First name
Angela
Middle name
R
Last name
Bradbury

Title

Maternal and prenatal factors and age at thelarche in the LEGACY Girls Study cohort: implications for breast cancer risk.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1464-3685

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Earlier onset of breast development (thelarche) is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Identifying modifiable factors associated with earlier thelarche may provide an opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction starting early in life, which could especially benefit girls with a greater absolute risk of breast cancer due to family history.

METHODS: We assessed associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity during pregnancy, gestational weight gain and daughters' weight and length at birth with age at thelarche using longitudinal Weibull models in 1031 girls in the Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study-a prospective cohort of girls, half of whom have a breast cancer family history (BCFH).

RESULTS: Girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of ≥25 and gained ≥30 lbs were 57% more likely to experience earlier thelarche than girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25 and gained <30 lbs [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.12]. This association was not mediated by childhood BMI and was similar in girls with and without a BCFH (BCFH: HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.27; No BCFH: HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Daughters of women who reported no recreational physical activity during pregnancy were more likely to experience earlier thelarche compared with daughters of physically active women. Birthweight and birth length were not associated with thelarche.

CONCLUSION: Earlier thelarche, a breast cancer risk factor, was associated with three potentially modifiable maternal risk factors-pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and physical inactivity-in a cohort of girls enriched for BCFH.

DOI

10.1093/ije/dyac108

Alternate Title

Int J Epidemiol

PMID

35613015

Title

Common Childhood Viruses and Pubertal Timing: The LEGACY Girls Study.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 31

ISSN Number

1476-6256

Abstract

<p>Earlier pubertal development is only partially explained by childhood body mass index (BMI); the role of other factors like childhood infections is less understood. Using data from the LEGACY Girls Study (2011 - 2016), we prospectively examined the associations between childhood viral infections (Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1), HSV2 and pubertal timing. We measured exposures based on seropositivity in pre-menarcheal girls (n=490). Breast and pubic hair development were classified based on mother-reported Tanner Stage (TS: TS2+ compared with TS1), adjusting for age, BMI, and sociodemographic factors. The average age at first blood draw was 9.8 years (Stdev=1.9 years). The prevalences were 31% CMV+, 37% EBV+, 14% HSV1+, 0.4% HSV2+, and 16% for both CMV+/EBV+. CMV+ infection without co-infection was associated with developing breasts an average of 7 months earlier (Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.12, 95% CI 1.32, 3.40). CMV+ infection without co-infection and HSV1+ and/or HSV2+ infection were associated with developing pubic hair 9 months later (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.71, HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22, 0.81, respectively). Infection was not associated with menarche. If replicated in larger cohorts with blood collection prior to any breast development, this study supports that childhood infections may play a role in altering pubertal timing.</p>

DOI

10.1093/aje/kwaa240

Alternate Title

Am J Epidemiol

PMID

33128063

Title

Changes in Cardiovascular Biomarkers With Breast Cancer Therapy and Associations With Cardiac Dysfunction.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e014708

Date Published

2020 Jan 21

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> We examined the longitudinal associations between changes in cardiovascular biomarkers and cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) in patients with breast cancer treated with cardotoxic cancer therapy.</p>

<p><strong>Methods and Results</strong> Repeated measures of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), myeloperoxidase, placental growth factor, and growth differentiation factor 15 were assessed longitudinally in a prospective cohort of 323 patients treated with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab followed over a maximum of 3.7&nbsp;years with serial echocardiograms. CTRCD was defined as a ≥10% decline in left ventricular ejection fraction to a value &lt;50%. Associations between changes in biomarkers and left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in repeated-measures linear regression models. Cox regression models assessed the associations between biomarkers and CTRCD. Early increases in all biomarkers occurred with anthracycline-based regimens. hs-cTnT levels &gt;14&nbsp;ng/L at anthracycline completion were associated with a 2-fold increased CTRCD risk (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.06). There was a modest association between changes in NT-proBNP and left ventricular ejection fraction in the overall cohort; this was most pronounced with sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab (1.1% left ventricular ejection fraction decline [95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4] with each NT-proBNP doubling). Increases in NT-proBNP were also associated with CTRCD (hazard ratio per doubling, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32-1.84). Increases in myeloperoxidase were associated with CTRCD in patients who received sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab (hazard ratio per doubling, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.58).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions</strong> Cardiovascular biomarkers may play an important role in CTRCD risk prediction in patients with breast cancer who receive cardiotoxic cancer therapy, particularly in those treated with sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab therapy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01173341.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.119.014708

