First name
David
Middle name
S
Last name
Mandell

Title

Provider Responses to Positive Developmental Screening: Disparities in Referral Practices?

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 07

ISSN Number

1536-7312

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Guidelines recommend universal screening for developmental concerns in young children in pediatric primary care, with referral to early intervention (EI) as early as possible for children with a positive screen. However, participation in EI differs by child race, ethnicity, language, and sex. This study evaluated disparities in rates of referral to EI and estimated the factors associated with referral before and immediately after a positive developmental screen.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children seen in a large primary care network that has implemented universal developmental screening were included if they screened positive on the Survey of Well-being of Young Children (SWYC) Milestones during a 16- to 30-month well-child visit (n = 7358). Demographics, screening results, and referrals were extracted from the electronic health record.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among children who screened positive, 17.5% were already in EI, and 39.9% were referred to EI during the visit with positive screen; 42.5% were not referred. In adjusted regression, the following factors were associated with being in EI before the positive screen: lower SWYC score and being male, older, and White. The following factors were associated with new referral to EI during a visit with positive SWYC: having lower SWYC score or lower income and being male, older, and Black race.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The finding that White children were more likely referred before developmental screening and non-White children more likely referred at the time of positive screen suggests that screening decreases disparities by increasing referral for children with developmental delays from traditionally underserved backgrounds.</p>

DOI

10.1097/DBP.0000000000000855

Alternate Title

J Dev Behav Pediatr

PMID

32909974

Title

The Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment on Medication Adherence in Youth with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 16

ISSN Number

2151-4658

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, which may affect medication adherence. We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and hydroxychloroquine adherence and determined whether psychiatric treatment modifies this association.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We identified incident hydroxychloroquine users among youth with SLE (ages 10-24 years) using de-identified U.S. commercial insurance claims in Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart (2000-2016). Adherence was estimated using medication possession ratios (MPR) over a 365-day interval. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of having any psychiatric disorder on MPR, as well as the independent effects of depression, anxiety, adjustment and other psychiatric disorders. We tested for interactions between psychiatric diagnoses and treatment with psychotropic medications or psychotherapy.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 873 subjects, 20% had a psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly depression. Only adjustment disorders were independently associated with decreased MPRs (β -0.12, p=0.05). We observed significant crossover interactions, in which psychiatric disorders had opposite effects on adherence depending on the receipt of psychiatric treatment. Among youth with any psychiatric diagnosis, psychotropic medication use was associated with a 0.15 increase in MPR compared with no psychotropic medication (p=0.02 for interaction). Among youth with depression or anxiety, psychotherapy was also associated with a higher MPR compared with no psychotherapy (p=0.05 and p&lt;0.01 for interaction, respectively).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The impact of psychiatric disorders on medication adherence differed by whether youth had received psychiatric treatment. Improving recognition and treatment of psychiatric conditions may increase adherence in youth with SLE.</p>

DOI

10.1002/acr.24450

Alternate Title

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)

PMID

32937032

Title

Adherence to screening and referral guidelines for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers in pediatric primary care.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e0232335

Date Published

2020

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for all young children, disparities in ASD diagnosis and intervention in minority children persist. One potential contributor to disparities could be whether physicians take different actions after an initial positive screen based on patient demographics. This study estimated factors associated with physicians completing the follow-up interview for the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers with Follow-up (M-CHAT-F), and referring children to diagnostic services, audiology, and Early Intervention (EI) immediately after a positive screen.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children seen in a large primary care network that has implemented universal ASD screening were included if they screened positive on the M-CHAT parent questionnaire during a 16-30 month well child visit (N = 2882). Demographics, screening results, and referrals were extracted from the electronic health record.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Children from lower-income families or on public insurance were more likely to have been administered the follow-up interview. Among children who screened positive, 26% were already in EI, 31% were newly referred to EI, 11% were referred each to audiology and for comprehensive ASD evaluation. 40.2% received at least one recommended referral; 3.7% received all recommended referrals. In adjusted multivariable models, male sex, white versus black race, living in an English-speaking household, and having public insurance were associated with new EI referral. Male sex, black versus white race, and lower household income were associated with referral to audiology. Being from an English-speaking family, white versus Asian race, and lower household income were associated with referral for ASD evaluation. A concurrent positive screen for general developmental concerns was associated with each referral.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We found low rates of follow-up interview completion and referral after positive ASD screen, with variations in referral by sex, language, socio-economic status, and race. Understanding pediatrician decision-making about ASD screening is critical to improving care and reducing disparities.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0232335

