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OBJECTIVES: To determine across and within hospital differences in the predictors of 365-day admission frequency for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children at US children's hospitals.
STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of 12 449 children 2-18 years of age with a diagnosis of DKA in 42 US children's hospitals between 2004 and 2012. The main outcome of interest was the maximum number of DKA admissions experienced by each child within any 365-day interval during a 5-year follow-up period. The association between patient characteristics and the maximum number of DKA admissions within a 365-day interval was examined across and within hospitals.
RESULTS: In the sample, 28.3% of patients admitted for DKA experienced at least 1 additional DKA admission within the following 365 days. Across hospitals, patient characteristics associated with increasing DKA admission frequency were public insurance (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.71-2.26), non-Hispanic black race (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.02-2.85), age ≥12 (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.7-2.32), female sex (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.29-1.55), and mental health comorbidity (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Within hospitals, non-Hispanic black race was associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 59% of hospitals, and public insurance was associated with higher odds in 56% of hospitals. Older age, female sex, and mental health comorbidity were associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 42%, 29%, and 15% of hospitals, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Across children's hospitals, certain patient characteristics are associated with more frequent DKA admissions. However, these factors are not associated with increased DKA admission frequency for all hospitals.