First name
Victoria
Middle name
A
Last name
Miller

Title

Promoting healthy childhood behaviors with financial incentives: A narrative review of key considerations and design features for future research.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 14

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p>In the last decade, there has been a robust increase in research using financial incentives to promote healthy behaviors as behavioral economics and new monitoring technologies have been applied to health behaviors. Most studies of financial incentives on health behaviors have focused on adults, yet many unhealthy adult behaviors have roots in childhood and adolescence. The use of financial incentives is an attractive but controversial strategy in childhood. In this review, we first propose five general considerations in designing and applying incentive interventions to children. These include: (1) the potential impact of incentives on intrinsic motivation, (2) ethical concerns about incentives promoting undue influence, (3) the importance of child neurodevelopmental stage, (4) how incentives interventions may influence health disparities, and (5) how to finance effective programs. We then highlight empirical findings from randomized trials investigating key design features of financial incentive interventions, including framing (loss versus gain), timing (immediate versus delayed), and magnitude (incentive size) effects on a range of childhood behaviors from healthy eating to adherence to glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. Though the current research base on these subjects in children is limited, we found no evidence suggesting that loss-framed incentives perform better than gain-framed incentives in children and isolated studies from healthy food choice experiments support the use of immediate, small incentives versus delayed, larger incentives. Future research on childhood incentives should compare the effectiveness of gain versus loss-framing and focus on which intervention characteristics lead to sustained behavior change and habit formation.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2021.08.010

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

34403802

Title

Perspectives of Urban Adolescent Black Males and Their Parents on Well Care.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 27

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Adolescents have fewer well-care visits than all other age groups. Males and ethnic minorities are seen least often. We elicited, from Black adolescent males and their parents, key drivers of teen well-care seeking.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with Black adolescent males and their parents. We recruited parent-teen dyads from West Philadelphia. Eligible teens were age 13-18, with no complex chronic health conditions. We purposively sampled teens who had not received preventive care in at least two years, some of whom had since returned to care and some not. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded by two coders using the constant comparative method, resolving discrepancies by consensus. Interviews continued until thematic saturation.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We interviewed 23 Black adolescent males (mean age 15) and 22 parents (20 mothers). Participants understood that teens should routinely receive preventive care. Four themes emerged: receiving preventive care is important to knowing teens are mentally and physically well; remembering to schedule/attend visits is challenging - participants find appointment reminders helpful; mothers noted that males of all ages are generally disengaged from health care; teens and parents felt that a "good" parent ensures teens receive preventive care.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Black adolescent males and their parents value regular preventive care as an opportunity to ensure the teen is physically and mentally well, but competing priorities interfere with care receipt. Results support testing the impact of reminders on receipt of care in this population. These reminders may be most effective if directed at mothers and focused on "good parenting."</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2020.08.018

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

32861804

Title

Youth Involvement in the Decision to Start CGM Predicts Subsequent CGM Use.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 23

ISSN Number

1935-5548

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The ability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to improve diabetes outcomes depends upon consistent use. To identify factors that facilitate long-term use of CGM, this study tested the hypothesis that youth involvement in the decision to initiate this therapy would influence subsequent CGM use and that CGM self-efficacy and satisfaction mediate this relationship.</p>

<p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: </strong>Before initiating CGM, parent-youth dyads (i.e., pairs) from an academic endocrinology clinic completed assessments, including a measure of the child's involvement in the decision to start CGM. Two months into CGM use, youth completed measures of CGM self-efficacy and satisfaction. Fidelity of CGM use between weeks 5 and 12 was accessed via a cloud-based data repository. Hypotheses were tested with linear mixed effects models, accounting for patients clustered within provider and repeated measures within patients.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>CGM use in 108 dyads (youth mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years; 73% white) was positively predicted by baseline parent report of youth involvement in the CGM decision ( &lt; 0.0001), and this relationship was mediated by youth's perceptions of CGM self-efficacy ( &lt; 0.0001) and hassle ( = 0.014). So, when the youth shared their opinions about CGM with parents and participated in the decision to start, they perceived higher self-efficacy and lower hassle at 2-month follow-up, which predicted more days of use. This pattern held in models adjusting for youth race and sex and family income.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>To achieve maximum clinical benefit from CGM use, providers should facilitate youth involvement in the decision to initiate the device.</p>

DOI

10.2337/dc20-0348

Alternate Title

Diabetes Care

PMID

32703764

Title

The Tailored Adherence Incentives for Childhood Asthma Medications Randomized Trial: A Research Protocol for Children with High-Risk Asthma.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Apr 07

