First name
Kelly
Last name
Getz

Title

Impact of poverty and neighborhood opportunity on outcomes for children treated with CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Children living in poverty experience excess relapse and death from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The influence of household poverty and neighborhood social determinants on outcomes from CAR T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory (r/r) leukemia is poorly described. We identified patients with r/r CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on CD19-directed CAR T-cell clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from 2012 to 2020. Socioeconomic status (SES) was proxied at the household-level, with poverty-exposure defined as Medicaid-only insurance. Low neighborhood opportunity was defined by the Childhood Opportunity Index. Among 206 patients aged 1-29, 35.9% were household-poverty exposed, and 24.9% had low neighborhood opportunity. Patients unexposed to household-poverty or low-opportunity neighborhoods were more likely to receive CAR T-cell therapy with high disease burden (>25%)-a disease characteristic associated with inferior outcomes-as compared to less advantaged patients (38% vs 30%; 37% vs 26%). Complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with no significant differences by household-poverty (P = 0.334) or neighborhood opportunity (P = 0.504). In multivariate analysis, patients from low-opportunity neighborhoods experienced increased hazard of relapse as compared to others (P = 0.006, adjusted HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.1). There was no difference in hazard of death (P = 0.545, adjusted HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Among children who successfully receive CAR T-cell therapy, CR and OS is equitable regardless of proxied SES and neighborhood opportunity. Children from more advantaged households and neighborhoods receive CAR T-cell therapy with higher disease burden. Investigation of multicenter outcomes and access disparities outside of clinical-trial settings is warranted. Clinical trials: NCT01626495; NCT02435849 ; NCT02374333; NCT02228096; NCT02906371.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2022017866

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

36351239

Title

Genetic Variants Associated with Cancer Therapy-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 16

ISSN Number

1524-4539

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. These parameters incompletely account for substantial inter-individual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We studied 213 CCM patients from three cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped breast cancer adults (n=73) and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including nine pre-specified genes were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) participants (n=2053), healthy volunteers (n=445), and ancestry-matched reference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed, stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>CCM was diagnosed 0.4-9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult CCM patients had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the U.S.</p>

<p><strong>POPULATION: </strong>Among nine prioritized genes CCM patients had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts (p≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) predominated, occurring in 7.5% CCM patients versus 1.1% TCGA participants (p=7.36e-08), 0.7% healthy volunteers (p=3.42e-06), and 0.6% reference population (p=5.87e-14). Adult CCM patients with TTNtv experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation (p=0.003) and impaired myocardial recovery (p=0.03) than those without. Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wildtype (p=0.0004 and p&lt;0.002, respectively).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Unrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtv, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events in adults. Genotype, along with cumulative chemotherapy dosage and traditional cardiovascular risk factors improves identification of cancer patients at highest risk for CCM.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01173341; AAML1031; NCT01371981.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037934

Alternate Title

Circulation

PMID

30987448

Title

Resource utilization and toxicities after single versus tandem autologous stem cell rescue in high-risk neuroblastoma using a national administrative database.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

e27372

Date Published

2018 Aug 01

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC-ASCR) has improved event-free survival for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Common regimens include carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (CEM), busulfan/melphalan (BuMel), and tandem HDC-ASCR [thiotepa/cyclophosphamide (TC) followed by CEM]. To complement clinical trial data and to evaluate the clinical burden associated with these regimens, resource ultilization (RU) was evaluated. An administrative database was used to evaluate RU in a previously developed high-risk neuroblastoma cohort. Single CEM and BuMel patients were followed for 60&nbsp;days from the first day of the HDC-ASCR preparative regimen or until death, whichever came first. Tandem patients were followed from the first day of the first HDC-ASCR preparative regimen through day 60 from the first day of the second HDC-ASCR. Resources compared included inpatient days, ICU-level care, and medications administered.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A cohort of 578 patients was evaluated; 422 patients underwent single HDC-ASCR with CEM, 67 received BuMel, 72 underwent TC/CEM, and 17 received only the first portion of tandem HDC-ASCR. The median number of inpatient days and days of exposure to antibiotics, opioids, and total parenteral nutrition were higher in the tandem group than in the CEM and BuMel groups. However, the rate of use of several ICU-level resources per 1000 hospital days was lower for the tandem group.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>These data suggest that while patients undergoing tandem HDC-ASCR were hospitalized longer, the severity of illness during hospitalization was not greater in tandem patients.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.27372

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

30070014

Title

Resource Utilization and Toxicities After Carboplatin/Etoposide/Melphalan and Busulfan/Melphalan for Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Using a National Administrative Database.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

901-7

Date Published

2016 May

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) is a key component of high-risk neuroblastoma therapy. Resources required to support patients treated with ASCR conditioning regimens [carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (CEM) and busulfan/melphalan (BuMel)] have not been directly compared.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>An administrative database was used to analyze resource utilization and outcomes in a cohort of high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Patients were followed for 60 days from start of conditioning or until death. Length of hospitalization, length of intensive care unit (ICU) level of care, incidence of sepsis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and duration of use of specific supportive care resources were analyzed.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Six of 171 CEM patients and zero of 59 BuMel patients died during the study period (P = 0.34). Duration of hospitalization was longer following BuMel (median 35 vs. 31 days; P = 0.01); however, there was no difference in duration of ICU-level care. Antibiotic use was longer following CEM (median 19 vs. 15 days; P = 0.01), as was antihypertensive use (median 5 vs. 1.6 days; P = 0.0024). Duration of opiate and nonnarcotic analgesic use was longer following CEM early in the study period. Resources consistent with a diagnosis of SOS were used in a higher proportion of BuMel patients. A higher proportion of BuMel treated patients required mechanical ventilation (17% vs. 6%; P = 0.03).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We used administrative billing data to compare resources associated with ASCR conditioning regimens. CEM patients required more extended use of analgesics, antibiotics, and antihypertensives, while duration of hospitalization was longer, and SOS and the use of mechanical ventilation were more frequent following BuMel.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.25893

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

26797923

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