First name
Terzah
Middle name
M
Last name
Horton

Title

IL-10 and TNFα are associated with decreased survival in low-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia; a children's oncology group report.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1-12

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1521-0669

Abstract

Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a devastating disease with a high risk of relapse. Current risk classification designates patients as high or low risk (LR) based on molecular features and therapy response. However, 30% of LR patients still suffer relapse, indicating a need for improvement in risk stratification. Cytokine levels, such as IL-6 and IL-10, have been shown to be prognostic in adult AML but have not been well studied in children. Previously, we reported elevated IL-6 levels in pediatric AML bone marrow to be associated with inferior prognosis. Here, we expanded our investigation to assess cytokine levels in diagnostic peripheral blood plasma (PBP) of pediatric AML patients and determined correlation with outcome. Diagnostic PBP was obtained from 80 patients with LR AML enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 study and normal PBP from 11 controls. Cytokine levels were measured and correlation with clinical outcome was assessed. IL-6, TNFα, MIP-3a, and IL-1β were significantly higher in AML patients versus controls when corrected by the Bonferroni method. Furthermore, elevated TNFα and IL-10 were significantly associated with inferior outcomes. Our data demonstrate that in diagnostic PBP of LR pediatric AML patients, certain cytokine levels are elevated as compared to healthy controls and that elevated TNFα and IL-10 are associated with inferior outcomes, supporting the idea that an abnormal inflammatory state may predict poor outcomes. Studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which these cytokines impact survival, and to further evaluate their use as prognostic biomarkers in pediatric AML.

DOI

10.1080/08880018.2022.2089790

Alternate Title

Pediatr Hematol Oncol

PMID

35838057

Title

Bortezomib is significantly beneficial for de novo pediatric AML patients with low phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunit RelA.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2100072

Date Published

2021 Nov 01

ISSN Number

1862-8354

Abstract

The addition of the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib to standard chemotherapy (ADE: cytarabine [Ara-C], daunorubicin and etoposide,) did not improve overall outcome in the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase 3 randomized clinical trial (AAML1031). Bortezomib prevents protein degradation, including RelA via the intracellular NF-kB pathway. In this study, we hypothesized that subgroups of pediatric AML patients benefitting from standard therapy plus bortezomib (ADEB) could be identified based on pre-treatment RelA expression and phosphorylation status. RelA-total and phosphorylation at serine 536 (RelA-pSer ) levels were measured in 483 patient samples using reverse phase protein array technology. In ADEB-treated patients, low-RelA-pSer was favorably prognostic when compared to high-RelA-pSer (3-yr overall survival (OS): 81% vs. 68%, p = 0.032; relapse risk (RR): 30% vs. 49%, p = 0.004). RR in low-RelA-pSer patients significantly decreased in ADEB compared to ADE (RR: 30% vs. 44%, p = 0.035). Correlation between RelA-pSer and 295 other assayed proteins identified a strong correlation with HSF1-pSer , another protein previously identified as modifying ADEB response. The combination of low-RelA-pSer and low-HSF1-pSer was a significant predictor of ADEB response (3-yr OS: 86% vs. 67%, p = 0.013). Thus, bortezomib may improve clinical outcome in a subgroup of AML patients identified by low-RelA-pSer and low-HSF1-pSer . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI

10.1002/prca.202100072

Alternate Title

Proteomics Clin Appl

PMID

34719869

Title

Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL1231: A Phase III Clinical Trial Testing Bortezomib in Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoma.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

JCO2102678

Date Published

2022 Mar 10

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To improve the outcomes of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LL), the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was examined in the Children's Oncology Group phase III clinical trial AALL1231, which also attempted to reduce the use of prophylactic cranial radiation (CRT) in newly diagnosed T-ALL.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS AND METHODS: </strong>Children and young adults with T-ALL/T-LL were randomly assigned to a modified augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy regimen with/without bortezomib during induction and delayed intensification. Multiple modifications were made to the augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster backbone used in the predecessor trial, AALL0434, including using dexamethasone instead of prednisone and adding two extra doses of pegaspargase in an attempt to eliminate CRT in most patients.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>AALL1231 accrued 824 eligible and evaluable patients from 2014 to 2017. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for arm A (no bortezomib) versus arm B (bortezomib) were 80.1% ± 2.3% versus 83.8% ± 2.1% (EFS, = .131) and 85.7% ± 2.0% versus 88.3% ± 1.8% (OS, = .085). Patients with T-LL had improved EFS and OS with bortezomib: 4-year EFS (76.5% ± 5.1% 86.4% ± 4.0%; = .041); and 4-year OS (78.3% ± 4.9% 89.5% ± 3.6%; = .009). No excess toxicity was seen with bortezomib. In AALL0434, 90.8% of patients with T-ALL received CRT. In AALL1231, 9.5% of patients were scheduled to receive CRT. Evaluation of comparable AALL0434 patients who received CRT and AALL1231 patients who did not receive CRT demonstrated no statistical differences in EFS ( = .412) and OS ( = .600).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Patients with T-LL had significantly improved EFS and OS with bortezomib on the AALL1231 backbone. Systemic therapy intensification allowed elimination of CRT in more than 90% of patients with T-ALL without excess relapse.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.21.02678

