First name
Meredith
Last name
Matone

Title

Describing the Health Status of Women Experiencing Violence or Abuse: An Observational Study Using Claims Data.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

21501319221074121

Date Published

2022 Jan-Dec

ISSN Number

2150-1327

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Violence against women (VAW) can result in long-term and varied sequela for survivors, making it difficult to evaluate healthcare intervention. This study seeks to improve understanding of the healthcare experiences of women survivors prior to a violence-related diagnosis, allowing healthcare systems to better design strategies to meet the needs of this population.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using population-based data from 2016 to 2019, this cross-sectional observational study presents healthcare spending, utilization, and diagnostic patterns of privately insured women, age 18 or older, in the 10-months prior to an episode of care for a documented experience of violence (DEV).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 12 624 764 women meeting enrollment criteria, 10 980 women had DEV. This group had higher general medical complexity, despite being 10 years younger than the comparison group (mean age 32.7 vs 43.5). These relationships held up when comparing participants in each cohort by age. Additional key findings including higher numbers of medical visits across clinical settings and higher total cost ($10 138-$4585).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The study utilized population-based data, to describe specific areas of health and medical cost for women with DEV. Increased medical complexity and utilization patterns among survivors broaden the understanding of the health profiles and healthcare touchpoints of survivors to inform and optimize strategies for medical system engagement and resource allocation for this public health crisis.</p>

DOI

10.1177/21501319221074121

Alternate Title

J Prim Care Community Health

PMID

35345928

Title

Eligibility, Utilization, and Effectiveness of 17-Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate (17OHPC) in a Statewide Population-Based Cohort of Medicaid Enrollees.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 16

ISSN Number

1098-8785

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong> The primary objective was to estimate the initiation and adherence rates of 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) among eligible mothers in a statewide population-based cohort of Medicaid enrollees. The secondary objectives were to (1) determine the association of maternal sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with 17OHPC utilization and (2) assess the real-world effectiveness of 17OHPC on recurrent preterm birth prevention and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong> This is a retrospective cohort study using a linked, longitudinal administrative dataset of birth certificates and medical assistance claims. Medicaid-enrolled mothers in Pennsylvania were included in this study if they had at least one singleton live birth from 2014 to 2016 following at least one spontaneous preterm birth. Maternal Medicaid claims were used to ascertain the use of 17OHPC from various manufacturers, including compounded formulations. Propensity score matching was used to create a covariate balance between 17OHPC treatment and comparison groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong> We identified 4,781 Medicaid-covered 17OHPC-eligible pregnancies from 2014 to 2016 in Pennsylvania, 3.4% of all Medicaid-covered singleton live births. The population-based initiation rate was 28.5% among eligible pregnancies. Among initiators, 50% received ≥16 doses as recommended, while 10% received a single dose only. The severity of previous spontaneous preterm birth was the strongest predictor for the initiation and adherence of 17OHPC. In the matched treatment ( = 1,210) and comparison groups ( = 1,210), we found no evidence of 17OHPC effectiveness. The risks of recurrent preterm birth (relative risk [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.24) and births admitted to NICU (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.84-1.18) were similar in treated and comparison mothers.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong> The 17OHPC-eligible population represented 3.4% of singleton live births. Less than one-third of eligible mothers initiated treatment. Among initiators, 50% were treatment adherent. We found no difference in the risk of recurrent preterm birth or admission to NICU between treatment and comparison groups.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>· 3.4% of singleton live births were eligible for 17OHPC.. · About 30% of eligible mothers initiated treatment.. · We found no association of 17OHPC with recurrent preterm birth..</p>

DOI

10.1055/s-0041-1739504

Alternate Title

Am J Perinatol

PMID

34784617

Title

Patient and Provider Perspectives on Acceptability, Access, and Adherence to 17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate for Preterm Birth Prevention.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

