First name
Sarah
Last name
Alexander

Title

Guideline for the Management of Fever and Neutropenia in Pediatric Patients With Cancer and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients: 2023 Update.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

JCO2202224

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

PURPOSE: To update a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the empiric management of fever and neutropenia (FN) in pediatric patients with cancer and hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

METHODS: The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel reconvened to conduct the second update of this CPG. We updated the previous systematic review to identify new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any strategy for the management of FN in pediatric patients. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework, evidence quality was classified as high, moderate, low, or very low. The panel updated recommendations related to initial management, ongoing management, and empiric antifungal therapy. Changes from the 2017 CPG were articulated, and good practice statements were considered.

RESULTS: We identified 10 new RCTs in addition to the 69 RCTs identified in previous FN CPGs to inform the 2023 FN CPG. Changes from the 2017 CPG included two conditional recommendations regarding (1) discontinuation of empiric antibacterial therapy in clinically well and afebrile patients with low-risk FN if blood cultures remain negative at 48 hours despite no evidence of marrow recovery and (2) pre-emptive antifungal therapy for invasive fungal disease in high-risk patients not receiving antimold prophylaxis. The panel created a good practice statement to initiate FN CPG-consistent empiric antibacterial therapy as soon as possible in clinically unstable febrile patients.

CONCLUSION: The updated FN CPG incorporates important modifications on the basis of recently published trials. Future work should focus on addressing knowledge gaps, improving CPG implementation, and measuring the impact of CPG-consistent care.

DOI

10.1200/JCO.22.02224

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

36689694

Title

Prospective Evaluation of the Fungitell® (1→3) Beta-D-Glucan Assay as a Diagnostic Tool for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

e14399

Date Published

02/2023

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as the beta-D-glucan assay, may improve the diagnosis of IFD. The objective was to define the utility of surveillance testing using Fungitell® beta-D-glucan (BDG) assay in children receiving antifungal prophylaxis in the immediate post-HCT period.

METHODS: Weekly surveillance blood testing with the Fungitell® BDG assay was performed during the early post-HCT period in the context of a randomized trial of children, adolescents, and young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT allocated to triazole or caspofungin prophylaxis. Positivity was defined at the manufacturer cutoff of 80 pg/ml. IFD was adjudicated using blinded central reviewers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the Fungitell® BDG assay for the outcome of proven or probable IFD.

RESULTS: A total of 51 patients (out of 290 patients in the parent trial) contributed blood specimens. In total, 278 specimens were evaluated. Specificity was 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.6%-85.3%), and NPV was over 99% (95% CI: 86.8%-99.9%). However, there were no true positive results, resulting in sensitivity of 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-84.2%) and PPV of 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-6.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: Fungitell® BDG screening is of limited utility in diagnosing IFD in the post-HCT period, mainly due to high false-positive rates. Fungitell® BDG surveillance testing should not be performed in children during the early post-HCT period while receiving antifungal prophylaxis as the pretest probability for IFD is low.

DOI

10.1111/petr.14399

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

36299233

Title

Prospective Evaluation of Galactomannan and (1→3) β-d-Glucan Assays as Diagnostic Tools for Invasive Fungal Disease in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Fungal Prophylaxis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 26

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD). Diagnosis of IFD is challenging, leading to interest in fungal biomarkers. The objective was to define the utility of surveillance testing with Platelia Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Fungitell β-d-glucan (BDG) assay in children with AML receiving antifungal prophylaxis.

METHODS: Twice-weekly surveillance blood testing with GM EIA and BDG assay was performed during periods of neutropenia in the context of a randomized trial of children, adolescents, and young adults with AML allocated to fluconazole or caspofungin prophylaxis. Proven or probable IFD was adjudicated using blinded central reviewers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for Platelia and Fungitell assays alone and in combination for the outcomes of proven and probable invasive aspergillosis (IA) or invasive candidiasis (IC).

RESULTS: Among 471 patients enrolled, 425 participants (209 fluconazole and 216 caspofungin) contributed ≥1 blood specimen. In total, 6103 specimens were evaluated, with a median of 15 specimens per patient (range 1-43). The NPV was >99% for GM EIA and BDG assay alone and in combination. However, there were no true positive results, resulting in sensitivity and PPV for each assay of 0%.

CONCLUSIONS: The GM EIA and the BDG assay alone or in combination were not successful at detecting IA or IC during periods of neutropenia in children, adolescents, and young adults with AML receiving antifungal prophylaxis. Utilization of these assays for surveillance in this clinical setting should be discouraged.