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

35271306

Title

Clinical relevance of proteomic profiling in de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 13

ISSN Number

1592-8721

Abstract

<p>Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease for at least 30% of patients, stressing the need for improved therapies and better risk stratification. As proteins are the unifying feature of (epi)genetic and environmental alterations, and are often targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents, we studied the proteomic landscape of pediatric AML. Protein expression and activation levels were measured in 500 bulk leukemic patient samples and 30 control CD34+ samples, using the reverse phase protein arrays with 296 strictly validated antibodies. The multi-step "MetaGalaxy" analysis methodology was applied and identified nine protein expression signatures (PrSIG), based on strong recurrent protein expression patterns. PrSIGs were associated with cytogenetics and mutational state, and with both favorable or unfavorable prognosis. Analysis based on treatment (i.e., ADE vs. ADE plus bortezomib (ADEB)) identified three PrSIGs that did better with ADEB vs. ADE. When PrSIGs were studied in the context of genetic subgroups, PrSIGs were independently prognostic after multivariate analysis, suggesting a potential value for proteomics in combination with current classification systems. Proteins with universally increased (n=7) or decreased (n=17) expression were observed across PrSIGs. Expression of certain proteins significantly differentially expressed from normal could be identified, forming a hypothetical platform for personalized medicine.</p>

DOI

10.3324/haematol.2021.279672

Alternate Title

Haematologica

PMID

35021602

Title

Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1-pSer326) Predicts Response to Bortezomib-Containing Chemotherapy in Pediatric AML: A COG Study.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 21

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

<p>Bortezomib (BTZ) was recently evaluated in a randomized Phase 3 clinical trial which compared standard chemotherapy (cytarabine, daunorubicin, etoposide; ADE) to standard therapy with BTZ (ADEB) for de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. While the study concluded that BTZ did not improve outcome overall, we examined patient subgroups benefitting from BTZ-containing chemotherapy using proteomic analyses. The proteasome inhibitor BTZ disrupts protein homeostasis and activates cytoprotective heat shock responses. We measured total heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and phosphorylated HSF1 (HSF1-pSer326) in leukemic cells from 483 pediatric patients using Reverse Phase Protein Arrays. HSF1-pSer326 phosphorylation was significantly lower in pediatric AML compared to CD34+ non-malignant cells. We identified a strong correlation between HSF1-pSer326 expression and BTZ sensitivity. BTZ significantly improved outcome of patients with low-HSF1-pSer326 with a 5-year event-free survival of 44% (ADE) vs. 67% for low-HSF1-pSer326 treated with ADEB (P=0.019). To determine the effect of HSF1 expression on BTZ potency in vitro, cell viability with HSF1 gene variants that mimicked phosphorylated (S326A) and non-phosphorylated (S326E) HSF1-pSer326 were examined. Those with increased HSF1 phosphorylation showed clear resistance to BTZ vs. those with wild type or reduced HSF1-phosphorylation. We hypothesize that HSF1-pSer326 expression could identify patients that benefit from BTZ-containing chemotherapy.</p>

DOI

10.1182/blood.2020005208

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

32959058

Title

Preclinical efficacy of daratumumab in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

995-9

Date Published

2018 Mar

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

<p>As a consequence of acquired or intrinsic disease resistance, the prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is dismal. Novel, less toxic drugs are clearly needed. One of the most promising emerging therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment is targeted immunotherapy. Immune therapies have improved outcomes for patients with other hematologic malignancies including B-ALL, however no immune therapy has been successfully developed for T-ALL. We hypothesize targeting CD38 will be effective against T-ALL. We demonstrate that blasts from patients with T-ALL have robust surface CD38 surface expression and that this expression remains stable after exposure to multi-agent chemotherapy. CD38 is expressed at very low levels on normal lymphoid and myeloid cells and on a few tissues of non-hematopoietic origin, suggesting that CD38 may be an ideal target. Daratumumab is a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody that binds CD38, and has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in patients with refractory multiple myeloma (MM). We tested daratumumab in a large panel of T-ALL patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and found striking efficacy in 14 of 15 different PDX. These data suggest that daratumumab is a promising novel therapy for pediatric T-ALL patients.</p>

DOI

10.1182/blood-2017-07-794214

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

29305553

Title

Center-level variation in accuracy of adverse event reporting in a clinical trial for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Jun 22