295-304

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2688-4844

Abstract

<p>Preterm birth (PTB) is a pressing maternal and child health issue with long-standing racial inequities in outcomes and care provision. 17-Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) has been one of few clinical interventions for recurrent PTB prevention. Little is known about the factors influencing successful administration and receipt of 17OHPC among mothers in the Medicaid program. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with 17OHPC-eligible pregnant women and obstetric providers from two academic medical centers in Philadelphia, PA. Patient participants were publicly insured, eligible for 17OHPC treatment, and purposively sampled as either (1) actively receiving treatment or (2) declining/discontinuing treatment. Providers had experience providing care to Medicaid-enrolled patients. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify themes related to treatment acceptability, access, and adherence. Of the 17 patient participants, the mean age was 30 years. Ten providers (MDs, nurse practitioners, and registered nurses) were also interviewed. Factors facilitating 17OHPC uptake and adherence among patients included severity of prior PTB, provider counseling, and coordination among the clinic, pharmacy, and insurance. Pain was cited as the most significant barrier to 17OHPC for patients, while providers perceived social adversity and beliefs about patients' commitment to treatment to be primary patient barriers. For providers, clinical experience and practice guidelines contributed to their use of 17OHPC. Administrative complexity and coordination of services were the primary provider barrier to 17OHPC administration. Patient-provider communication is a primary driver of 17OHPC acceptability and adherence. Comprehensive patient-centered consultation may improve uptake of clinical therapies among pregnant women at high risk for PTB.</p>

DOI

10.1089/whr.2021.0022

Alternate Title

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle)

PMID

34327511

Title

Integrating the Built and Social Environment into Health Assessments for Maternal and Child Health: Creating a Planning-Friendly Index.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Dec 10

ISSN Number

1660-4601

Abstract

<p>Environmental and community context earliest in the life course have a profound effect on life-long health outcomes. Yet, standard needs assessments for maternal and child health (MCH) programs often overlook the full range of influences affecting health in-utero and early childhood. To address this, we developed a methodology for assessing community risk in MCH based on six domains integrating 66 indicators across community, environment, socioeconomic indicators, and MCH outcomes. We pilot this methodology in Pennsylvania, and share examples of how local governments, planners, and public health officials across the geographic spectrum can integrate this data into community planning for improved maternal and child health.</p>

DOI

10.3390/ijerph17249224

Alternate Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health

PMID

33321736

Title

Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for injuries among infants and children following statewide implementation of a home visitation model.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

1754-61

Date Published

2012 Dec

ISSN Number

1573-6628

Abstract

<p>To compare hospital-based utilization for early childhood injuries between program recipients and local-area comparison families following statewide implementation of an evidence-based home visitation program, and to describe site-level program variation. Propensity score matching on baseline characteristics was used to create a retrospective cohort of Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) clients and local area matched comparison women. The main outcome, a count of injury visit episodes, was enumerated from Medicaid claims for injuries examined in an emergency department or hospital setting during the first 2 years of life of children born to included subjects. Generalized linear models with a Poisson distribution examined the association between injury episode counts and NFP participation, controlling for other non-injury utilization and stratifying by individual agency catchment area in a fixed effects analysis. The children of NFP clients were more likely in aggregate to have higher rates of injury visits in the first 2 years of life than the children of comparison women (415.2/1,000 vs. 364.2/1,000, P &lt; 0.0001). Significantly higher rates of visits among children of NFP clients for superficial injuries (156.6/1,000 vs. 132.6/1,000, P &lt; 0.0001) principally accounted for the attributable difference in injury visit rates between groups. Among more serious injuries, no significant difference in injury visit rates was found between NFP clients and comparison women. The proportion of children with at least one injury visit varied from 14.5 to 42.5% among individual sites. Contrary to prior randomized trial data, no reductions in utilization for serious early childhood injuries were demonstrated following statewide implementation of an evidence-based home visitation program. Significant program variation on outcomes underscores the challenges to successful implementation.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10995-011-0921-7

Alternate Title

Matern Child Health J

PMID

22120426

Title

Home visitation program effectiveness and the influence of community behavioral norms: a propensity score matched analysis of prenatal smoking cessation.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

1016

Date Published

2012 Nov 21

ISSN Number

1471-2458

Abstract

<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>The influence of community context on the effectiveness of evidence-based maternal and child home visitation programs following implementation is poorly understood. This study compared prenatal smoking cessation between home visitation program recipients and local-area comparison women across 24 implementation sites within one state, while also estimating the independent effect of community smoking norms on smoking cessation behavior.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>Retrospective cohort design using propensity score matching of Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) clients and local-area matched comparison women who smoked cigarettes in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth certificate data were used to classify smoking status. The main outcome measure was smoking cessation in the third trimester of pregnancy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined, over two time periods, the association of NFP exposure and the association of baseline county prenatal smoking rate on prenatal smoking cessation.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>The association of NFP participation and prenatal smoking cessation was stronger in a later implementation period (35.5% for NFP clients vs. 27.5% for comparison women, p &lt; 0.001) than in an earlier implementation period (28.4% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.114). Cessation was also negatively associated with county prenatal smoking rate, controlling for NFP program effect, (OR = 0.84 per 5 percentage point change in county smoking rate, p = 0.002).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Following a statewide implementation, program recipients of NFP demonstrated increased smoking cessation compared to comparison women, with a stronger program effect in later years. The significant association of county smoking rate with cessation suggests that community behavioral norms may present a challenge for evidence-based programs as models are translated into diverse communities.</p>

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-12-1016

Alternate Title

BMC Public Health

PMID

23170927

Title

The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.

