First name
Michelle
Last name
Ross

Title

Persistent Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: A 6-Year Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 18

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the natural history of pediatric hypertension.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a 72-month retrospective cohort study among 165 primary care sites. Blood pressure measurements from two consecutive 36 month periods were compared.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 398 079 primary care pediatric patients ages 3 to 18, 89 347 had ≥3 blood pressure levels recorded during a 36-month period, and 43 825 children had ≥3 blood pressure levels for 2 consecutive 36-month periods. Among these 43 825 children, 4.3% (1881) met criteria for hypertension (3.5% [1515] stage 1, 0.8% [366] stage 2) and 4.9% (2144) met criteria for elevated blood pressure in the first 36 months. During the second 36 months, 50% (933) of hypertensive patients had no abnormal blood pressure levels, 22% (406) had elevated blood pressure levels or &lt;3 hypertensive blood pressure levels, and 29% (542) had ≥3 hypertensive blood pressure levels. Of 2144 patients with elevated blood pressure in the first 36 months, 70% (1492) had no abnormal blood pressure levels, 18% (378) had persistent elevated blood pressure levels, and 13% (274) developed hypertension in the second 36-months. Among the 7775 patients with abnormal blood pressure levels in the first 36-months, only 52% (4025) had ≥3 blood pressure levels recorded during the second 36-months.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a primary care cohort, most children initially meeting criteria for hypertension or elevated blood pressure had subsequent normal blood pressure levels or did not receive recommended follow-up measurements. These results highlight the need for more nuanced initial blood pressure assessment and systems to promote follow-up of abnormal results.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-3778

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32948657

Title

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Factors Associated with Water Intake Among Adolescents with Kidney Stone Disease.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Aug 01

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Maintaining high water intake reduces kidney stone recurrence, but is difficult to do. Strategies to reduce stone recurrence among adolescents are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted an ecological momentary assessment study to identify factors associated with water intake among 25 adolescents with nephrolithiasis. Over 7-days, participants used smart bottles to self-monitor water intake and received questionnaires randomly four times daily that were completed in real-time on mobile devices. The questionnaires ascertained awareness of water intake volume, awareness of water intake goals, perceived need to drink, access to water, alternative beverage consumption, and attitudes towards bathrooms. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the association between momentary responses and daily water intake.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Over 175 person-days, 595 (85%) assessments were completed. Median daily water intake was 1304mL (IQR 848-1832); 20% of participants met their intake goal for ≥4 days. Unawareness of water intake volume was associated with drinking 690mL less water a day (p=0.04). A strong self-perceived need to drink more was associated with drinking 1954 mL less water each day compared to no need to drink more (p&lt;0.01). Unawareness of intake goals was weakly associated with drinking 1129 mL less water each day(p=0.1). Access to water, alternative beverage consumption, and bathroom aversion were not associated with water intake.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Unawareness of water volume consumed and low responsiveness to the perceived need to drink more were associated with low water intake. Interventions that help adolescents recognize when and identify how to increase water intake may be effective in reducing stone recurrence.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.juro.2018.07.064

Alternate Title

J. Urol.

PMID

30076905

Title

Diagnosis and Medication Treatment of Pediatric Hypertension: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Dec

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Pediatric hypertension predisposes children to adult hypertension and early markers of cardiovascular disease. No large-scale studies have examined diagnosis and initial medication management of pediatric hypertension and prehypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate diagnosis and initial medication management of pediatric hypertension and prehypertension in primary care.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study aggregating electronic health record data on &gt;1.2 million pediatric patients from 196 ambulatory clinics across 27 states. Demographic, diagnosis, blood pressure (BP), height, weight, and medication prescription data extracted. Main outcome measures include proportion of pediatric patients with ≥3 visits with abnormal BPs, documented hypertension and prehypertension diagnoses, and prescribed antihypertensive medications. Marginal standardization via logistic regression produced adjusted diagnosis rates.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Three hundred ninety-eight thousand seventy-nine patients, ages 3 to 18, had ≥3 visits with BP measurements (48.9% girls, 58.6% &lt;10 years old). Of these, 3.3% met criteria for hypertension and 10.1% for prehypertension. Among practices with ≥50 eligible patients, 2813 of 12 138 patients with hypertension (23.2%; 95% confidence interval, 18.2%-28.2%) and 3990 of 38 874 prehypertensive patients (10.2%; 95% confidence interval, 8.2%-12.2%) were diagnosed. Age, weight, height, sex, and number and magnitude of abnormal BPs were associated with diagnosis rates. Of 2813 diagnosed, persistently hypertensive patients, 158 (5.6%) were prescribed antihypertensive medication within 12 months of diagnosis (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptive blockers [35%], diuretics [22%], calcium channel blockers [17%], and β-blockers [10%]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Hypertension and prehypertension were infrequently diagnosed among pediatric patients. Guidelines for diagnosis and initial medication management of abnormal BP in pediatric patients are not routinely followed.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2016-2195

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

27940711

Title

Asthma Control Test: Comparing Parent Proxy With Parent and Child Report for Children 6 to 12 Years.

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 23

ISSN Number

1938-2707

Abstract

<p>We compared results of a modified version of the Asthma Control Test using parent proxy report (PP-ACT) with results reported by children and parents using the validated Childhood-Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). 104 parent-child dyads with a child aged 6 to 12 years with asthma were randomized to complete PP-ACT followed by C-ACT or C-ACT followed by PP-ACT. Scores ≤19 indicated uncontrolled asthma. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the PP-ACT in comparison with the C-ACT, and calculated concordance between the 2 scales. The PP-ACT had sensitivity of 86% and negative predictive value of 88% for detecting uncontrolled asthma. More than 75% of surveys were concordant (κ = 0.54, moderate agreement). Our results suggest that while the PP-ACT missed few children with uncontrolled asthma and may simplify reporting of asthma control in circumstances when child report is not feasible or creates barriers to survey receipt, limitations of proxy reporting should be considered.</p>

DOI

10.1177/0009922816675013

Alternate Title

Clin Pediatr (Phila)

PMID

27798397

Title

Asthma Control Test: Comparing Parent Proxy With Parent and Child Report for Children 6 to 12 Years

Year of Publication

2016

Date Published

2016 Oct 23

Abstract

We compared results of a modified version of the Asthma Control Test using parent proxy report (PP-ACT) with results reported by children and parents using the validated Childhood-Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). 104 parent-child dyads with a child aged 6 to 12 years with asthma were randomized to complete PP-ACT followed by C-ACT or C-ACT followed by PP-ACT. Scores ≤19 indicated uncontrolled asthma. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the PP-ACT in comparison with the C-ACT, and calculated concordance between the 2 scales. The PP-ACT had sensitivity of 86% and negative predictive value of 88% for detecting uncontrolled asthma. More than 75% of surveys were concordant (κ = 0.54, moderate agreement). Our results suggest that while the PP-ACT missed few children with uncontrolled asthma and may simplify reporting of asthma control in circumstances when child report is not feasible or creates barriers to survey receipt, limitations of proxy reporting should be considered.

PMID

27798397

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