ISSN Number

1592-8721

DOI

10.3324/haematol.2017.168815

Alternate Title

Haematologica

PMID

28642300

Title

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Bortezomib in Pediatric Leukemia Patients: Model-Based Support for Body Surface Area-Based Dosing Over the 2- to 16-Year Age Range.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Apr 18

ISSN Number

1552-4604

Abstract

<p>This population analysis described the pharmacokinetics of bortezomib after twice-weekly, repeat-dose, intravenous administration in pediatric patients participating in 2 clinical trials: the phase 2 AALL07P1 (NCT00873093) trial in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the phase 3 AAML1031 (NCT01371981) trial in de novo acute myelogenous leukemia. The sources of variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized and quantified to support dosing recommendations. Patients received intravenous bortezomib 1.3&nbsp;mg/m(2) twice-weekly, on days 1, 4, and 8 during specific blocks or cycles of both trials and on day 11 of block 1 of study AALL07P1, in combination with multiagent chemotherapy. Blood samples were obtained and the plasma was harvested on day 8 over 0-72 hours postdose to measure bortezomib concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Concentration-time data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Covariates were examined using forward addition (P&nbsp;&lt; .01)/backward elimination (P &lt; .001). Data were included from 104 patients (49%/51% acute lymphoblastic leukemia/acute myelogenous leukemia; 60%/40% aged 2-11 years/12-16 years). Bortezomib pharmacokinetics were described by a 3-compartment model with linear elimination. Body surface area adequately accounted for variability in clearance (exponent 0.97), supporting body surface area-based dosing. Stratified visual predictive check simulations verified that neither age group nor patient population represented sources of meaningful pharmacokinetic heterogeneity not accounted for by the final population pharmacokinetic model. Following administration of 1.3&nbsp;mg/m(2) intravenous bortezomib doses, body surface area-normalized clearance in pediatric patients was similar to that observed in adult patients, thereby indicating that this dose achieves similar systemic exposures in pediatric patients.</p>

DOI

10.1002/jcph.906

Alternate Title

J Clin Pharmacol

PMID

28419486

Title

A comparison of discharge strategies after chemotherapy completion in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

1-8

Date Published

2016 Jan 4

ISSN Number

1029-2403

Abstract

<p>While most children receive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy as inpatients, there is variability in timing of discharge after chemotherapy completion. This study compared treatment-related morbidity, mortality and cumulative hospitalization in children with AML who were discharged after chemotherapy completion (early discharge) and those who remained hospitalized. Chart abstraction data for 153 early discharge-eligible patients enrolled on a Children's Oncology Group trial were compared by discharge strategy. Targeted toxicities included viridans group streptococcal (VGS) bacteremia, hypoxia and hypotension. Early discharge occurred in 11% of courses post-Induction I. Re-admission occurred in 80-100%, but median hospital stay was 7 days shorter. Patients discharged early had higher rates of VGS (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.11-2.51), hypoxia (aRR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.06-3.48) and hypotension (aRR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.01-9.46), but there was no difference in mortality. As pressure increases to shorten hospitalizations, these results have important implications for determining discharge practices in pediatric AML.</p>

DOI

10.3109/10428194.2015.1088652

Alternate Title

Leuk. Lymphoma

PMID

26727639

Title

Accuracy of Adverse Event Ascertainment in Clinical Trials for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Feb 16

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Reporting of adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials is critical to understanding treatment safety, but data on AE accuracy are limited. This study sought to determine the accuracy of AE reporting for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia clinical trials and to test whether an external electronic data source can improve reporting.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Reported AEs were evaluated on two trials, Children's Oncology Group AAML03P1 and AAML0531 arm B, with identical chemotherapy regimens but with different toxicity reporting requirements. Chart review for 12 AEs for patients enrolled in AAML0531 at 14 hospitals was the gold standard. The sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) of the AAML0531 AE report and AEs detected by review of Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) billing and microbiology data were compared with chart data.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Select AE rates from AAML03P1 and AAML0531 arm B differed significantly and correlated with the targeted toxicities of each trial. Chart abstraction was performed on 204 patients (758 courses) on AAML0531. AE report sensitivity was &lt; 50% for eight AEs, but PPV was &gt; 75% for six AEs. AE reports for viridans group streptococcal bacteremia, a targeted toxicity on AAML0531, had a sensitivity of 78.3% and PPV of 98.1%. PHIS billing data had higher sensitivity (&gt; 50% for nine AEs), but lower PPV (&lt; 75% for 10 AEs). Viridans group streptococcal detection using PHIS microbiology data had high sensitivity (92.3%) and PPV (97.3%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The current system of AE reporting for cooperative oncology group clinical trials in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia underestimates AE rates. The high sensitivity and PPV of PHIS microbiology data suggest that using external data sources may improve the accuracy of AE reporting.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2015.65.5860

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

26884558

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