outcomes of those with positive test results.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 7,256 unique children tested for SARS-CoV-2, 424 (5.8%) tested positive. Patients 18-21 years of age had the highest test positive rate (11.2%) while those 1-5 years of age had the lowest (3.9%). By race, 10.6% (226/2132) of Black children tested positive vs. 3.3% (117/3592) of White children. Of those with an indication for testing, 21.1% (371/1756) of patients with reported exposures or clinical symptoms tested positive vs. 3.8% (53/1410) of those undergoing pre-procedural or pre-admission testing. Of the 424 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 182 (42.9%) had no comorbid medical conditions, 87 (20.5%) had asthma, 55 (13.0% had obesity, and 38 (9.0%) had mental health disorders. Overall, 52.1% had cough, 51.2% fever, and 14.6% shortness of breath. Seventy-seven (18.2%) SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were hospitalized, of which 24 (31.2%) required any respiratory support. SARS-CoV-2-targeted antiviral therapy was given to 9 patients, and immunomodulatory therapy to 18 patients. Twelve (2.8%) SARS-CoV-2 positive patients developed critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation and 2 patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Two patients died.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In this large cohort of pediatric patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, the rate of infection was low, but varied by testing indication. The majority of cases were mild, few children had critical illness, and two patients died.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa074

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32559282

Title

Novel risk factors for central-line associated bloodstream infections in critically ill children.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-6

Date Published

2019 Nov 05

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) cause morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. We examined novel and/or modifiable risk factors for CLABSI to identify new potential targets for infection prevention strategies.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This single-center retrospective matched case-control study of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients was conducted in a 60-bed PICU from April 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. Case patients were in the PICU, had a central venous catheter (CVC), and developed a CLABSI. Control patients were in the PICU for ≥2 days, had a CVC for ≥3 days, and did not develop a CLABSI. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 on age, number of complex chronic conditions, and hospital length of stay.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Overall, 72 CLABSIs were matched to 281 controls. Univariate analysis revealed 14 risk factors, and 4 remained significant in multivariable analysis: total number of central line accesses in the 3 days preceding CLABSI (80+ accesses: OR, 4.8; P = .01), acute behavioral health needs (OR, 3.2; P = .02), CVC duration &gt;7 days (8-14 days: OR, 4.2; P = .01; 15-29 days: OR, 9.8; P &lt; .01; 30-59 days: OR, 17.3; P &lt; .01; 60-89 days: OR, 39.8; P &lt; .01; 90+ days: OR, 4.9; P = .01), and hematologic/immunologic disease (OR, 1.5; P = .05).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Novel risk factors for CLABSI in PICU patients include acute behavioral health needs and &gt;80 CVC accesses in the 3 days before CLABSI. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce CLABSIs in this high-risk population.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2019.302

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

31685049

Title

Variability in antimicrobial use in pediatric ventilator-associated events.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-8

Date Published

2018 Nov 09

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess variability in antimicrobial use and associations with infection testing in pediatric ventilator-associated events (VAEs).</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Descriptive retrospective cohort with nested case-control study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), cardiac intensive care units (CICUs), and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 6 US hospitals.PatientsChildren≤18 years ventilated for≥1 calendar day.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We identified patients with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), pediatric VACs with antimicrobial use for≥4 days (AVACs), and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP, defined as pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test) according to previously proposed criteria.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 9,025 ventilated children, we identified 192 VAC cases, 43 in CICUs, 70 in PICUs, and 79 in NICUs. AVAC criteria were met in 79 VAC cases (41%) (58% CICU; 51% PICU; and 23% NICU), and varied by hospital (CICU, 20-67%; PICU, 0-70%; and NICU, 0-43%). Type and duration of AVAC antimicrobials varied by ICU type. AVAC cases in CICUs and PICUs received broad-spectrum antimicrobials more often than those in NICUs. Among AVAC cases, 39% had respiratory infection diagnostic testing performed; PVAP was identified in 15 VAC cases. Also, among AVAC cases, 73% had no associated positive respiratory or nonrespiratory diagnostic test.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antimicrobial use is common in pediatric VAC, with variability in spectrum and duration of antimicrobials within hospitals and across ICU types, while PVAP is uncommon. Prolonged antimicrobial use despite low rates of PVAP or positive laboratory testing for infection suggests that AVAC may provide a lever for antimicrobial stewardship programs to improve utilization.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2018.264

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

30409233

Title

Outbreak of Adenovirus in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Critical Importance of Equipment Cleaning During Inpatient Ophthalmologic Examinations.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Sep 01

ISSN Number

1549-4713

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Outbreaks of adenovirus in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can lead to widespread transmission and serious adverse outcomes. We describe the investigation, response, and successful containment of an adenovirus outbreak in a NICU associated with contaminated handheld ophthalmologic equipment used during retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Epidemiologic outbreak investigation.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>A total of 23 hospitalized neonates, as well as NICU staff and parents of affected infants.</p>

