First name
Yimei
Last name
Li

Title

Impact of poverty and neighborhood opportunity on outcomes for children treated with CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Children living in poverty experience excess relapse and death from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The influence of household poverty and neighborhood social determinants on outcomes from CAR T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory (r/r) leukemia is poorly described. We identified patients with r/r CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on CD19-directed CAR T-cell clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from 2012 to 2020. Socioeconomic status (SES) was proxied at the household-level, with poverty-exposure defined as Medicaid-only insurance. Low neighborhood opportunity was defined by the Childhood Opportunity Index. Among 206 patients aged 1-29, 35.9% were household-poverty exposed, and 24.9% had low neighborhood opportunity. Patients unexposed to household-poverty or low-opportunity neighborhoods were more likely to receive CAR T-cell therapy with high disease burden (>25%)-a disease characteristic associated with inferior outcomes-as compared to less advantaged patients (38% vs 30%; 37% vs 26%). Complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with no significant differences by household-poverty (P = 0.334) or neighborhood opportunity (P = 0.504). In multivariate analysis, patients from low-opportunity neighborhoods experienced increased hazard of relapse as compared to others (P = 0.006, adjusted HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.1). There was no difference in hazard of death (P = 0.545, adjusted HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Among children who successfully receive CAR T-cell therapy, CR and OS is equitable regardless of proxied SES and neighborhood opportunity. Children from more advantaged households and neighborhoods receive CAR T-cell therapy with higher disease burden. Investigation of multicenter outcomes and access disparities outside of clinical-trial settings is warranted. Clinical trials: NCT01626495; NCT02435849 ; NCT02374333; NCT02228096; NCT02906371.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2022017866

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

36351239

Title

Absolute lymphocyte count recovery following initial acute myelogenous leukemia therapy: Implications for adoptive cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e30062

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An adequate absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is an essential first step in autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell manufacturing. For patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the intensity of chemotherapy received may affect adequate ALC recovery required for CAR T-cell production. We sought to analyze ALC following each course of upfront therapy as one metric for CAR T-cell manufacturing feasibility in children and young adults with AML.

PROCEDURE: ALC data were collected from an observational study of patients with newly diagnosed AML between the ages of 1 month and 21 years who received treatment between the years of 2006 and 2018 at one of three hospitals in the Leukemia Electronic Abstraction of Records Network (LEARN) consortium.

RESULTS: Among 193 patients with sufficient ALC data for analysis, the median ALC following induction 1 was 1715 cells/μl (interquartile range: 1166-2388), with successive decreases in ALC with each subsequent course. Similarly, the proportion of patients achieving an ALC >400 cells/μl decreased following each course, ranging from 98.4% (190/193) after course 1 to 66.7% (22/33) for patients who received a fifth course of therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a successive decline of ALC recovery with subsequent courses of chemotherapy. Despite this decline, ALC values are likely sufficient to consider apheresis prior to the initiation of each course of upfront therapy for the majority of newly diagnosed pediatric AML patients, thereby providing a window of opportunity for T-cell collection for those patients identified at high risk of relapse or with refractory disease.

DOI

10.1002/pbc.30062

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

36370087

Title

Trajectories of Pain Severity and Interference Among Adolescent and Young Adults With Cancer: A Microlongitudinal Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

443-450

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1536-5409

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Cancer-related pain is a pervasive concern among adolescent and young adults (AYA) with cancer and is an emerging long-term health concern. Few studies have examined the complex contributions to pain among AYA. We aimed to fill a gap by (1) identifying subgroups of AYA with distinct patterns of pain severity and interference over time and (2) explore possible predictors of these patterns.

METHODS: Daily text messages over a 9-week period were used to model group-based trajectory analyses of pain severity and interference by identifying subgroups of AYA who experience common patterns of changes in pain. Demographic, medical, physical symptom burden, and psychological distress were examined as possible predictors of these patterns.

RESULTS: AYA were on average 16.93 years old and 2.5 years since diagnosis. Subgroups of AYA were identified for pain severity and interference over time: high variability (37.7%; 37.7%, respectively), consistent high pain (35.8%; 18.9%, respectively), and consistent low pain (26.4%; 43.4%, respectively). AYA with greater psychological distress were more likely to belong to the high consistent pain severity and interference groups. AYA with greater physical symptoms were more likely to belong to the high consistent pain interference group. No significant associations between demographic/medical characteristics and trajectory subgroups were found.

CONCLUSIONS: AYA with elevated physical and psychological symptoms were more likely to experience high consistent pain severity and pain interreference over time. Interventions aimed at reducing pain through focusing on teaching AYA how to alleviate physical symptoms and teaching coping skills to manage psychological distress may be beneficial.

