First name
Matthew
Middle name
M
Last name
Laughon

Title

Association between postmenstrual age and furosemide dosing practices in very preterm infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 24

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Furosemide renal clearance is slow after very preterm (VP) birth and increases with postnatal maturation. We compared furosemide dose frequency and total daily dose between postmenstrual age (PMA) groups in VP infants.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Observational cohort study of VP infants exposed to a repeated-dose course of furosemide in Pediatrix neonatal intensive care units (NICU) from 1997 to 2016.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 6565 furosemide courses among 4638 infants. There were no statistically significant differences between PMA groups on the odds of receiving more frequent furosemide dosing. Furosemide courses initiated at &lt;28 weeks PMA were associated with a higher total daily dose than those initiated at a later PMA.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Furosemide dosing practices in the NICU are similar across PMA groups, despite maturational changes in drug disposition. Research is needed to identify and test rational dosing strategies across the PMA spectrum for this commonly used but unproven pharmacotherapy.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01320-w

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35075306

Title

Loop Diuretics in Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Cumulative Use and Associations with Mortality and Age at Discharge.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 02

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To measure between-center variation in loop diuretic use for infants developing severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in United States children's hospitals, and to compare mortality and age at discharge among infants from low versus high use centers.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of preterm infants &lt;32 weeks gestational age developing severe BPD. The primary outcome was cumulative loop diuretic use, defined as the proportion of days with exposure between admission and discharge. Infant characteristics associated with loop diuretic use at P &lt; .10 were included in multivariable models to adjust for center differences in case-mix. Hospitals were ranked from lowest to highest in adjusted use, and dichotomized into low or high use centers. We then compared mortality and postmenstrual age at discharge between groups through multivariable analyses.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 3252 subjects from 43 centers. Significant variation between centers remained despite adjustment for infant characteristics, with use present in an adjusted mean range of 7.3% to 49.4% of days, p &lt; 0.0001. Mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.98 [95% CI 0.62, 1.53], p = 0.92) and postmenstrual age at discharge (marginal mean [95% CI]: 47.3 [46.8 , 47.9] versus 47.4 [46.9, 47.9] weeks, p = 0.96) were similar in low and high use groups, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Marked variation in loop diuretic use for infants developing severe BPD exists between US children's hospital, without an observed difference on mortality or discharge age. Research to provide evidence-based guidance for this common exposure is needed.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.073

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

33152371

Title

Outcomes associated with surfactant in more mature and larger premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Feb 20

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Examine the effect of off-label surfactant on mortality and morbidity in more mature and larger premature infants diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Cohort study of premature infants born at 30-36 weeks, birth weight &gt; 2 kg, and a diagnosis of RDS. We compared the odds of mortality and morbidity between infants who were exposed vs unexposed to surfactant. We used a treatment effects model to balance covariates between groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 54,964 included infants, 25,278 (46%) were exposed to surfactant. The frequency of mortality and morbidities were higher in the exposed group in unadjusted analyses. Following adjustment with a doubly robust treatment effects model, we found no significant treatment effect of surfactant on mortality or morbidity.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Surfactant exposure is not associated with reduced or increased mortality or morbidity in more mature premature infants with RDS.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-020-0625-1

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

32080333

Title

Medication use in infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia admitted to United States children's hospitals.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jun 21

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To identify the number of cumulative medication exposures and most frequently used medications in infants with severe BPD.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study in infants with severe BPD admitted to United States children's hospitals. We measured cumulative medication exposures in individual subjects and between-center variation after adjustment for infant characteristics. We then identified the specific medications and therapeutic classes with the highest rates of use.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In 3252 subjects across 43 hospitals, we identified a median (interquartile range) of 30 (17-45) cumulative medication exposures per infant. The adjusted mean number of medication exposures varied between centers (p &lt; 0.0001), with a range of 22-50. Diuretics and furosemide were the most frequently prescribed therapeutic class and specific medication for the management of severe BPD.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Infants with severe BPD are exposed to alarming number of medications of unclear efficacy and safety, with marked variation between center.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-019-0415-9

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

31227785

Title

The Diagnosis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants: An Evidence-Based Approach.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 17

ISSN Number

1535-4970

Abstract

<p><strong>RATIONALE: </strong>Current diagnostic criteria for bronchopulmonary dysplasia rely heavily on the level and duration of oxygen therapy, do not reflect contemporary neonatal care, nor adequately predict childhood morbidity.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine which of 18 pre-specified, revised definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, that variably define disease presence and severity according to the level of respiratory support and supplemental oxygen administered at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, best predicts death or serious respiratory morbidity through 18-26 months corrected age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We assessed infants born &lt;32 weeks' gestation between 2011-2015 at 18 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 2677 infants, 683 (26%) died or developed serious respiratory morbidity. The criteria that best predicted this outcome defined bronchopulmonary dysplasia according to treatment with the following support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, irrespective of prior or current oxygen therapy: no bronchopulmonary dysplasia, no support (n=773); grade 1, nasal cannula ≤2L/min (n=1038); grade 2, nasal cannula &gt;2L/min or non-invasive positive airway pressure (n=617); and grade 3, invasive mechanical ventilation (n=249). These criteria correctly predicted death or serious respiratory morbidity in 81% of study infants. Rates of this outcome increased stepwise from 10% among infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia to 77% among those with grade 3 disease. A similar gradient (33%-79%) was observed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia that best predicted early childhood morbidity categorized disease severity according to the mode of respiratory support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, irrespective of supplemental oxygen use. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).</p>

DOI

10.1164/rccm.201812-2348OC

Alternate Title

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

PMID

30995069

Title

Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

e153785

Date Published

2015 Dec

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>IMPORTANCE: </strong>Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically benign in term infants but in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants can cause pneumonitis and sepsislike illness. Whether postnatal CMV infection results in long-term pulmonary sequelae in these infants is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To investigate the association between postnatal CMV infection and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in a large multicenter cohort of VLBW infants.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: </strong>Conducted between October 2014 and June 2015, this propensity-matched retrospective cohort study involved 101,111 hospitalized VLBW (&lt;1500 g) infants at 348 neonatal intensive care units in the United States from 1997 to 2012. We matched infants with postnatal CMV infection 1:1 to comparison infants using propensity scores, and we used Poisson regression to examine the effect of postnatal CMV on the combined risk for death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. To describe features of postnatal CMV infection, we extracted clinical and laboratory data from 7 days before until 7 days after infants met criteria for postnatal CMV.</p>

<p><strong>EXPOSURES: </strong>Postnatal CMV infection was defined as a diagnosis of CMV or detection of CMV from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or respiratory secretions on or after day of life 21. Infants with a CMV diagnosis or virologic detection of CMV prior to day of life 21 were not considered to have postnatal infection.</p>

<p><strong>MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: </strong>The primary outcome was death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 101,111 infants, 328 (0.3%) had postnatal CMV infection. We matched a comparison infant to 303 CMV-infected infants (92%) for a final cohort of 606 infants. The median gestational age and birth weight of this cohort were 25 weeks and 730 g, respectively. Postnatal CMV infection was associated with an increased risk for death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (risk ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) and BPD (risk ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.50). Changes in cardiorespiratory status associated with postnatal CMV infection included a new requirement for vasopressor medications (9%; n = 29), intubation for mechanical ventilation (15%; n = 49), a new oxygen requirement (28%; n = 91), and death (1.2%; n = 4).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: </strong>In VLBW infants, postnatal CMV infection was associated with increased risk for BPD. Further studies are needed to determine the role of preventive measures against CMV in this population.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3785

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

26642118

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.