ISSN Number

1929-0748

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medications for children with high-risk asthma is a well-documented and poorly understood problem with a disproportionate prevalence and impact on urban minority children. Financial incentives have been shown as a compelling method to engage a high-risk asthma population, but whether and how adherence can be maintained and lead to sustained high adherence trajectories is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine the marginal effects of a financial incentive-based ICS adherence intervention on adherence, healthcare system use, and costs in a prospective cohort of child-caregiver dyads.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Participants include 125 children aged 5-12 years who have had at least two hospitalizations or one hospitalization and one emergency room visit for asthma in the prior year and their caregivers. All participants have an electronic inhaler sensor that is linked to a smartphone app to track medication use for 7 months. After one month of observation, participants are randomized to one of three possible arms for a 3-month experiment. Participants in arm 1 receive daily text message reminders, feedback, and nominal gain-framed financial incentives; those in arm 2 receive daily text message reminders and feedback only and those in arm 3 receive no reminders, feedback, or incentives. All participants are then observed for an additional 3 months with no reminders, feedback, or incentives to assess for sustained effects.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Study enrollment began in September 2019. Estimated primary completion date is June of 2022 and analyses will be completed by June of 2023.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The present study will provide data on whether a financial incentive-based mobile-health intervention for promoting ICS use is efficacious in high-risk asthma patients over time.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICALTRIAL: </strong>Clinicaltrial.gov NCT03907410; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03907410.</p&gt;

DOI

10.2196/16711

Alternate Title

JMIR Res Protoc

PMID

32459653

Title

The Association of Perceived Social Support with Anxiety over Time in Parents of Children with Serious Illnesses.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Nov 07

ISSN Number

1557-7740

Abstract

<p> Parenting a child with a serious life-threatening illness (SLTI) may impact parents' mental health. The protective association of social support with anxiety over time following an acute medical event has not been empirically tested in a sample of parents of children with oncologic and nononcologic serious illnesses. To test the potential association of perceived social support with anxiety in parents of children with SLTIs over time. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred parents of 158 children in the Decision Making in Serious Pediatric Illness study, conducted at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Parental anxiety and perceived social support were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). We performed bivariate linear regressions to test cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the SPS and anxiety scores at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The average SPS total and subscale scores decreased significantly from baseline to 12 months, and increased from 12 to 24 months. The average HADS-Anxiety scores decreased significantly from baseline to 12 months, and remained stable at 24 months. Cross-sectionally, total SPS scores were negatively associated with anxiety scores at each time point. Longitudinally, SPS scores were associated with anxiety scores, although this association weakened in adjusted modeling. Over a two-year period, higher levels of perceived social support were associated with lower levels of anxiety in parents of seriously ill children. Clinicians and researchers should work to optimize social support for families to improve parental mental health outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1089/jpm.2019.0387

Alternate Title

J Palliat Med

PMID

31697175

Title

Tailored medication adherence incentives for high-risk children with asthma: a pilot study.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-7

Date Published

2019 Aug 07

ISSN Number

1532-4303

Abstract

<p>While reminder-based electronic monitoring systems have shown promise in enhancing inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence in select populations, more engaging strategies may be needed in families of children with high-risk asthma. This study assesses the acceptability and feasibility of gain-framed ICS adherence incentives in families of urban, minority children with frequent asthma hospitalization. We enrolled children aged 5-11 years with multiple yearly asthma hospitalizations in a 2-month, mixed methods, ICS adherence incentive pilot study. All participants received inhaler sensors and a smartphone app to track ICS use. During month 1, families received daily adherence reminders and weekly feedback, and children earned up to $1/day for complete adherence. No reminders, feedback, or incentives were provided in month 2. We assessed feasibility and acceptability using caregiver surveys and semi-structured interviews and ICS adherence using electronic monitoring data. Of the 29 families approached, 20 enrolled (69%). Participants were primarily Black (95%), publicly insured (75%), and averaged 2.9 asthma hospitalizations in the prior year. Fifteen of the 16 caregivers (94%) surveyed at month 2 liked the idea of receiving adherence incentives. Mean adherence was significantly higher in month 1 compared with month 2 (80% vs. 33%, mean difference = 47%; 95% CI [33, 61],  &lt; 0.001). Caregivers reported that their competing priorities often limited adherence, while incentives helped motivate child adherence. ICS adherence incentives were acceptable and feasible in a high-risk cohort of children with asthma. Future studies should assess the efficacy of adherence incentives in enhancing ICS adherence in high-risk children.</p>

DOI

10.1080/02770903.2019.1648503

Alternate Title

J Asthma

PMID

31389724

Title

Changes Over Time in Good-Parent Beliefs Among Parents of Children with Serious Illness: A Two-Year Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 23

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Parents of seriously ill children hold personal beliefs about what they should do to be good parents. How these beliefs change over time is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Describe the pattern of Good-Parent Beliefs over time, and determine whether parents' hopeful patterns of thinking, affect, and perceived child's health are associated with changes in beliefs at 12 and 24 months.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Our longitudinal sample included 124 parents of 100 children hospitalized with serious illness. We used latent transition models (LTM) to classify parents into groups with similar Good-Parent Beliefs during the baseline and follow-up periods, and modeled the change in good-parent beliefs over time as a function of covariates using generalized linear mixed models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Two parent belief profiles emerged from the LTM: Loved ("Making sure my child feels loved", n=61 at baseline) and Informed ("Making informed decisions", n=63 at baseline). At 12 months, 21 parents (20.4%) had moved into the Loved group and no parents transitioned to the Informed group. By 24 months, 8 parents transitioned to the Loved group and 4 to the Informed group (13.04%). Transition into the Loved group was associated with parents' baseline degree of hopeful thinking and positive perceptions of child's health at baseline.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Some parents change their parenting priorities over time. Hopeful patterns of thinking and perception of child health appear to predict change. Clinicians should regularly reevaluate Good-Parent Beliefs over time to promote priority-congruent dialogue.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.04.018