DOI

10.1097/AJP.0000000000001041

Alternate Title

Clin J Pain

PMID

35686575

Title

Rates of laboratory adverse events by course in paediatric leukaemia ascertained with automated electronic health record extraction: a retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e678-e688

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2352-3026

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are often misreported in clinical trials, leading to an incomplete understanding of toxicities. We aimed to test automated laboratory adverse event ascertainment and grading (via the ExtractEHR automated package) to assess its scalability and define adverse event rates for children with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), we included patients aged 0-22 years treated for acute myeloid leukaemia or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA, USA) from Jan 1, 2010, to Nov 1, 2018, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014, and at the Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014. The ExtractEHR automated package acquired, cleaned, and graded laboratory data as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 for 22 commonly evaluated grade 3-4 adverse events (fatal events were not evaluated) with numerically based CTCAE definitions. Descriptive statistics tabulated adverse event frequencies. Adverse events ascertained by ExtractEHR were compared to manually reported adverse events for patients enrolled in two COG trials (AAML1031, NCT01371981; AALL0932, NCT02883049). Analyses were restricted to protocol-defined chemotherapy courses (induction I, induction II, intensification I, intensification II, and intensification III for acute myeloid leukaemia; induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).

FINDINGS: Laboratory adverse event data from 1077 patients (583 from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 200 from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 294 from the Texas Children's Hospital) who underwent 4611 courses (549 for acute myeloid leukaemia and 4062 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were extracted, processed, and graded. Of the 166 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, 86 (52%) were female, 80 (48%) were male, 96 (58%) were White, and 132 (80%) were non-Hispanic. Of the 911 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 406 (45%) were female, 505 (55%) were male, 596 (65%) were White, and 641 (70%) were non-Hispanic. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had the most adverse events during induction I and intensification II. Hypokalaemia (one [17%] of six to 75 [48%] of 156 courses) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (13 [10%] of 134 to 27 [17%] of 156 courses) were the most prevalent non-haematological adverse events in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as identified by ExtractEHR. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the greatest number of adverse events during induction and maintenance (eight adverse events with prevalence ≥10%; induction and maintenance: anaemia, platelet count decreased, white blood cell count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, lymphocyte count decreased, ALT increased, and hypocalcaemia; induction: hypokalaemia; maintenance: aspartate aminotransferase [AST] increased and blood bilirubin increased), as identified by ExtractEHR. 187 (85%) of 220 total comparisons in 22 adverse events in four AAML1031 and six AALL0923 courses were substantially higher with ExtractEHR than COG-reported adverse event rates for adverse events with a prevalence of at least 2%.

INTERPRETATION: ExtractEHR is scalable and accurately defines laboratory adverse event rates for paediatric acute leukaemia; moreover, ExtractEHR seems to detect higher rates of laboratory adverse events than those reported in COG trials. These rates can be used for comparisons between therapies and to counsel patients treated on or off trials about the risks of chemotherapy. ExtractEHR-based adverse event ascertainment can improve reporting of laboratory adverse events in clinical trials.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.

DOI

10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00168-5

Alternate Title

Lancet Haematol

PMID

35870472

Title

Rates of laboratory adverse events by course in paediatric leukaemia ascertained with automated electronic health record extraction: a retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e678-e688

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2352-3026

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are often misreported in clinical trials, leading to an incomplete understanding of toxicities. We aimed to test automated laboratory adverse event ascertainment and grading (via the ExtractEHR automated package) to assess its scalability and define adverse event rates for children with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), we included patients aged 0-22 years treated for acute myeloid leukaemia or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA, USA) from Jan 1, 2010, to Nov 1, 2018, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014, and at the Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014. The ExtractEHR automated package acquired, cleaned, and graded laboratory data as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 for 22 commonly evaluated grade 3-4 adverse events (fatal events were not evaluated) with numerically based CTCAE definitions. Descriptive statistics tabulated adverse event frequencies. Adverse events ascertained by ExtractEHR were compared to manually reported adverse events for patients enrolled in two COG trials (AAML1031, NCT01371981; AALL0932, NCT02883049). Analyses were restricted to protocol-defined chemotherapy courses (induction I, induction II, intensification I, intensification II, and intensification III for acute myeloid leukaemia; induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).

