First name
Sage
Middle name
R
Last name
Myers

Title

Pyuria in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

204-207.e2

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Acute kidney injury occurs frequently during pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We reviewed urinalyses from 561 children with DKA; pyuria was detected in 19% overall and in 40% of children with more comprehensive urine testing (≥3 urinalyses) during DKA.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.08.054

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

36084731

Title

Clinical Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Injury preceding Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

100-104

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Previous studies have identified more severe acidosis and higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as risk factors for cerebral injury during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children; however, cerebral injury also can occur before DKA treatment. We found that lower pH and higher BUN levels also were associated with cerebral injury at presentation.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.07.033

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

35944716

Title

Clinical Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Injury Preceding Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Previous studies have identified more severe acidosis and higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as risk factors for cerebral injury during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children; however, cerebral injury also can occur before DKA treatment. We found that lower pH and higher BUN levels also were associated with cerebral injury at presentation.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.07.033

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

35944716

Title

Pyuria in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Acute kidney injury occurs frequently during pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We reviewed urinalyses from 561 children with DKA; pyuria was detected in 19% overall and in 40% of children with more comprehensive urine testing (>3 urinalyses) during DKA.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.08.054

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

36084731

Title

Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): a pilot randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 10

ISSN Number

1553-2712

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage; however, the drug has not been evaluated in a trial in injured children. We evaluated the feasibility of a large-scale trial evaluating the effects of TXA in children with severe hemorrhagic injuries.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Severely injured children (0 up to 18 birthday) were randomized into a double-blind randomized trial of 1) TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 2 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, 2) TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 4 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, or 3) normal saline placebo bolus and infusion. The trial was conducted at 4 pediatric Level I trauma centers in the United States between June 2018 and March 2020. We enrolled patients under federal exception from informed consent (EFIC) procedures when parents were unable to provide informed consent. Feasibility outcomes included the rate of enrollment, adherence to intervention arms, and ability to measure the primary clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes included global functioning (primary), working memory, total amount of blood products transfused, intracranial hemorrhage progression, and adverse events. The target enrollment rate was at least 1.25 patients per site per month.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 31 patients were randomized with a mean age of 10.7 years (standard deviation [SD] 5.0 years) and 22 (71%) patients were male. The mean time from injury to randomization was 2.4 hours (SD 0.6 hours). Sixteen (52%) patients had isolated brain injuries and 15 (48%) patients had isolated torso injuries. The enrollment rate using EFIC was 1.34 patients per site per month. All eligible enrolled patients received study intervention (9 patients TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, 10 patients TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, and 12 patients placebo) and had the primary outcome measured. No statistically significant differences in any of the clinical outcomes were identified.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Based on enrollment rate, protocol adherence, and measurement of the primary outcome in this pilot trial, we confirmed the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of TXA in severely injured children with hemorrhagic brain and/or torso injuries using EFIC.</p>

DOI

10.1111/acem.14481

Alternate Title

Acad Emerg Med

PMID

35266589

Title

Pediatric Septic Shock Collaborative Improves Emergency Department Sepsis Care in Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>The pediatric emergency department (ED)-based Pediatric Septic Shock Collaborative (PSSC) aimed to improve mortality and key care processes among children with presumed septic shock.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a multicenter learning and improvement collaborative of 19 pediatric EDs from November 2013 to May 2016 with shared screening and patient identification recommendations, bundles of care, and educational materials. Process metrics included minutes to initial vital sign assessment and to first and third fluid bolus and antibiotic administration. Outcomes included 3- and 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, hours on increased ventilation (including new and increases from chronic baseline in invasive and noninvasive ventilation), and hours on vasoactive agent support. Analysis used statistical process control charts and included both the overall sample and an ICU subgroup.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Process improvements were noted in timely vital sign assessment and receipt of antibiotics in the overall group. Timely first bolus and antibiotics improved in the ICU subgroup. There was a decrease in 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality in the overall sample.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A multicenter pediatric ED improvement collaborative showed improvement in key processes for early sepsis management and demonstrated that a bundled quality improvement-focused approach to sepsis management can be effective in improving care.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-007369

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35229124

Title

Implementing Family Presence During Pediatric Resuscitations in the Emergency Department: Family-Centered Care and Trauma-Informed Care Best Practices.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

689-692

Date Published

2021 Sep

ISSN Number

1527-2966

DOI

10.1016/j.jen.2021.07.003

Alternate Title

J Emerg Nurs

PMID

34530971

Title

Serum Sodium Concentration and Mental Status in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 09