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

31959034

Title

Preventative Health and Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls With and Without Family Histories of Breast Cancer.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

116-123

Date Published

2019 Jan

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To compare health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, fruit and vegetable intake, and exercise frequency) and breast self-exam (BSE) between girls with breast cancer family history (BCFH+) and without (BCFH-) and assess associates of behaviors across all girls.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A total of 208 BCFH+ girls (11-19years old), with first- or second-degree relatives with breast cancer or a mother with a BRCA1/2 mutation, and 112 BCFH- peers reported their health behaviors, beliefs, and psychosocial function.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Despite higher BCFH+ girls' greater perceived breast cancer risk, there were no differences between BCFH+ and BCFH- girls on diet, exercise, alcohol initiation, or BSE. BCFH+ girls were slightly more likely to report trying cigarettes (11% vs. 5%, p = .04). In multivariable models with all girls, categorical associations with behaviors included the following: developmental and demographic factors with smoking, alcohol, diet, and exercise; family breast cancer history and experience with smoking, alcohol, and diet; psychosocial factors with smoking; girls perceptions of cancer controllability and mother support for health behaviors with alcohol, diet, exercise, and BSE; and mother behaviors with diet.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adolescent girls from BCFH+ families reported similar health behaviors to BCFH- peers, signaling that they are not translating their higher perceived risk into cancer controlbehaviors. Both uncontrollable (i.e., breast cancer experiences) and modifiable factors relate to health behaviors and warrant further investigation. Results indicate that interventions with teens and parents that target modifiable variables such as controllability perceptions, maternal modeling, and communication may relate to better health behaviors and reduced future breast cancer risk.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.07.011

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

30301677

Title

Psychosocial Adjustment and Perceived Risk Among Adolescent Girls From Families With BRCA1/2 or Breast Cancer History.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Aug 22

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer-specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P &lt; .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P &lt; .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer-specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer-specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast cancer, particularly given the debate over the genetic testing of children for cancer susceptibility in adulthood.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2015.66.3450

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

27551110

Title

The LEGACY Girls Study: Growth and Development in the Context of Breast Cancer Family History.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

438-48

Date Published

2016 May

ISSN Number

1531-5487

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although the timing of pubertal milestones has been associated with breast cancer risk, few studies of girls' development include girls at increased breast cancer risk due to their family history.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study was initiated in 2011 in the USA and Canada to assess the relation between early life exposures and intermediate markers of breast cancer risk (e.g., pubertal development, breast tissue characteristics) and to investigate psychosocial well being and health behaviors in the context of family history. We describe the methods used to establish and follow a cohort of 1,040 girls ages 6-13 years at baseline, half with a breast cancer family history, and the collection of questionnaire data (family history, early life exposures, growth and development, psychosocial and behavioral), anthropometry, biospecimens, and breast tissue characteristics using optical spectroscopy.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During this initial 5-year phase of the study, follow-up visits are conducted every 6 months for repeated data and biospecimen collection. Participation in baseline components was high (98% for urine, 97.5% for blood or saliva, and 98% for anthropometry). At enrollment, 77% of girls were premenarcheal and 49% were at breast Tanner stage T1.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This study design allows thorough examination of events affecting girls' growth and development and how they differ across the spectrum of breast cancer risk. A better understanding of early life breast cancer risk factors will be essential to enhance prevention across the lifespan for those with and without a family history of the disease.</p>

DOI

10.1097/EDE.0000000000000456

Alternate Title

Epidemiology

PMID

26829160

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