FINDINGS: Laboratory adverse event data from 1077 patients (583 from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 200 from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 294 from the Texas Children's Hospital) who underwent 4611 courses (549 for acute myeloid leukaemia and 4062 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were extracted, processed, and graded. Of the 166 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, 86 (52%) were female, 80 (48%) were male, 96 (58%) were White, and 132 (80%) were non-Hispanic. Of the 911 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 406 (45%) were female, 505 (55%) were male, 596 (65%) were White, and 641 (70%) were non-Hispanic. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had the most adverse events during induction I and intensification II. Hypokalaemia (one [17%] of six to 75 [48%] of 156 courses) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (13 [10%] of 134 to 27 [17%] of 156 courses) were the most prevalent non-haematological adverse events in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as identified by ExtractEHR. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the greatest number of adverse events during induction and maintenance (eight adverse events with prevalence ≥10%; induction and maintenance: anaemia, platelet count decreased, white blood cell count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, lymphocyte count decreased, ALT increased, and hypocalcaemia; induction: hypokalaemia; maintenance: aspartate aminotransferase [AST] increased and blood bilirubin increased), as identified by ExtractEHR. 187 (85%) of 220 total comparisons in 22 adverse events in four AAML1031 and six AALL0923 courses were substantially higher with ExtractEHR than COG-reported adverse event rates for adverse events with a prevalence of at least 2%.

INTERPRETATION: ExtractEHR is scalable and accurately defines laboratory adverse event rates for paediatric acute leukaemia; moreover, ExtractEHR seems to detect higher rates of laboratory adverse events than those reported in COG trials. These rates can be used for comparisons between therapies and to counsel patients treated on or off trials about the risks of chemotherapy. ExtractEHR-based adverse event ascertainment can improve reporting of laboratory adverse events in clinical trials.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.

DOI

10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00168-5

Alternate Title

Lancet Haematol

PMID

35870472

Title

Unrelated donor α/β T cell- and B cell-depleted HSCT for the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1175-1185

Date Published

2022 Feb 22

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with an increased risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). TCRαβ/CD19 depletion may reduce this risk, whereas maintaining graft-versus-leukemia. Outcome data with TCRαβ/CD19 depletion generally describe haploidentical donors, with relatively few URDs. We hypothesized that TCRαβ/CD19-depletion would attenuate the risks of GVHD and relapse for URD HSCT. Sixty pediatric and young adult (YA) patients with hematologic malignancies who lacked a matched-related donor were enrolled at 2 large pediatric transplantation centers between October 2014 and September 2019. All patients with acute leukemia had minimal residual disease testing, and DP typing was available for 77%. All patients received myeloablative total body irradiation- or busulfan-based conditioning with no posttransplant immune suppression. Engraftment occurred in 98%. Four-year overall survival was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-81%), and leukemia-free survival was 64% (95% CI, 48%-76%), with no difference between lymphoid and myeloid malignancies (P = .6297 and P = .5441, respectively). One patient (1.7%) experienced primary graft failure. Relapse occurred in 11 patients (3-year cumulative incidence, 21%; 95% CI, 11-34), and 8 patients (cumulative incidence, 15%; 95% CI, 6.7-26) experienced nonrelapse mortality. Grade III to IV acute GVHD was seen in 8 patients (13%), and 14 patients (26%) developed chronic GVHD, of which 6 (11%) had extensive disease. Nonpermissive DP mismatch was associated with higher likelihood of acute GVHD (odds ratio, 16.50; 95% CI, 1.67-163.42; P = .0166) but not with the development of chronic GVHD. URD TCRαβ/CD19-depleted peripheral HSCT is a safe and effective approach to transplantation for children/YAs with leukemia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02323867.

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005492

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

34872106

Title

Impact of high-risk cytogenetics on outcomes for children and young adults receiving CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

2173-2185

Date Published

2022 Apr 07

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy can induce durable remissions of relapsed/refractory B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, case reports suggested differential outcomes mediated by leukemia cytogenetics. We identified children and young adults with relapsed/refractory CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on 5 CD19-directed CAR T-cell (CTL019 or humanized CART19) clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from April 2012 to April 2019. Patients were hierarchically categorized according to leukemia cytogenetics: High-risk lesions were defined as KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+), Ph-like, hypodiploidy, or TCF3/HLF; favorable as hyperdiploidy or ETV6/RUNX1; and intermediate as iAMP21, IKZF1 deletion, or TCF3/PBX1. Of 231 patients aged 1 to 29, 74 (32%) were categorized as high risk, 28 (12%) as intermediate, 43 (19%) as favorable, and 86 (37%) as uninformative. Overall complete remission rate was 94%, with no difference between strata. There was no difference in relapse-free survival (RFS; P = .8112), with 2-year RFS for the high-risk group of 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52-77). There was similarly no difference seen in overall survival (OS) (P = .5488), with 2-year OS for the high-risk group of 70% (95% CI, 60-82). For patients with KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL (n = 13), 2-year RFS was 67% (95% CI, 45-99), and OS was 62% (95% CI, 40-95), with multivariable analysis demonstrating no increased risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.21-2.90; P = .7040) but a higher proportion of relapses associated with myeloid lineage switch and a 3.6-fold increased risk of all-cause death (95% CI, 1.04-12.75; P = .0434). CTL019/huCART19/tisagenlecleucel are effective at achieving durable remissions across cytogenetic categories. Relapsed/refractory patients with high-risk cytogenetics, including KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL, demonstrated high RFS and OS probabilities at 2 years.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2021012727

