First name
Robert
Last name
Phillips

Title

Guideline for the Management of Fever and Neutropenia in Pediatric Patients With Cancer and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients: 2023 Update.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

JCO2202224

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

PURPOSE: To update a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the empiric management of fever and neutropenia (FN) in pediatric patients with cancer and hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

METHODS: The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel reconvened to conduct the second update of this CPG. We updated the previous systematic review to identify new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any strategy for the management of FN in pediatric patients. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework, evidence quality was classified as high, moderate, low, or very low. The panel updated recommendations related to initial management, ongoing management, and empiric antifungal therapy. Changes from the 2017 CPG were articulated, and good practice statements were considered.

RESULTS: We identified 10 new RCTs in addition to the 69 RCTs identified in previous FN CPGs to inform the 2023 FN CPG. Changes from the 2017 CPG included two conditional recommendations regarding (1) discontinuation of empiric antibacterial therapy in clinically well and afebrile patients with low-risk FN if blood cultures remain negative at 48 hours despite no evidence of marrow recovery and (2) pre-emptive antifungal therapy for invasive fungal disease in high-risk patients not receiving antimold prophylaxis. The panel created a good practice statement to initiate FN CPG-consistent empiric antibacterial therapy as soon as possible in clinically unstable febrile patients.

CONCLUSION: The updated FN CPG incorporates important modifications on the basis of recently published trials. Future work should focus on addressing knowledge gaps, improving CPG implementation, and measuring the impact of CPG-consistent care.

DOI

10.1200/JCO.22.02224

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

36689694

Title

Guideline for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Children and Adolescents With Cancer and Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

JCO1800407

Date Published

2018 Sep 14

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p>Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a clinical practice guideline for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children and adolescents with cancer and pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Methods An international multidisciplinary panel of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases with patient advocate representation was convened. We performed systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for the prevention or treatment of CDI in any population and considered the directness of the evidence to children with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to generate recommendations. Results The panel made strong recommendations to administer either oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin for the initial treatment of nonsevere CDI and oral vancomycin for the initial treatment of severe CDI. Fidaxomicin may be considered in the setting of recurrent CDI. The panel suggested that probiotics not be routinely used for the prevention of CDI, and that monoclonal antibodies and probiotics not be routinely used for the treatment of CDI. A strong recommendation to not use fecal microbiota transplantation was made in this population. We identified key knowledge gaps and suggested directions for future research. Conclusion We present a guideline for the prevention and treatment of CDI in children and adolescents with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients. Future research should include randomized controlled trials that involve children with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients to improve the management of CDI in this population.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.18.00407

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

30216124

Title

Guideline for the Management of Fever and Neutropenia in Children With Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients: 2017 Update.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

JCO2016717017

Date Published

2017 May 01

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p>Purpose To update a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the empirical management of fever and neutropenia (FN) in children with cancer and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients. Methods The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel is a multidisciplinary and multinational group of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases that includes a patient advocate. For questions of risk stratification and evaluation, we updated systematic reviews of observational studies. For questions of therapy, we conducted a systematic review of randomized trials of any intervention applied for the empirical management of pediatric FN. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to make strong or weak recommendations and to classify levels of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low. Results Recommendations related to initial presentation, ongoing management, and empirical antifungal therapy of pediatric FN were reviewed; the most substantial changes were related to empirical antifungal therapy. Key differences from our 2012 FN CPG included the listing of a fourth-generation cephalosporin for empirical therapy in high-risk FN, refinement of risk stratification to define patients with high-risk invasive fungal disease (IFD), changes in recommended biomarkers and radiologic investigations for the evaluation of IFD in prolonged FN, and a weak recommendation to withhold empirical antifungal therapy in IFD low-risk patients with prolonged FN. Conclusion Changes to the updated FN CPG recommendations will likely influence the care of pediatric patients with cancer and those undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Future work should focus on closing research gaps and on identifying ways to facilitate implementation and adaptation.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2016.71.7017

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

28459614

Title

Guideline for the management of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer and/or undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

4427-38

Date Published

2012 Dec 10

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To develop an evidence-based guideline for the empiric management of pediatric fever and neutropenia (FN).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel is a multidisciplinary and multinational group composed of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious disease as well as a patient advocate. The Panel was convened for the purpose of creating this guideline. We followed previously validated procedures for creating evidence-based guidelines. Working groups focused on initial presentation, ongoing management, and empiric antifungal therapy. Each working group developed key clinical questions, conducted systematic reviews of the published literature, and compiled evidence summaries. The Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to generate summaries, and evidence was classified as high, moderate, low, or very low based on methodologic considerations.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Recommendations were made related to initial presentation (risk stratification, initial evaluation, and treatment), ongoing management (modification and cessation of empiric antibiotics), and empiric antifungal treatment (risk stratification, evaluation, and treatment) of pediatric FN. For each recommendation, the strength of the recommendation and level of evidence are presented.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>This guideline represents an evidence-based approach to FN specific to children with cancer. Although some recommendations are similar to adult-based guidelines, there are key distinctions in multiple areas. Implementation will require adaptation to the local context.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2012.42.7161

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

22987086

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.