First name
Centers
Middle name
for Disease Control and Prevention Epicenters
Last name
Program

Title

A Pragmatic Biomarker-Driven Algorithm to Guide Antibiotic Use in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: The Optimizing Antibiotic Strategies in Sepsis (OASIS) Study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 May 4

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Biomarkers that identify critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at low risk for bacterial infection may help clinicians reduce unnecessary antibiotic use.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a prospective cohort study of children with SIRS and suspected infection admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from January 5, 2012 to March 7, 2014. We enrolled patients upon initiation of new antibiotics (Time 0) and measured a panel of 8 serum biomarkers daily over 72 hours. Microbiology, imaging, and clinical data were reviewed to classify bacterial infections using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. We identified cut points of biomarker combinations to maximize the negative predictive value (NPV) and specificity for bacterial infection. Excess antibiotics were calculated as days of therapy beyond day 2 after SIRS onset in patients without bacterial infection.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Infections were identified in 46 of 85 patients: bacterial (n = 22) and viral (24), whereas 39 patients had no infection identified. At Time 0, C-reactive protein (CRP) &lt;5 mg/dL plus serum amyloid A &lt;15.0 µg/mL had an NPV of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.0) and specificity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42-0.66) to identify patients without bacterial infection, whereas CRP &lt;4 mg/dL plus procalcitonin &lt;1.75 ng/mL had an NPV of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-1.0) and specificity of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.30-0.55). Patients without bacterial infection received a mean of 3.8 excess days of therapy.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Early measurement of select biomarkers can identify children with SIRS in whom antibiotics might be safely discontinued when there is no other objective evidence of infection at 48 hours.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piw023

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

27147715

Title

Point-of-prescription interventions to improve antimicrobial stewardship.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

1252-8

Date Published

04/2015

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p>Antimicrobial stewardship is pivotal to improving patient outcomes, reducing adverse events, decreasing healthcare costs, and preventing further emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In an era in which antimicrobial resistance is increasing, judicious antimicrobial use is the responsibility of every healthcare provider. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have made headway in improving antimicrobial prescribing using such "top-down" methods as formulary restriction and prospective audit with feedback; however, engagement of prescribers has not been fully explored. Strategies that include frontline prescribers and other unit-based healthcare providers have the potential to expand stewardship, both to augment existing centralized ASPs and to provide alternative approaches to perform stewardship at healthcare facilities with limited resources. This review discusses interventions focusing on antimicrobial prescribing at the point of prescription as well as a pilot project to engage unit-based healthcare providers in antimicrobial stewardship.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/civ018

Alternate Title

Clin. Infect. Dis.

PMID

25595748

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.