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

34871373

Title

Successful merging of data from the United Network for Organ Sharing and the Pediatric Health Information System databases.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

e13168

Date Published

2018 Aug

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

Data routinely collected through United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) lack the detailed information on medical resource utilization and treatment costs required to accomplish for center-level comparisons of quality of care and cost for pediatric heart transplantation. We aimed to overcome this limitation by merging UNOS with the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, an administrative database containing inpatient, emergency department, ambulatory surgery, and observation unit information from over 40 not-for-profit, tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Utilizing a probabilistic match based on center, date of birth, recipient gender, and transplant date within ±2 days, more than 90% of eligible UNOS patients (N = 2264) were successfully merged to their corresponding PHIS records. Thirty-day and 1-year mortality rates observed for the merged cohort (3.2% and 9.0%, respectively) were compared with those previously reported for pediatric heart transplants, as were the significant predictors of increased mortality. These results demonstrate that the established UNOS-PHIS cohort will provide a valid platform for subsequent research aimed at identifying center-level differences that could be exploited to optimize quality of care while minimizing cost across institutions.

DOI

10.1111/petr.13168

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

29635813

Title

Sociodemographics, Health Competence, and Transition Readiness Among Adolescent/Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 28

ISSN Number

1465-735X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Fewer than one-third of childhood cancer survivors receive follow-up from an adult provider, and adolescent and young adults (AYAs) from structurally minoritized sociodemographic groups often face health disparities that can impact transition to adult-oriented care. The primary aim of this study was to determine the relation among sociodemographic factors, cumulative effects, and transition beliefs/expectations and goals, and the moderating role of health competence beliefs in AYA survivors of childhood cancer.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A total of 195 AYAs (aged 15-29) reported sociodemographic information, completed the Transition Readiness Inventory assessing positive beliefs/expectations and goals related to transition, and completed the Health Competence Beliefs Inventory assessing health perceptions, healthcare satisfaction, cognitive competence, and autonomy. A cumulative sociodemographic factor variable was computed to investigate the potential additive effects of multiple sociodemographic factors associated with disparities. T-tests, Pearson correlations, and multivariate linear regressions were used.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Cumulative sociodemographic factors were not related to transition readiness, and insurance type was the only factor associated with health competence beliefs and transition readiness, such that AYAs with public insurance reported lower healthcare satisfaction, cognitive competence, and transition goals relative to those with private insurance. There were no interaction effects; however, health competence beliefs were significantly associated with transition beliefs/expectations and goals.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Public insurance is a barrier to holding positive beliefs/expectations and goals about transition, yet other sociodemographic factors associated with risks for poor transfer were not related to transition readiness. Multi-level interventions to reduce disparities and improve transition readiness should target health competence beliefs and barriers created by insurance.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpepsy/jsac039

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Psychol

PMID

35482609

Title

Variation in hospital costs and resource utilisation after congenital heart surgery.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1-12

Date Published

2022 Apr 04

ISSN Number

1467-1107

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children undergoing cardiac surgery have overall improving survival, though they consume substantial resources. Nationwide inpatient cost estimates and costs at longitudinal follow-up are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of children &lt;19&nbsp;years of age admitted to Pediatric Health Information System administrative database with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis code undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped into neonates (≤30&nbsp;days of age), infants (31-365&nbsp;days of age), and children (&gt;1&nbsp;year) at index procedure. Primary and secondary outcomes included hospital stay and hospital costs at index surgical admission and 1- and 5-year follow-up.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 99,670 cohort patients, neonates comprised 27% and had the highest total hospital costs, though daily hospital costs were lower. Mortality declined (5.6% in 2004 versus 2.5% in 2015, p &lt; 0.0001) while inpatient costs rose (5% increase/year, p &lt; 0.0001). Neonates had greater index diagnosis complexity, greater inpatient costs, required the greatest ICU resources, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory therapy. We found no relationship between hospital surgical volume, mortality, and hospital costs. Neonates had higher cumulative hospital costs at 1- and 5-year follow-up compared to infants and children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Inpatient hospital costs rose during the study period, driven primarily by longer stay. Neonates had greater complexity index diagnosis, required greater hospital resources, and have higher hospital costs at 1 and 5&nbsp;years compared to older children. Surgical volume and in-hospital mortality were not associated with costs. Further analyses comprising merged clinical and administrative data are necessary to identify longer stay and cost drivers after paediatric cardiac surgery.</p>

DOI

10.1017/S1047951122001019

Alternate Title

Cardiol Young

PMID

35373722

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