First name
Stephanie
Middle name
L
Last name
Mayne

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Neighborhood Greenspace and Changes in Pediatric Obesity During COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

33-41

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1873-2607

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity rates increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the associations of neighborhood greenspace with changes in pediatric obesity during the pandemic.

METHODS: Electronic health record data from a large pediatric primary care network were extracted to create a retrospective cohort of patients aged 2-17 years with a visit in each of 2 periods: June 2019-December 2019 (before pandemic) and June 2020-December 2020 (pandemic). Multivariable longitudinal generalized estimating equations Poisson regression estimated the associations of census tract‒level Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with (1) changes in obesity risk during the pandemic and (2) risk of new-onset obesity among children who were not obese prepandemic. Analyses were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022.

RESULTS: Among 81,418 children (mean age: 8.4 years, 18% Black), the percentage of children who were obese increased by 3.2% during the pandemic. Children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Quartiles 2-4 had smaller increases in obesity risk during the pandemic than those in Quartile 1 (risk ratio=0.96, 95% CI=0.93, 0.99; Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.95; 95% CI=0.91, 0.98; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99). Among the subset who were not obese before the pandemic, children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index quartiles 3-4 had a lower risk of new-onset obesity during the pandemic (Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.82, 95% CI=0.71, 0.95; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.73, 95% CI=0.62, 0.85). Higher Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was associated with smaller increases in obesity risk and lower risk of new-onset obesity among children in urban and suburban areas, but results were in the opposite direction for children in rural areas.

CONCLUSIONS: Children living in greener neighborhoods experienced smaller increases in obesity during the pandemic than children in less green neighborhoods, although findings differed by urbanicity.

DOI

10.1016/j.amepre.2022.07.014

Alternate Title

Am J Prev Med

PMID

36116998

Title

Trends in Positive Depression and Suicide Risk Screens in Pediatric Primary Care during COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent mental health concerns increased during COVID-19, but it is unknown whether early increases in depression and suicide risk have been sustained. We examined changes in positive screens for depression and suicide risk in a large pediatric primary care network through May 2022.

METHODS: Using an observational repeated cross-sectional design, we examined changes in depression and suicide risk during the pandemic using electronic health record data from adolescents. Segmented logistic regression was used to estimate risk differences (RD) for positive depression and suicide risk screens during the early pandemic (June 2020-May 2021) and late pandemic (June 2021-May 2022) relative to before the pandemic (March 2018-February 2020). Models adjusted for seasonality and standard errors accounted for clustering by practice.

RESULTS: Among 222,668 visits for 115,627 adolescents (mean age 15.7, 50% female), the risk of positive depression and suicide risk screens increased during the early pandemic period relative to the pre-pandemic period (RD: 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.9, 4.8; RD: 2.8%, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.8). Risk of depression returned to baseline during the late pandemic period, while suicide risk remained slightly elevated (RD: 0.7% 95% CI: -0.4, 1.7; RD: 1.8% 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: During the early months of the pandemic, there was an increase in positive depression and suicide risk screens, which later returned to pre-pandemic levels for depression but not suicide risk. Results suggest that pediatricians should continue to prioritize screening adolescents for depressive symptoms and suicide risk and connect them to treatment.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.12.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

36584938

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 25

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2-4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Exposure to Neighborhood-Level Racial Residential Segregation in Young Adulthood to Midlife and Incident Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Black Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