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab036

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34173659

Title

Musculoskeletal impairments in children receiving intensive therapy for acute leukemia or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29053

Date Published

2021 Apr 23

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children receiving intensive chemotherapy for leukemia or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for solid tumors or leukemia are at risk for musculoskeletal (MSK) impairment from their underlying disease and from treatment. Data are limited on the incidence and nature of these disorders during intensive therapy. This study's objective was to provide a cross-sectional description of MSK impairments in this population.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rALL), or undergoing HSCT were systematically assessed for MSK impairments as part of Children's Oncology Group study ACCL0934. Assessments occurred at study entry, at 2&nbsp;months, and at 12&nbsp;months and included evaluation for signs or symptoms of MSK impairment and the type, site, and diagnosis.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Six hundred three patients were included. MSK signs or symptoms were present in 48 (8.0%) children at study entry, 64 (13.5%) children at 2&nbsp;months, and 40 (11.6%) children at 12&nbsp;months. Arthralgia and/or gait abnormalities were the most common impairments; the knee was the most common site. Arthritis and tendonitis were both rare. Vincristine neuropathy, MSK impacts from central nervous system pathology, and bone or joint pain from underlying cancer were the most common diagnoses. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that having rALL (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% CI 1.07-3.76, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.03) or obesity (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.12-3.95, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.02) were risk factors for MSK impairment at study entry.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>MSK impairments are common in this intensively treated patient population, especially in those with rALL and those who are obese.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29053

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

33890409

Title

A Randomized Trial of Caspofungin vs Triazoles Prophylaxis for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 02

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children and adolescents undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multicenter, randomized, open-label trial planned to enroll 560 children and adolescents (3 months to &lt;21 years) undergoing allogeneic HCT between April 2013 and September 2016. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin or a center-specific comparator triazole (fluconazole or voriconazole). Prophylaxis was administered from day 0 of HCT to day 42 or discharge. The primary outcome was proven or probable IFD at day 42 as adjudicated by blinded central review. Exploratory analysis stratified this evaluation by comparator triazole.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A planned futility analysis demonstrated a low rate of IFD in the comparator triazole arm, so the trial was closed early. A total of 290 eligible patients, with a median age of 9.5 years (range 0.3-20.7), were randomized to caspofungin (n = 144) or a triazole (n = 146; fluconazole, n = 100; voriconazole, n = 46). The day 42 cumulative incidence of proven or probable IFD was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3%-5.4%) in the caspofungin group vs 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%) in the triazole group (P = .99, log-rank test). When stratified by specific triazole, there was no significant difference in proven or probable IFD at day 42 between caspofungin vs fluconazole (1.0%, 95% CI, 0.1%-6.9%, P = .78) or caspofungin vs voriconazole (2.3%, 95% CI, 0.3%-15.1%, P = .69).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In pediatric HCT patients, prophylaxis with caspofungin did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of early proven or probable IFD compared with triazoles. Future efforts to decrease IFD-related morbidity and mortality should focus on later periods of risk.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>NCT01503515.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa119

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

33136159

Title

Guideline for Antibacterial Prophylaxis Administration in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Nov 02

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Bacteremia and other invasive bacterial infections are common among children with cancer receiving intensive chemotherapy and in pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Systemic antibacterial prophylaxis is one approach that can be used to reduce the risk of these infections. Our purpose was to develop a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis administration in pediatric cancer and HSCT patients.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>An international and multi-disciplinary panel was convened with representation from pediatric hematology/oncology and HSCT, pediatric infectious diseases (including antibiotic stewardship), nursing, pharmacy, a patient advocate and a CPG methodologist. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to generate recommendations based on the results of a systematic review of the literature.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The systematic review identified 114 eligible randomized trials of antibiotic prophylaxis. The panel made a weak recommendation for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis for children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Weak recommendations against the routine use of systemic antibacterial prophylaxis were made for children undergoing induction chemotherapy for ALL, autologous HSCT and allogeneic HSCT. A strong recommendation against its routine use was made for children whose therapy is not expected to result in prolonged severe neutropenia. If used, prophylaxis with levofloxacin was recommended during severe neutropenia.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We present a CPG for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis administration in pediatric cancer and HSCT patients. Future research should evaluate the long-term effectiveness and adverse effects of prophylaxis.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciz1082

Alternate Title

Clin. Infect. Dis.

