First name
Matthew
Last name
Kronman

Title

Pediatric research priorities in healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

1-4

Date Published

2020 Nov 26

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level "harm index" for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.1267

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

33239122

Title

Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Pediatric Medicaid Enrollees.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Jan 23

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is overused in cases where highly bioavailable oral alternatives would be equally effective. However, the scope of OPAT use for children nationwide is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize OPAT use and clinical outcomes for a large population of pediatric Medicaid enrollees treated with OPAT.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We analyzed the Truven MarketScan Medicaid claims database between 2009 and 2012. An OPAT episode was identified by capturing children with claims data indicating home infusion therapy for an intravenous antimicrobial. We characterized OPAT use by describing patient demographics, diagnoses, and antimicrobials prescribed. We categorized an antimicrobial as highly bioavailable if ≥80% systemic exposure was expected from the peroral dose. We also determined the percentage of OPAT recipients in whom a follow-up healthcare encounter occurred during the OPAT episode in either the emergency department or as a hospital admission. We reviewed the primary diagnoses associated with these healthcare encounters to determine whether it was related to OPAT.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 3433 OPAT episodes in 2687 patients. A total of 4774 antimicrobials were prescribed during these episodes. Ceftriaxone and vancomycin were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Highly bioavailable antimicrobials accounted for 34% of antimicrobials used for OPAT. An emergency department visit or hospital admission occurred during 38% of OPAT episodes, among which 61% were OPAT-related.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The high rate of medical encounters associated with OPAT in this cohort and the common prescribing of highly bioavailable antimicrobials underscore the opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship of pediatric OPAT.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piv106

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

26803327

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