First name
Nathan
Last name
Gotman

Title

Predictors of Antimicrobial Resistance among Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

116-21

Date Published

2016 Apr

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine which children with urinary tract infection are likely to have pathogens resistant to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials.

STUDY DESIGN: Children, 2-71 months of age (n = 769) enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux or Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation studies were included. We used logistic regression models to test the associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and resistance to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials.

RESULTS: Of the included patients, 91% were female and 76% had vesicoureteral reflux. The risk of resistance to narrow-spectrum antibiotics in uncircumcised males was approximately 3 times that of females (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.4-6.7); in children with bladder bowel dysfunction, the risk was 2 times that of children with normal function (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Children who had received 1 course of antibiotics during the past 6 months also had higher odds of harboring resistant organisms (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Hispanic children had higher odds of harboring pathogens resistant to some narrow-spectrum antimicrobials.

CONCLUSIONS: Uncircumcised males, Hispanic children, children with bladder bowel dysfunction, and children who received 1 course of antibiotics in the past 6 months were more likely to have a urinary tract infection caused by pathogens resistant to 1 or more narrow-spectrum antimicrobials.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.12.044

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

26794472

Title

Predictors of Non-Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Jul 18

ISSN Number

1532-0987

Abstract

<p>We aimed to determine which children are prone to non-Escherichia coli coli UTIs. We included 769 children with UTI. We found that circumcised males, Hispanic children, children without fever, and children with Grade 3-4 VUR were more likely to have a UTI caused by organisms other than E. coli. This information may guide clinicians in their choice of antimicrobial therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1097/INF.0000000000001301

Alternate Title

Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.

PMID

27434831

Title

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

1-7

Date Published

2016 Jan

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We combined data from 2 longitudinal studies (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) in which children &lt;6 years of age with a first or second UTI were followed for 2 years. We compared outcomes for children with and without BBD, children with and without VUR, and children with VUR randomly assigned to prophylaxis or placebo. The outcomes examined were incidence of recurrent UTIs, renal scarring, surgical intervention, resolution of VUR, and treatment failure.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>BBD was present at baseline in 54% of the 181 toilet-trained children included; 94% of children with BBD reported daytime wetting, withholding maneuvers, or constipation. In children not on antimicrobial prophylaxis, 51% of those with both BBD and VUR experienced recurrent UTIs, compared with 20% of those with VUR alone, 35% with BBD alone, and 32% with neither BBD nor VUR. BBD was not associated with any of the other outcomes investigated.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Among toilet-trained children, those with both BBD and VUR are at higher risk of developing recurrent UTIs than children with isolated VUR or children with isolated BBD and, accordingly, exhibit the greatest benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2015-2982

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

26647376

Title

Antimicrobial Resistance and Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Mar 11

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial found that recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) with resistant organisms were more common in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis (TSP) arm. We describe factors associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance of rUTIs in RIVUR.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children aged 2 to 71 months with first or second UTI (index UTI) and grade I to IV vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomized to TSP or placebo and followed for 2 years. Factors associated with TMP-SMX-resistant rUTI were evaluated.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 571 included children, 48% were &lt;12 months old, 43% had grade II VUR, and 38% had grade III VUR. Recurrent UTI occurred in 34 of 278 children receiving TSP versus 67 of 293 children receiving placebo. Among those with rUTI, 76% (26/34) of subjects receiving TSP had TMP-SMX-resistant organisms versus 28% (19/67) of subjects receiving placebo (P &lt; .001). The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant rUTI decreased over time: in the TSP arm, 96% were resistant during the initial 6 months versus 38% resistant during the final 6 months; corresponding proportions for the placebo arm were 32% and 11%. Among children receiving TSP, 7 (13%) of 55 with TMP-SMX-resistant index UTI had rUTI, whereas 27 (12%) of 223 with TMP-SMX-susceptible index UTI had rUTI (adjusted hazard ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 0.54-3.56). Corresponding proportions in placebo arm were 17 (26%) of 65 and 50 (22%) of 228 (adjusted hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74-2.38).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although TMP-SMX resistance is more common among children treated with TSP versus placebo, resistance decreased over time. Among children treated with TSP, there was no significant difference in UTI recurrence between those with TMP-SMX-resistant index UTI versus TMP-SMX-susceptible UTI.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2015-2490

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

26969273

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