Alternate Title

PLoS ONE

PMID

32379778

Title

High Health Care Utilization Preceding Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Youth.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Dec 01

ISSN Number

2151-4658

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with high risk for organ damage, which may be mitigated by early diagnosis and treatment. We characterized health care utilization for youth in the year preceding SLE diagnosis compared to controls.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using Clinformatics™ DataMart (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) de-identified administrative data from 2000 to 2013, we identified 682 youth ages 10-24 years with new-onset SLE (≥3 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SLE 710.0, each &gt;30 days apart), and 1,364 age and sex-matched healthy controls. We compared the incidence of ambulatory, emergency, and inpatient visits 12 months before SLE diagnosis, and frequency of primary diagnoses. We examined subject characteristics associated with utilization preceding SLE diagnosis.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Youth with SLE had significantly more visits in the year preceding diagnosis than controls across ambulatory (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.48, p&lt;0.001), emergency (IRR 3.42, p&lt;0.001) and inpatient settings (IRR 3.02, p&lt;0.001). The most frequent acute care diagnoses and median days to SLE diagnosis were: venous thromboembolism (313, interquartile range (IQR) 18-356), thrombocytopenia (278, IQR 39-354), chest pain (73, IQR 29.5-168), fever (52, IQR 17-166), and acute kidney failure (14, IQR 5-168). Having a psychiatric diagnosis prior to SLE diagnosis was strongly associated with increased utilization across all settings.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Youth with SLE have high health care utilization throughout the year preceding SLE diagnosis. Examining variable diagnostic trajectories of youth presenting for acute care preceding SLE diagnosis, and increased attention to psychiatric morbidity may help improve care for youth with new-onset SLE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>

DOI

10.1002/acr.23485

Alternate Title

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)

PMID

29195017

Title

Disparities in Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment for Youth with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Analysis of a National US Medicaid Sample.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 May 1

ISSN Number

0315-162X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To estimate the national prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in psychiatric diagnoses and pharmacologic treatment in a US Medicaid beneficiary population of youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We included youth aged 10 to 18 years with a diagnosis of SLE (defined as ≥ 3 outpatient visit claims with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed. code of 710.0, each &gt; 30 days apart) in the US Medicaid Analytic Extract database from 2006 and 2007. This database contains all inpatient and outpatient Medicaid claims from 49 states and the District of Columbia. We calculated the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and treatment, and used logistic regression to compare depression and anxiety diagnoses, antidepressant, and anxiolytic use among racial/ethnic groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 970 youth with SLE, 15% were white, 42% were African American, 27% were Latino, and 16% were of other races/ethnicities. Diagnoses of depression were present for 19%, anxiety for 7%, acute stress/adjustment for 6%, and other psychiatric disorders for 18%. Twenty percent were prescribed antidepressants, 7% were prescribed anxiolytics, 6% were prescribed antipsychotics, and 5% were prescribed stimulants. In adjusted analyses, African Americans were less likely than whites to be diagnosed with depression (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.90) or anxiety (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.98), or to be prescribed anxiolytics (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.48).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We present population-level estimates showing high psychiatric morbidity in youth with SLE, but less prevalent diagnosis and treatment in African Americans. Mental health interventions should address potential racial/ethnic disparities in care.</p>

DOI

10.3899/jrheum.150967

Alternate Title

J. Rheumatol.

PMID

27134262

Title

Shared Decision Making and Treatment Decisions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Apr 27