PMID

31676904

Title

Effect of Caspofungin vs Fluconazole Prophylaxis on Invasive Fungal Disease Among Children and Young Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1673-1681

Date Published

2019 11 05

ISSN Number

1538-3598

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk of life-threatening invasive fungal disease with both yeasts and molds.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the efficacy of caspofungin vs fluconazole prophylaxis against proven or probable invasive fungal disease and invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapy.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This multicenter, randomized, open-label, clinical trial enrolled patients aged 3 months to 30 years with newly diagnosed de novo, relapsed, or secondary acute myeloid leukemia being treated at 115 US and Canadian institutions (April 2011-November 2016; last follow-up June 30, 2018).</p>

<p><strong>Interventions: </strong>Participants were randomly assigned during the first chemotherapy cycle to prophylaxis with caspofungin (n = 257) or fluconazole (n = 260). Prophylaxis was administered during the neutropenic period following each chemotherapy cycle.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcome was proven or probable invasive fungal disease as adjudicated by blinded central review. Secondary outcomes were invasive aspergillosis, empirical antifungal therapy, and overall survival.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The second interim efficacy analysis and an unplanned futility analysis based on 394 patients appeared to have suggested futility, so the study was closed to accrual. Among the 517 participants who were randomized (median age, 9 years [range, 0-26 years]; 44% female), 508 (98%) completed the trial. The 23 proven or probable invasive fungal disease events (6 caspofungin vs 17 fluconazole) included 14 molds, 7 yeasts, and 2 fungi not further categorized. The 5-month cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease was 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3%-7.0%) in the caspofungin group vs 7.2% (95% CI, 4.4%-11.8%) in the fluconazole group (overall P = .03 by log-rank test) and for cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.1%-3.5%) with caspofungin vs 3.1% (95% CI, 1.4%-6.9%) with fluconazole (overall P = .046 by log-rank test). No statistically significant differences in empirical antifungal therapy (71.9% caspofungin vs 69.5% fluconazole, overall P = .78 by log-rank test) or 2-year overall survival (68.8% caspofungin vs 70.8% fluconazole, overall P = .66 by log-rank test) were observed. The most common toxicities were hypokalemia (22 caspofungin vs 13 fluconazole), respiratory failure (6 caspofungin vs 9 fluconazole), and elevated alanine transaminase (4 caspofungin vs 8 fluconazole).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>Among children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia, prophylaxis with caspofungin compared with fluconazole resulted in significantly lower incidence of invasive fungal disease. The findings suggest that caspofungin may be considered for prophylaxis against invasive fungal disease, although study interpretation is limited by early termination due to an unplanned interim analysis that appeared to have suggested futility.</p>

<p><strong>Trial Registration: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01307579.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jama.2019.15702

Alternate Title

JAMA

PMID

31688884

Title

Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: A systematic review of randomized trials.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jul 05

ISSN Number

2045-7634

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To determine the efficacy and safety of different prophylactic systemic antibiotics in adult and pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a systematic review and performed searches of Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process and Embase; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if patients had cancer or were HSCT recipients with anticipated neutropenia, and the intervention was systemic antibacterial prophylaxis. Strategies synthesized included fluoroquinolone vs no antibiotic/nonabsorbable antibiotic; fluoroquinolone vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs no antibiotic; and cephalosporin vs. no antibiotic. Fluoroquinolone vs cephalosporin and levofloxacin vs ciprofloxacin were compared by network meta-analysis. Primary outcome was bacteremia.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 20&nbsp;984 citations screened, 113 studies comparing prophylactic antibiotic to control were included. The following were effective in reducing bacteremia: fluoroquinolone vs no antibiotic/nonabsorbable antibiotic (risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.76), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs no antibiotic (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85) and cephalosporin vs no antibiotic (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Fluoroquinolone was not significantly associated with increased Clostridium difficile infection (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31-1.24) or invasive fungal disease (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.79-2.08) but did increase resistance to fluoroquinolone among bacteremia isolates (RR 3.35, 95% CI 1.12 to 10.03). Heterogeneity in fluoroquinolone effect on bacteremia was not explained by evaluated study, population, or methodological factors. Network meta-analysis revealed no direct comparisons for pre-specified analyses; superior regimens were not identified.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Fluoroquinolone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and cephalosporin prophylaxis reduced bacteremia. A clinical practice guideline to facilitate prophylactic antibiotic decision-making is required.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cam4.2395