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

31026508

Title

Interprofessional Teamwork During Family Meetings in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Mar 12

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Parents of children in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) report inadequate communication and a lack of empathy during conversations with their clinicians.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess quantitatively and qualitatively the contributions made by team members of different professions in communicating with parents during family meetings.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Prospective observational study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING/SUBJECTS: </strong>The pediatric CICU at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Subjects were members of the interprofessional team attending family meetings for patients admitted to the CICU longer than two weeks.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS: </strong>We used quantitative conversation attribution and coding to compare durations of attendee contributions and contribution type by professional role. The SCOPE codebook and other quantitative codes drawn from best practices in family meetings were used to measure communication behaviors. A qualitative analysis of nurses' and social workers' contributions was used to identify themes not otherwise captured.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Across 10 meetings, physicians spoke for an average of 78.1% (SD 10.7%) of each meeting, non-physicians 9.6% (SD 7.8%), and parents 17.4% (SD 12.2%). Parental understanding was assessed an average of 0.2 (SD 0.4) times per meeting. Parents expressed emotion an average of 4.2 times per meeting (SD 7.1) and the clinical team responded empathetically 2.2 times per meeting (SD 4.3). All clinician empathic responses were a minority of their overall contributions. Conversation was almost exclusively between physicians and families until physicians indicated other team members could contribute.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Coordination of team members' roles in the meetings may improve parental engagement necessary for decision-making and empathic responses that are often missed.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.03.002

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

30876957

Title

Changes in Parental Hopes for Seriously Ill Children.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

pii: e20173549

Date Published

2018 Apr

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Hopes of parents of children with serious illness play an important role in decision-making and coping. Little is known about how parent hopes change over time. We describe the changes in parent hopes across multiple domains and time intervals, examine hopes in a subgroup of parents whose child died, and explore the maintenance of domains over time.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In a mixed-methods prospective cohort study on decision-making, parents of seriously ill children reported demographic characteristics and hopes at baseline and reported any changes in hopes at 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-month follow-up visits. Hopes were coded into 9 domains. Hope changes and domain changes were identified for each parent at each visit.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>One hundred and ninety-nine parents of 158 patients most often reported hopes in the domains of quality of life (75%), physical body (69%), future well-being (47%), and medical care (34%). Hope percentages increased over time for quality of life (84%), future well-being (64%), and broader meaning (21%). The hope domains reported by parents of children who died were similar to the rest of the sample. The majority of parents who completed 5 to 6 follow-up visits changed at least 1 domain. At the individual parent level, some domains revealed considerable change over time, whereas other domains were stable among a subset of parents.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The specific hopes and overall areas of hope of parents of seriously ill children vary over time, although most hopes fall within 4 major areas. Accordingly, clinicians should regularly check with parents about their current hopes.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2017-3549

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

29567813

Title

Controller adherence following hospital discharge in high risk children: A pilot randomized trial of text message reminders.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-9

Date Published

2018 Feb 13

ISSN Number

1532-4303

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess the feasibility of a mobile health, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence reminder intervention and to characterize adherence trajectories immediately following severe asthma exacerbation in high-risk urban children with persistent asthma.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children aged 2-13 with persistent asthma were enrolled in this pilot randomized controlled trial during an asthma emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization. Intervention arm participants received daily text message reminders for 30 days, and both arms received electronic sensors to measure ICS use. Primary outcomes were feasibility of sensor use and text message acceptability. Secondary outcomes included adherence to prescribed ICS regimen and 30-day adherence trajectories. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine adherence trajectories.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Forty-one participants (mean age 5.9) were randomized to intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Overall, 85% were Black, 88% had public insurance, and 51% of the caregivers had a high school education or less. Thirty-two participant families (78%) transmitted medication adherence data; of caregivers who completed the acceptability survey, 25 (96%) chose to receive daily reminders beyond that study interval. Secondary outcome analyses demonstrated similar average daily adherence between groups (intervention = 36%; control = 32%, P = 0.73). Three adherence trajectories were identified with none ever exceeding 80% adherence.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Within a high-risk pediatric cohort, electronic monitoring of ICS use and adherence reminders delivered via text message were feasible for most participants, but there was no signal of effect. Adherence trajectories following severe exacerbation were suboptimal, demonstrating an important opportunity for asthma care improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1080/02770903.2018.1424195

Alternate Title

J Asthma

PMID

29437489

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