Year of Publication

2013

Number of Pages

826-833

Date Published

2013 May 01

ISSN Number

0190-7409

Abstract

<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVE: </b>This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>The relationship between placement experience and school absenteeism and school change illustrates the need to better coordinate the educational experience of high-risk children in foster care. The secondary finding of high absenteeism among children in the process of returning home illustrates that educational challenges for youth may be equally if not more concerning among the greater majority of youth in child welfare who remain home with birth parents.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.02.006

Alternate Title

Child Youth Serv Rev

PMID

23645948

Title

Child abuse prevention and child home visitation: making sure we get it right.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

5-6

Date Published

2014 Jan

ISSN Number

2168-6211

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3865

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

24217352

Title

The influence of caregiver depression on children in non-relative foster care versus kinship care placements.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

459-67

Date Published

2015 Mar

ISSN Number

1573-6628

Abstract

<p>Little is known about how the challenges faced by caregivers influence the variation in social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) outcomes of youth placed in kinship versus non-relative foster care. This study examined SEB symptoms among youth in kinship and non-relative foster care settings, hypothesizing that changes in caregiver depression would modify children's change in behavior over time. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessments of 199 children placed with kinship and non-relative foster care providers in a Mid-Atlantic city were conducted at time of placement and 6-12 months post-placement. Linear regression estimated CBCL change scores for youth across placement type and caregiver depression trajectories. Kinship caregivers were more likely to become depressed or remained depressed than non-relative foster caregivers. Youth in kinship care always exhibited better change in SEB outcomes than youth in non-relative foster care, but these positive outcomes were principally observed among families where caregivers demonstrated a reduction in depression over time or were never depressed. Adjusted change scores for non-relative foster care youth were always negative, with the most negative scores among youth whose caregivers became depressed over time. Caregiver well-being may modify the influence of placement setting on SEB outcomes for youth placed into out-of-home care. Findings lend to policy relevance for child welfare systems that seek kinship settings as a panacea to the challenges faced by youth, without allocating resources to address caregiver needs.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10995-014-1525-9

Alternate Title

Matern Child Health J

PMID

24889115

Title

Second-generation antipsychotic use among stimulant-using children, by organization of medicaid mental health.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

1458-64

Date Published

2014 Dec 01

ISSN Number

1557-9700

Abstract

<p><b>OBJECTIVE: </b>Reducing overuse of second-generation antipsychotics among Medicaid-enrolled children is a national priority, yet little is known about how service organization affects use. This study compared differences in second-generation antipsychotic utilization among Medicaid-enrolled children across fee-for-service, integrated managed care, and managed behavioral health carve-out organizational structures.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>Organizational structures of Medicaid programs in 82 diverse counties in 34 states were categorized and linked to child-level cross-sectional claims data from the Medicaid Analytic Extract covering fiscal years 2004, 2006, and 2008. To approximate the population at risk of antipsychotic treatment, the sample was restricted to stimulant-using children ages three to 18 (N=419,226). The sample was stratified by Medicaid eligibility group, and logistic regression models were estimated for probability of second-generation antipsychotic use. Models included indicators of county-level organizational structure as main predictors, with sequential adjustment for personal and county-level covariates.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>With adjustment for person-level covariates, second-generation antipsychotic use was 31% higher among youths in foster care in fee-for-service counties than for youths in counties with carve-outs (odds ratio [OR]=1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26-2.27). Foster care youths in integrated counties had the second highest adjusted odds (OR=1.31, CI=1.08-1.58). Similar patterns of use also were found for youths eligible for Supplemental Security Income but not for those eligible for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Differences persisted after adjustment for county-level characteristics.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Carve-outs, versus other arrangements, were associated with lower second-generation antipsychotic use. Future research should explore carve-out features (for example, tighter management of inpatient or restricted access, as well as care coordination) contributing to lower second-generation antipsychotic use.</p>

DOI

10.1176/appi.ps.201300574

Alternate Title

Psychiatr Serv

PMID

25179737

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