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe influences on shared decision making (SDM) between primary care pediatricians and parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a qualitative study using key informant interviews with 20 pediatricians of varying experience from 10 primary care practices and 20 English speaking parents of young children (ages 2-5 years) with a parent reported diagnosis of ASD. Subjects were recruited through purposive sampling. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an integrated approach to data analysis. Differences in coding were resolved by consensus. We achieved thematic saturation and ceased recruitment after 20 interviews were completed within each group.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Three primary themes emerged: 1) pediatricians and parents reported knowledge gaps by pediatricians about ASD treatments and community resources and ambiguity regarding the pediatrician's role in ASD care; 2) there was little communication between parents and pediatricians about treatment choices; 3) use of CAM treatments created conflict between pediatricians and parents and, as a result, parents may independently pursue treatments, without benefit of discussing safety and efficacy with pediatricians. Despite these barriers, parents desired increased support and guidance from their pediatricians, including for CAM.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Much work is needed to effectively foster SDM in the context of ASD treatment decisions in primary care, including pediatrician training in ASD to enhance knowledge about evidence-based and novel treatments, clinical practice guidelines and community resources.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2016.04.007

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

27132050

Title

Identifying Targets for Improving Mental Healthcare of Adolescents with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Perspectives from Pediatric Rheumatology Clinicians in the United States and Canada.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Apr 1

ISSN Number

0315-162X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To identify targets for improving mental healthcare of adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by assessing current practices and perceived barriers for mental health intervention by pediatric rheumatology clinicians.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) completed a Web-based survey assessing current mental health practices, beliefs, and barriers. We examined associations between provider characteristics and the frequency of barriers to mental health screening and treatment using multivariable linear regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 375 eligible CARRA members, 130 responded (35%) and 119 completed the survey. Fifty-two percent described identification of depression/anxiety in adolescents with SLE at their practice as inadequate, and 45% described treatment as inadequate. Seventy-seven percent stated that routine screening for depression/anxiety in pediatric rheumatology should be conducted, but only 2% routinely used a standardized instrument. Limited staff resources and time were the most frequent barriers to screening. Respondents with formal postgraduate mental health training, experience treating young adults, and practicing at sites with very accessible mental health staff, in urban locations, and in Canada reported fewer barriers to screening. Long waitlists and limited availability of mental health providers were the most frequent barriers to treatment. Male clinicians and those practicing in the Midwest and Canada reported fewer barriers to treatment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Pediatric rheumatology clinicians perceive a need for improved mental healthcare of adolescents with SLE. Potential strategies to overcome barriers include enhanced mental health training for pediatric rheumatologists, standardized rheumatology-based mental health practices, and better integration of medical and mental health services.</p>

DOI

10.3899/jrheum.151228

Alternate Title

J. Rheumatol.

PMID

27036378

Title

Parental depressive symptoms and children's school attendance and emergency department use: a nationally representative study.

Year of Publication

2013

Number of Pages

1130-7

Date Published

2013 Aug

ISSN Number

1573-6628

Abstract

<p>We sought to assess the association between parental depressive symptoms and school attendance and emergency department (ED) use among children with and without chronic health conditions. Secondary analysis of the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative survey. Parental depressive symptoms were measured by three questions assessing sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness in the past month. Children with and without asthma or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were identified, and their school attendance and ED visits were reported by adult household respondents. Children with information on parental depressive symptoms, health conditions, and services use were eligible. We incorporated weights available in the survey for each eligible child to reflect the complex sampling design. 104,930 eligible children were identified. The point prevalence of parental depressive symptoms was low (1.8 %, 95 % CI 1.7-2.0), but greater among children with asthma (2.7 %, 95 % CI 2.4-3.0) and ADHD (3.8 %, 95 % CI 3.2-4.4) than among other children (1.6 %, 95 % CI 1.5-1.7). After adjustment for potential confounders, children whose parents reported depressive symptoms most or all of the time were more likely to report an ED visit (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.18, 95 % CI 1.06-1.32) or school absence (adjusted IRR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.14-1.63) than children whose parents did not. The effect of parental depressive symptoms was not modified by child health conditions. Parental depressive symptoms were adversely associated with school attendance and ED use in children. These results suggest the importance of measuring depressive symptoms among adult caregivers of children.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10995-012-1109-5

Alternate Title

Matern Child Health J

PMID

22903306

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