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is typically characterized by low or low-normal serum sodium concentrations, which rise as hyperglycemia resolves. In retrospective studies, researchers found associations between declines in sodium concentrations during DKA and cerebral injury. We prospectively investigated determinants of sodium concentration changes and associations with mental status alterations during DKA.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Trial, we compared children who had declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations with those who had rising or stable concentrations. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intravenous fluid protocols that differed in infusion rate and sodium content. Data from the first 4, 8, and 12 hours of treatment were analyzed for 1251, 1086, and 877 episodes, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In multivariable analyses, declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations were associated with higher sodium and chloride concentrations at presentation and with previously diagnosed diabetes. Treatment with 0.45% (vs 0.9%) sodium chloride fluids was also associated with declines in sodium concentration; however, higher rates of fluid infusion were associated with declines in sodium concentration only at 12 hours. Frequencies of abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale scores and clinical diagnoses of cerebral injury were similar in patients with and without declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Changes in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations during DKA treatment are influenced by the balance of free-water loss versus sodium loss at presentation and the sodium content of intravenous fluids. Declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations are not associated with mental status changes during treatment.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-050243

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34373322

Title

Effects of Fluid Rehydration Strategy on Correction of Acidosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 29

ISSN Number

1935-5548

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Fluid replacement to correct dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte abnormalities is the cornerstone of treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), but little is known about optimal fluid infusion rates and electrolyte content. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether different fluid protocols affect the rate of normalization of biochemical derangements during DKA treatment.</p>

<p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: </strong>The current analysis involved moderate or severe DKA episodes ( = 714) in children age &lt;18 years enrolled in the Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA (FLUID) Trial. Children were assigned to one of four treatment groups using a 2 × 2 factorial design (0.90% or 0.45% saline and fast or slow rate of administration).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The rate of change of pH did not differ by treatment arm, but Pco increased more rapidly in the fast versus slow fluid infusion arms during the initial 4 h of treatment. The anion gap also decreased more rapidly in the fast versus slow infusion arms during the initial 4 and 8 h. Glucose-corrected sodium levels remained stable in patients assigned to 0.90% saline but decreased in those assigned to 0.45% saline at 4 and 8 h. Potassium levels decreased, while chloride levels increased more rapidly with 0.90% versus 0.45% saline. Hyperchloremic acidosis occurred more frequently in patients in the fast arms (46.1%) versus the slow arms (35.2%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In children treated for DKA, faster fluid administration rates led to a more rapid normalization of anion gap and Pco than slower fluid infusion rates but were associated with an increased frequency of hyperchloremic acidosis.</p>

DOI

10.2337/dc20-3113

Alternate Title

Diabetes Care

PMID

34187840

Title

Intracranial Traumatic Hematoma Detection in Children Using a Portable Near-infrared Spectroscopy Device.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

782-791

Date Published

2021 Mar 24

ISSN Number

1936-9018

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>We sought to validate a handheld, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device for detecting intracranial hematomas in children with head injury.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Eligible patients were those &lt;18 years old who were admitted to the emergency department at three academic children's hospitals with head trauma and who received a clinically indicated head computed tomography (HCT). Measurements were obtained by a blinded operator in bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Qualifying hematomas were a priori determined to be within the brain scanner's detection limits of &gt;3.5 milliliters in volume and &lt;2.5 centimeters from the surface of the brain. The device's measurements were positive if the difference in optical density between hemispheres was &gt;0.2 on three successive scans. We calculated diagnostic performance measures with corresponding exact two-sided 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals (CI). Hypothesis test evaluated whether predictive performance exceeded chance agreement (predictive Youden's index &gt; 0).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 464 patients were enrolled and 344 met inclusion for primary data analysis: 10.5% (36/344) had evidence of a hematoma on HCT, and 4.7% (16/344) had qualifying hematomas. The handheld brain scanner demonstrated a sensitivity of 58.3% (21/36) and specificity of 67.9% (209/308) for hematomas of any size. For qualifying hematomas the scanner was designed to detect, sensitivity was 81% (13/16) and specificity was 67.4% (221/328). Predictive performance exceeded chance agreement with a predictive Youden's index of 0.11 (95% CI, 0.10 - 0.15; P &lt; 0.001) for all hematomas, and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08 - 0.12; P &lt; 0.001) for qualifying hematomas.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The handheld brain scanner can non-invasively detect a subset of intracranial hematomas in children and may serve an adjunctive role to head-injury neuroimaging decision rules that predict the risk of clinically significant intracranial pathology after head trauma.</p>

DOI

10.5811/westjem.2020.11.47251

Alternate Title

West J Emerg Med

PMID

34125061

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