First name
Chitra
Last name
Ravishankar

Title

Trends in Discharge Prescription of Digoxin After Norwood Operation: An Analysis of Data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Feb 02

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

Quality improvement efforts have focused on reducing interstage mortality for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). In 1/2016, two publications reported that use of digoxin was associated with reduced interstage mortality. The degree to which these findings have affected real world practice has not been evaluated. The discharge medications of neonates with HLHS undergoing Norwood operation between 1/2007 and 12/2018 at Pediatric Health Information Systems Database hospitals were studied. Mixed effects models were calculated to evaluate the hypothesis that the likelihood of digoxin prescription increased after 1/2016, adjusting for measurable confounders with furosemide and aspirin prescription measured as falsification tests. Interhospital practice variation was measured using the median odds ratio. Over the study period, 6091 subjects from 45 hospitals were included. After adjusting for measurable covariates, discharge after 1/2016 was associated with increased odds of receiving digoxin (OR 3.9, p < 0.001). No association was seen between date of discharge and furosemide (p = 0.26) or aspirin (p = 0.12). Prior to 1/2016, the likelihood of receiving digoxin was decreasing (OR 0.9 per year, p < 0.001), while after 1/2016 the rate has increased (OR 1.4 per year, p < 0.001). However, there remains significant interhospital variation in the likelihood of receiving digoxin even after adjusting for known confounders (median odds ratio = 3.5, p < 0.0001). Following publication of studies describing an association between digoxin and improved interstage survival, the likelihood of receiving digoxin at discharge increased without similar changes for furosemide or aspirin. Despite concerted efforts to standardize interstage care, interhospital variation in pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable population persists.

DOI

10.1007/s00246-021-02543-y

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

33528619

Title

Elevated Troponin in the First 72 h of Hospitalization for Pediatric Viral Myocarditis is Associated with ECMO: An Analysis of the PHIS+ Database.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1139-1143

Date Published

2018 Aug

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

Serum troponin (Tn) is often elevated in viral myocarditis; however, its prognostic significance is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal serum Tn is associated with mortality in children hospitalized with myocarditis. We retrospectively studied data from six large children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System Plus (PHIS+) database. Analysis was performed on patients hospitalized with viral myocarditis between 2007 and 2013, in whom at least one Tn was recorded within 72 h of admission. Abnormal baseline Tn was defined as any value outside the upper limit of normal within the first 72 h. Primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included mechanical support, defined as use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or a ventricular assist device (VAD), cardiac transplantation, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), mechanical ventilation, and inotrope use. A total of 149 patients with myocarditis (61% male, 48% adolescents) across all PHIS+ centers had TnI (n = 113) or TnT (n = 36) recorded. At least one abnormal Tn was present in 81% of cases. Overall mortality was 7.3% and was not associated with abnormal baseline Tn. Abnormal baseline Tn was associated with ECMO (7.1 vs. 25.6%, p = 0.03) and IVIg (46.4 vs. 83.5%, p < 0.001). Abnormal baseline Tn was not associated with transplantation, mechanical ventilation or inotrope use. Abnormal Tn in the first 72 h of hospitalization for myocarditis was associated with the use of ECMO and IVIg, but was not associated with mortality. This finding may help risk stratify this population if it can be prospectively validated.

DOI

10.1007/s00246-018-1871-2

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

29654450

Title

A multifaceted approach to the management of plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary palliation.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

