First name
Amanda
Middle name
L
Last name
Adler

Title

Chlorhexidine gluconate bathing in children with cancer or those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 20

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>To the authors' knowledge, information regarding whether daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) reduces central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in pediatric oncology patients and those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is limited.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In the current multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients aged ≥2 months and &lt;22 years with cancer or those undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized 1:1 to once-daily bathing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths or control cloths for 90 days. The primary outcome was CLABSI. Secondary endpoints included total positive blood cultures, acquisition of resistant organisms, and acquisition of cutaneous staphylococcal isolates with an elevated CHG mean inhibitory concentration.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study was stopped early because of poor accrual. Among the 177 enrolled patients, 174 were considered as evaluable (88 were randomized to the CHG group and 86 were randomized to the control group). The rate of CLABSI per 1000 central line days in the CHG group was 5.44 versus 3.10 in the control group (risk difference, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-4.69 [P = .049]). Post hoc conditional power analysis demonstrated a 0.2% chance that the results would have favored CHG had the study fully enrolled. The rate of total positive blood cultures did not differ between groups (risk difference, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, -0.41 to 5.14 [P = .078]). The number of patients demonstrating the new acquisition of resistant organisms did not differ between groups (P = .54). Patients in the CHG group were found to be more likely to acquire cutaneous staphylococcal isolates with an elevated CHG mean inhibitory concentration (P = .032).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The data from the current study do not support the use of routine CHG bathing in children with cancer or those undergoing allogeneic HCT.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.33271

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

33079403

Title

Antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with subsequent resistant infections in children with an initial extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Mar 13

ISSN Number

1098-6596

Abstract

<p>The objective of this study was to assess the association between previous antibiotic use, particularly long-term prophylaxis, and occurrence of subsequent resistant infections in children with index infections due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae We also investigated the concordance of index and subsequent isolates. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from normally sterile sites of patients aged &lt;22 years were collected along with associated clinical data from four freestanding pediatric centers. Subsequent isolates were categorized as concordant if the species, resistance determinants, and fumC/fimH (E. coli) or tonB (K. pneumoniae) type were identical to the index isolate. In total, 323 patients had 396 resistant isolates; 45 (14%) patients had ≥1 subsequent resistant infection, totaling 73 subsequent resistant isolates. The median time between index and first subsequent infection was 123 days (interquartile range 43, 225). In multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses, patients were 2.07 times as likely to have a subsequent resistant infection (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 3.87) if they received prophylaxis in the 30 days prior to the index infection. In 26 (58%) patients, all subsequent isolates were concordant with their index isolate and 7 (16%) additional patients had at least 1 concordant subsequent isolate. In 12 (71%) of 17 patients with E. coli ST131-associated type 40-30, all subsequent isolates were concordant. Subsequent extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant infections are relatively frequent and are most commonly due to bacterial strains concordant with the index isolate. Further study is needed to assess the role prophylaxis plays in these resistant infections.</p>

DOI

10.1128/AAC.02656-16

Alternate Title

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.

PMID

28289030

Title

Variation in Antibiotic Use for Children Hospitalized With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Exacerbation: A Multicenter Validation Study.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

306-13

Date Published

2012 Dec

ISSN Number

2048-7193

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Antibiotics are often given for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exacerbations, but their use among pediatric inpatients has not been assessed. We aimed to validate administrative data for identifying hospitalizations for IBD exacerbation and to characterize antibiotic use for IBD exacerbations across children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>To validate administrative data for identifying IBD exacerbation, we reviewed charts of 409 patients with IBD at 3 US tertiary care children's hospitals. Using the case definition with optimal test characteristics, we identified 3450 children with 5063 hospitalizations for IBD exacerbation at 36 children's hospitals between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009, excluding those with diagnosis codes for specific bacterial infections. We estimated predicted and expected hospital-specific antibiotic utilization rates using mixed-effects logistic regression, adjusting for patient- and hospital-level factors.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Administrative codes for receipt of intravenous steroids or endoscopy provided 79% positive predictive value and 71% sensitivity for identifying hospitalizations for IBD exacerbation. Antibiotics were administered for ≥2 of the first 3 hospital days during 40.7% of IBD exacerbations in US children's hospitals; however, the proportion of patients receiving antibiotics varied significantly across hospitals from 27% to 71% (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001), despite adjustment for several patient- and hospital-level variables. Among those given antibiotics, the 3 most common regimens were metronidazole alone (26.9%), metronidazole with ciprofloxacin (10.3%), and ampicillin with gentamicin and metronidazole (7.0%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Significant variability exists in antibiotic use for children hospitalized with IBD exacerbation, which is unexplained by disease severity or hospital volume. Further study should determine the optimal antibiotic therapy for this condition.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/pis053

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

23687581

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