<p><strong>MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: </strong>Routine surveillance identified an adenovirus outbreak in a level IV NICU in August 2016. Epidemiologic investigation followed, including chart review, staff interviews, and observations. Cases were defined as hospital-acquired adenovirus identified from any clinical specimen (NICU patient or employee) or compatible illness in a family member. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial- and whole-genome sequencing assays were used for testing of clinical and environmental specimens.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 23 primary neonatal cases and 9 secondary cases (6 employees and 3 parents). All neonatal case-patients had respiratory symptoms. Of these, 5 developed pneumonia and 12 required increased respiratory support. Less than half (48%) had ocular symptoms. All neonatal case-patients (100%) had undergone a recent ophthalmologic examination, and 54% of neonates undergoing examinations developed adenovirus infection. All affected employees and parents had direct contact with infected neonates. Observations revealed inconsistent disinfection of bedside ophthalmologic equipment and limited glove use. Sampling of 2 handheld lenses and 2 indirect ophthalmoscopes revealed adenovirus serotype 3 DNA on each device. Sequence analysis of 16 neonatal cases, 2 employees, and 2 lenses showed that cases and equipment shared 100% identity across the entire adenovirus genome. Infection control interventions included strict hand hygiene, including glove use; isolation precautions; enhanced cleaning of lenses and ophthalmoscopes between all examinations; and staff furlough. We identified no cases of secondary transmission among neonates.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adenovirus outbreaks can result from use of contaminated ophthalmologic equipment. Even equipment that does not directly contact patients can facilitate indirect transmission. Patient-to-patient transmission can be prevented with strict infection control measures and equipment cleaning. Ophthalmologists performing inpatient examinations should take measures to avoid adenoviral spread from contaminated handheld equipment.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.07.008

Alternate Title

Ophthalmology

PMID

30180976

Title

Development of a novel prevention bundle for pediatric healthcare-associated viral infections.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-7

Date Published

2018 Jul 20

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To reduce the healthcare-associated viral infection (HAVI) rate to 0.70 infections or fewer per 1,000 patient days by developing and sustaining a comprehensive prevention bundle.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>A 546-bed quaternary-care children's hospital situated in a large urban area.PatientsInpatients with a confirmed HAVI were included. These HAVIs were identified through routine surveillance by infection preventionists and were confirmed using National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for upper respiratory infections (URIs), pneumonia, and gastroenteritis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Quality improvement (QI) methods and statistical process control (SPC) analyses were used in a retrospective observational analysis of HAVI data from July 2012 through June 2016.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In total, 436 HAVIs were identified during the QI initiative: 63% were URIs, 34% were gastrointestinal infections, and 2.5% were viral pneumonias. The most frequent pathogens were rhinovirus (n=171) and norovirus (n=83). Our SPC analysis of HAVI rate revealed a statistically significant reduction in March 2014 from a monthly average of 0.81 to 0.60 infections per 1,000 patient days. Among HAVIs with event reviews completed, 15% observed contact with a sick primary caregiver and 15% reported contact with a sick visitor. Patient outcomes identified included care escalation (37%), transfer to ICU (11%), and delayed discharge (19%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The iterative development, implementation, and refinement of targeted prevention practices was associated with a significant reduction in pediatric HAVI. These practices were ultimately formalized into a comprehensive prevention bundle and provide an important framework for both patient and systems-level interventions that can be applied year-round and across inpatient areas.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2018.149

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

30027857

Title

Factors Associated With Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Conditions in Six U.S. Hospitals: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Sep 13

ISSN Number

1529-7535

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>A newly proposed surveillance definition for ventilator-associated conditions among neonatal and pediatric patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among ventilated patients in cardiac ICU, neonatal ICU, and PICU. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective cohort.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Six U.S. hospitals PATIENTS:: Children less than or equal to 18 years old ventilated for greater than or equal to 1 day.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>None.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: </strong>We identified children with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions and matched them to children without ventilator-associated conditions. Medical records were reviewed for comorbidities and acute care factors. We used bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models to identify factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. We studied 192 pairs of ventilator-associated conditions cases and matched controls (113 in the PICU and cardiac ICU combined; 79 in the neonatal ICU). In the PICU/cardiac ICU, potential risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions included neuromuscular blockade (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.08-4.87), positive fluid balance (highest quartile compared with the lowest, odds ratio, 7.76; 95% CI, 2.10-28.6), and blood product use (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.70-3.28). Weaning from sedation (i.e., decreasing sedation) or interruption of sedation may be protective (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-1.11). In the neonatal ICU, potential risk factors included blood product use (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.02-8.78), neuromuscular blockade use (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI, 0.93-16.9), and recent surgical procedures (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 0.77-6.28). Weaning or interrupting sedation was protective (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.79).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In mechanically ventilated neonates and children, we identified several possible risk factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. Next steps include studying propensity-matched cohorts and prospectively testing whether changes in sedation management, transfusion thresholds, and fluid management can decrease pediatric ventilator-associated conditions rates and improve patient outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PCC.0000000000001328

Alternate Title

Pediatr Crit Care Med

PMID

28914722

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.