634-40

Date Published

2014 Aug

ISSN Number

1552-6259

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Plastic bronchitis is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication after Fontan operation. Hemodynamic alterations (elevated central venous pressure and low cardiac output) likely contribute to the formation of tracheobronchial casts composed of inflammatory debris, mucin, and fibrin. Pathologic studies of cast composition support medical treatment with fibrinolytics such as inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective case series of medical, surgical, and catheter-based treatment of patients with plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary palliation.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Included were 14 patients (86% male, 93% white). Median age at Fontan operation was 2.7 years (range, 1.2 to 4.1 years), with median interval to plastic bronchitis presentation of 1.5 years (range, 9 days to 15.4 years). Cast composition was available for 11 patients (79%) and included fibrin deposits in 7. All patients were treated with pulmonary vasodilators, and 13 (93%) were treated with inhaled t-PA. Hemodynamically significant lesions in the Fontan pathway were addressed by catheter-based (n=9) and surgical (n=3) interventions. Three patients (21%) underwent heart transplantation. Median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0.6 to 8.7 years). Symptoms improved, such that 6 of 13 patients (46%) were weaned off t-PA. Rare or episodic casts are successfully managed with outpatient t-PA in most of the other patients. Of the 3 patients who underwent heart transplant, 2 are asymptomatic and 1 has recurrent casts in the setting of elevated filling pressures and rejection.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A systematic step-wise algorithm that includes optimization of hemodynamics, aggressive pulmonary vasodilation, and inhaled t-PA is an effective treatment strategy for patients with plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary connection.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.04.015

Alternate Title

Ann Thorac Surg

PMID

24841545

Title

Relationship Between Serum Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Biomarkers of Growth in Infants With Shunt-Dependent Single Cardiac Ventricle.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 11

ISSN Number

1879-1913

Abstract

<p>For infants with shunt-dependent or ductal-dependent single ventricle heart disease, poor growth is common and associated with morbidity and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although attention has focused on nutrition to promote weight gain, little is known about the relation between heart failure and growth factors. A prospective observational pilot study was performed to assess the relation between heart failure, assessed by brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3) at 3 visits: (1) before discharge from neonatal intervention with the establishment of stable pulmonary blood flow, (2) immediately before superior cavopulmonary connection, and (3) before discharge after superior cavopulmonary connection operation. The relation between BNP and growth factors was analyzed using Spearman pairwise correlations at each visit and modeled over time with a linear mixed-effects model. Correlations were considered worthy of further exploration using a p &lt;0.10, given the exploratory nature of the study. The study included 38 infants (66% male, 68% hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Median BNP was elevated at visit 1 and decreased over time (287&nbsp;pg/dl [interquartile range 147 to 794], 85&nbsp;pg/dl [52 to 183], and 90&nbsp;pg/dl [70 to 138]). Median IGF-1 Z&nbsp;score was &lt;0 at each visit but increased over time (-0.9 [interquartile range -1.1 to 0.1], -0.7 [-1.2 to 0.1], and -0.5 [-1.2 to 0]). Inverse correlations were found between BNP and IGF-1 at visit 1 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.40, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.097), BNP and IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 at visit 2 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.33, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.080 and r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.33, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.085, respectively) and BNP and IGF-1 Z&nbsp;score at visit 3 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.42, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.049). Significant relations were likewise found between the change in BNP and the change in IGF-1 between visits 1 and 3 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.046) and between visits 2 and 3 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.048). In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates an inverse correlation between BNP and growth factors, suggesting that the heart failure state associated with this physiology may play a mechanistic role in impaired growth.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.052

Alternate Title

Am J Cardiol

PMID

35287945

Title

Post-operative Chylothorax in Patients with Repaired Transposition of the Great Arteries.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 29

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

<p>Patients with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) require surgical repair as neonates. These patients are at risk for post-operative chylothorax. We sought to describe the presentation, imaging, and outcomes after intervention for patients with d-TGA with post-operative chylothorax. A retrospective chart review was performed in patients with repaired d-TGA who were referred from 1/1/2013 to 4/1/2020 for evaluation of chylothorax. Patient history, lymphatic imaging, and interventional data were collected. Impact of intervention on lymphatic drainage was evaluated with a student's t-test. Eight patients met inclusion criteria for this study. Five patients had a history of central venous thrombus leading to thoracic duct outlet occlusion. Five patients underwent intervention, two were managed conservatively, and one was not a candidate for intervention. Chylothorax resolved in six patients. There was a significant difference in output from 7&nbsp;days prior to first intervention (114&nbsp;mL/kg/day) compared to 28&nbsp;days following final intervention (27&nbsp;mL/kg/day, p = 0.034). There were no procedural complications. Chylothorax in patients with repaired transposition of the great arteries is often amenable to intervention. Early surveillance and management of central venous thrombosis may reduce the burden of lymphatic disease in these patients.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00246-021-02774-z