CIRCOUTCOMES121007986

Date Published

2022 Feb 02

ISSN Number

1941-7705

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Neighborhood-level racial residential segregation has been linked to several cardiovascular disease risk factors and outcomes in Black adults, but its impact on subclinical atherosclerosis remains unknown. In addition, although the impact of segregation on health may vary over the life course, most studies have examined segregation exposure at a single point in time. This article takes a life course approach by examining associations of exposure to neighborhood-level racial residential segregation in young adulthood and patterns of exposure from young adulthood to midlife with coronary artery calcification (CAC) incidence.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We used data on 1125 Black CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants free of CAC. Residential segregation was assessed using the G* statistic and measured when participants were young adults (18-30 years old, in 1985-1986) and as the pattern from young adulthood to midlife (15 years later). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations models was used to measure CAC incidence.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We found participants living in low segregation neighborhoods in young adulthood had 0.52 (rate ratio [95% CI: 0.28-0.98]) times lower risk of developing CAC compared with high segregation after adjusting for young adulthood sociodemographic characteristics and neighborhood poverty. Associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant with adjustment for midlife CAC risk factors hypothesized to be on the causal pathway (rate ratio: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.29-1.09]). Findings for patterns of segregation over time suggest participants living in low segregation neighborhoods in young adulthood were less likely to develop CAC than those who started out in medium/high segregation neighborhoods, regardless of where they lived in midlife (rate ratio for increase from low to medium/high: 0.42 [95% CI: 0.19-0.95]; rate ratio for continuously low versus continuously medium/high segregation neighborhoods: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.31-1.83]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We found that participants living in more segregated neighborhoods in young adulthood were more likely to develop CAC due at least in part to differences in CAC risk factor burden accumulated over follow-up.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.121.007986

Alternate Title

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes

PMID

35105173

Title

Associations of Neighborhood Safety and Collective Efficacy with Dietary Intake among Preschool-Aged Children and Mothers.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 05

ISSN Number

2153-2176

Abstract

<p>Positive neighborhood environments may promote healthier behaviors, yet few studies have examined associations between neighborhood social environment and diet. We examined associations of neighborhood perceived safety, collective efficacy, and violent crime with dietary intake among preschool-aged children and their mothers. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2- to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Mothers reported their own and their child's dietary intake using the validated Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Mixed-effects linear regression models assessed associations of perceived neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and census tract-level violent crime with parent and child dietary intake, adjusted for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Among mothers, higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with higher daily intake of fruits/vegetables (β = 0.35 cups, 95% CI: 0.12-0.58 and β = 0.30 cups, 95% CI: 0.08-0.52, comparing the highest with lowest tertile). Higher neighborhood-perceived safety was also associated with higher whole-grain intake among mothers (β = 0.14 ounces, 95% CI: 0.02-0.27) and children (β = 0.07 ounces, 95% CI: 0.01-0.13, comparing the highest with lowest tertile). Neighborhood social exposures were not associated with intake of added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverages for mothers or children, nor were lower levels of violent crime associated with any outcome. More favorable perceptions of neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with a slightly higher consumption of some healthy foods among mothers and their young children. Future prospective research is needed to confirm these findings, explore potential mechanisms, and determine whether intervening on the social environment improves diet.</p>

DOI

10.1089/chi.2021.0144

Alternate Title

Child Obes

PMID

34613834

Title

Neighborhood environments and sleep among children and adolescents: A systematic review.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

101465

Date Published

2021 Mar 17

ISSN Number

1532-2955

Abstract

<p>Understanding salient environmental determinants of pediatric sleep is essential for informing interventions and public health initiatives. Emerging evidence suggests that the neighborhood environment can impact pediatric sleep, but this evidence has not yet been systematically reviewed. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on associations between neighborhood environments and sleep in young children (0-5 y), school-aged children (6-12 y) and adolescents (13-18 y). We reviewed 85 articles published between 2003 and 2020. The most commonly examined neighborhood exposure was low socioeconomic status (40 studies), which was associated with sleep outcomes in 58% of studies (primarily shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, or obstructive sleep apnea). Evidence was stronger for neighborhood safety/crime/violence (21 studies), with 86% of studies reporting associations with sleep outcomes (primarily self- or caregiver-reported sleep problems). Fewer studies examined associations of neighborhood physical environment exposures, including noise (15 studies), the built environment (seven studies), and air pollution (six studies). Limitations of the current body of evidence include 1) limited examination of neighborhood exposures other than socioeconomic status or safety, 2) use of primarily cross-sectional observational study designs, 3) lack of objective sleep outcome assessment, and 4) limits of current exposure assessment methods.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101465

Alternate Title

Sleep Med Rev

PMID

33827031

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