Alternate Title

Cancer Med

PMID

31274245

Title

Effect of Levofloxacin Prophylaxis on Bacteremia in Children With Acute Leukemia or Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

995-1004

Date Published

2018 Sep 11

ISSN Number

1538-3598

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Bacteremia causes considerable morbidity among children with acute leukemia and those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are limited data on the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in children.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the efficacy and risks of levofloxacin prophylaxis in children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia or undergoing HSCT.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>In this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, patients (6 months-21 years) receiving intensive chemotherapy were enrolled (September 2011-April 2016) in 2 separate groups-acute leukemia, consisting of acute myeloid leukemia or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and HSCT recipients-at 76 centers in the United States and Canada, with follow-up completed September 2017.</p>

<p><strong>Interventions: </strong>Patients with acute leukemia were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis for 2 consecutive cycles of chemotherapy (n = 100) or no prophylaxis (n = 100). Those undergoing HSCT were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis during 1 HSCT procedure (n = 210) or no prophylaxis (n = 214).</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcome was the occurrence of bacteremia during 2 chemotherapy cycles (acute leukemia) or 1 transplant procedure (HSCT). Secondary outcomes included fever and neutropenia, severe infection, invasive fungal disease, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and musculoskeletal toxic effects.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 624 patients, 200 with acute leukemia (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 11 years [6-15 years]; 46% female) and 424 undergoing HSCT (median [IQR] age, 7 years [3-14]; 38% female), were enrolled. Among 195 patients with acute leukemia, the likelihood of bacteremia was significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group than in the control group (21.9% vs 43.4%; risk difference, 21.6%; 95% CI, 8.8%-34.4%, P = .001), whereas among 418 patients undergoing HSCT, the risk of bacteremia was not significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group (11.0% vs 17.3%; risk difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, 0.3%-13.0%; P = .06). Fever and neutropenia were less common in the levofloxacin group (71.2% vs 82.1%; risk difference, 10.8%; 95% CI, 4.2%-17.5%; P = .002). There were no significant differences in severe infection (3.6% vs 5.9%; risk difference, 2.3%; 95% CI, -1.1% to 5.6%; P = .20), invasive fungal disease (2.9% vs 2.0%; risk difference, -1.0%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 1.5%, P = .41), C difficile-associated diarrhea (2.3% vs 5.2%; risk difference, 2.9%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 5.9%; P = .07), or musculoskeletal toxic effects at 2 months (11.4% vs 16.3%; risk difference, 4.8%; 95% CI, -1.6% to 11.2%; P = .15) or at 12 months (10.1% vs 14.4%; risk difference, 4.3%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 12.0%; P = .28) between the levofloxacin and control groups.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>Among children with acute leukemia receiving intensive chemotherapy, receipt of levofloxacin prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis resulted in a significant reduction in bacteremia. However, there was no significant reduction in bacteremia for levofloxacin prophylaxis among children undergoing HSCT.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jama.2018.12512

Alternate Title

JAMA

PMID

30208456

Title

Guideline for the Management of Fever and Neutropenia in Children With Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients: 2017 Update.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

JCO2016717017

Date Published

2017 May 01

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p>Purpose To update a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the empirical management of fever and neutropenia (FN) in children with cancer and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients. Methods The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel is a multidisciplinary and multinational group of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases that includes a patient advocate. For questions of risk stratification and evaluation, we updated systematic reviews of observational studies. For questions of therapy, we conducted a systematic review of randomized trials of any intervention applied for the empirical management of pediatric FN. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to make strong or weak recommendations and to classify levels of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low. Results Recommendations related to initial presentation, ongoing management, and empirical antifungal therapy of pediatric FN were reviewed; the most substantial changes were related to empirical antifungal therapy. Key differences from our 2012 FN CPG included the listing of a fourth-generation cephalosporin for empirical therapy in high-risk FN, refinement of risk stratification to define patients with high-risk invasive fungal disease (IFD), changes in recommended biomarkers and radiologic investigations for the evaluation of IFD in prolonged FN, and a weak recommendation to withhold empirical antifungal therapy in IFD low-risk patients with prolonged FN. Conclusion Changes to the updated FN CPG recommendations will likely influence the care of pediatric patients with cancer and those undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Future work should focus on closing research gaps and on identifying ways to facilitate implementation and adaptation.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.2016.71.7017

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Oncol.

PMID

28459614

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