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

34841467

Title

Impact of Age on Emergency Resource Utilization and Outcomes in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Supported with a Ventricular Assist Device.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 03

ISSN Number

1538-943X

Abstract

<p>There are minimal data describing outcomes in ambulatory pediatric and young adult ventricular assist device (VAD)-supported patient populations. We performed a retrospective analysis of encounter-level data from 2006 to 2017 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to compare emergency department (ED) resource utilization and outcomes for pediatric (≤18 years, n = 494) to young adult (19-29 years, n = 2,074) VAD-supported patient encounters. Pediatric encounters were more likely to have a history of congenital heart disease (11.3% vs. 4.8%). However, Pediatric encounters had lower admission/transfer rates (37.8% vs. 57.8%) and median charges ($3,334 (IQR $1,473-$19,818) vs. $13,673 ($3,331-$45,884)) (all p &lt; 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression modeling revealed that age itself was not a predictor of admission, instead high acuity primary diagnoses and medical complexity were: (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals): cardiac (3.0; 1.6-5.4), infection (3.4; 1.7-6.5), bleeding (3.9; 1.7-8.8), device complication (7.2; 2.7-18.9), and ≥1 chronic comorbidity (4.1; 2.5-6.7). In this largest study to date describing ED resource use and outcomes for pediatric and young adult VAD-supported patients, we found that, rather than age, high acuity presentations and comorbidities were primary drivers of clinical outcomes. Thus, reducing morbidity in this population should target comorbidities and early recognition of VAD-related complications.</p>

DOI

10.1097/MAT.0000000000001603

Alternate Title

ASAIO J

PMID

34743138

Title

Intrahepatic Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography: Potential Imaging Signature for Protein-Losing Enteropathy in Congenital Heart Disease.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e021542

Date Published

2021 Sep 25

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>Background Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital heart disease patients with single ventricle physiology. Intrahepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (IH-DCMRL) is a novel diagnostic technique that may be useful in characterizing pathologic abdominal lymphatic flow in the congenital heart disease population and in diagnosing PLE. The objective of this study was to characterize differences in IH-DCMRL findings in patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease with and without PLE. Methods and Results This was a single-center retrospective study of IH-DCMRL findings and clinical data in 41 consecutive patients, 20 with PLE and 21 without PLE, with single ventricle physiology referred for lymphatic evaluation. There were 3 distinct duodenal imaging patterns by IH-DCMRL: (1) enhancement of the duodenal wall with leakage into the lumen, (2) enhancement of the duodenal wall without leakage into the lumen, and (3) no duodenal involvement. Patients with PLE were more likely to have duodenal involvement on IH-DCMRL than patients without PLE (&lt;0.001). Conclusions IH-DCMRL findings of lymphatic enhancement of the duodenal wall and leakage of lymph into the duodenal lumen are associated with PLE. IH-DCMRL is a useful new modality for characterizing pathologic abdominal lymphatic flow in PLE and might be useful as a risk-assessment tool for PLE in at-risk patients.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.021542

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

34569246

Title

Identifying Risk Factors for Complicated Post-operative Course in Tetralogy of Fallot Using a Machine Learning Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

685855

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2297-055X

Abstract

<p>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair is associated with excellent operative survival. However, a subset of patients experiences post-operative complications, which can significantly alter the early and late post-operative course. We utilized a machine learning approach to identify risk factors for post-operative complications after TOF repair. We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study of children &lt;2 years of age with TOF undergoing surgical repair. The outcome was occurrence of post-operative cardiac complications, measured between TOF repair and hospital discharge or death. Predictors included patient, operative, and echocardiographic variables, including pre-operative right ventricular strain and fractional area change as measures of right ventricular function. Gradient-boosted quantile regression models (GBM) determined predictors of post-operative complications. Cross-validated GBMs were implemented with and without a filtering stage non-parametric regression model to select a subset of clinically meaningful predictors. Sensitivity analysis with gradient-boosted Poisson regression models was used to examine if the same predictors were identified in the subset of patients with at least one complication. Of the 162 subjects enrolled between March 2012 and May 2018, 43 (26.5%) had at least one post-operative cardiac complication. The most frequent complications were arrhythmia requiring treatment ( = 22, 13.6%), cardiac catheterization ( = 17, 10.5%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) ( = 11, 6.8%). Fifty-six variables were used in the machine learning analysis, of which there were 21 predictors that were already identified from the first-stage regression. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was the highest ranked predictor in all models. Other predictors included gestational age, pre-operative right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain, pulmonary valve Z-score, and immediate post-operative arterial oxygen level. Sensitivity analysis identified similar predictors, confirming the robustness of these findings across models. Cardiac complications after TOF repair are prevalent in a quarter of patients. A prolonged surgery remains an important predictor of post-operative complications; however, other perioperative factors are likewise important, including pre-operative right ventricular remodeling. This study identifies potential opportunities to optimize the surgical repair for TOF to diminish post-operative complications and secure improved clinical outcomes. Efforts toward optimizing pre-operative ventricular remodeling might mitigate post-operative complications and help reduce future morbidity.</p>

DOI

10.3389/fcvm.2021.685855

Alternate Title

Front Cardiovasc Med

PMID

34368247

Title

Liver lymphatic anatomy and role in systemic lymphatic disease.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 24

ISSN Number

1432-1084

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To characterize hepatic to systemic lymphatic connections in patients with systemic lymphatic disease using intra-hepatic lymphangiography and to compare outcomes after lymphatic intervention.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this retrospective study, patients with intra-hepatic lymphangiography from May 2014 - April 2019 at our institution were included. Imaging review was performed and hepatic lymphatic connections and flow patterns were characterized. Clinical data were reviewed and comparisons between patients undergoing lymphatic intervention with or without abnormal hepatic lymphatics were performed.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During the study period, 105 patients underwent intra-hepatic lymphangiography. Primary clinical presentation included ascites (19/105), chylothorax (27/105), plastic bronchitis (PB) (17/105), and protein losing enteropathy (PLE) (42/105). Five categories of hepatic lymphatic connections and flow patterns were identified (%): normal (25%, 26/105), hepatoperitoneal (12%, 13/105), hepatopulmonary (10.5%, 11/105), hepatomesenteric (7.5%, 8/105), and hepatoduodenal (41%, 43/105) with four patients having more than one abnormal pattern. A comparison between clinical presentation and imaging category revealed an increased likelihood of having ascites with hepatoperitoneal (p &lt; .0001), chylothorax/PB with hepatopulmonary (p = .01), and PLE with hepatoduodenal (p &lt; .001) connections. Seventy-six patients had a lymphatic intervention, 24% with normal, and 76% with abnormal liver lymphatics. There was no difference in length of hospital stay or mortality between the two groups, but there was a prolonged time to symptom resolution (p = .006) and persistent symptoms after 6&nbsp;months (5% vs 44%, p = .002) in the group with abnormal liver lymphatics.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We identified five liver lymphatic imaging categories with a substantial correlation to presenting lymphatic disease. Abnormal imaging patterns correlated with increased morbidity. Evaluation of liver lymphatics should be considered in patients with a systemic lymphatic disease if central lymphatic imaging is normal.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>• We identified five liver lymphatic imaging patterns: normal, hepatoperitoneal, hepatomesenteric, hepatopulmonary, and hepatoduodenal. • Imaging patterns were correlated with disease presentation (normal - chylothorax/PB, hepatoperitoneal - ascites/chylothorax, hepatopulmonary - chylothorax/PB, hepatoduodenal - PLE). • Abnormal imaging patterns correlated with increased morbidity.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00330-021-08098-z

Alternate Title

Eur Radiol

PMID

34165621

Title

Large aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of surgically reconstructed right ventricular outflow tracts.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1-3

Date Published

2021 Mar 17

ISSN Number

1467-1107

Abstract

<p>Aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm development is a known, albeit uncommon, complication after right ventricular outflow tract surgical reconstruction. Large right ventricular outflow tract aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms have not been extensively described in recent literature and we report our experience with this unusual complication in five patients at our institution over the last 8 years. Although uncommon, this complication has potentially important clinical implications. Thus, clinicians should be aware of its potential, particularly in certain anatomic conditions.</p>

DOI

10.1017/S1047951121001025

Alternate Title

Cardiol Young

PMID

33729122

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