First name
Scott
Middle name
A
Last name
Lorch

Title

Association Between Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Type and Quality of Care in Moderate and Late Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2023

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: A higher level of care improves outcomes in extremely and very preterm infants, yet the impact of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level on moderate and late preterm (MLP) care quality is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between NICU type and care quality in MLP (30-36 weeks' gestation) and extremely and very preterm (25-29 weeks' gestation) infants.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study was a prospective analysis of 433 814 premature infants born in 465 US hospitals between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2020, without anomalies and who survived more than 12 hours and were transferred no more than once. Data were from the Vermont Oxford Network all NICU admissions database.

EXPOSURES: NICU types were defined as units with ventilation restrictions without surgery (type A with restrictions, similar to American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] level 2 NICUs), without surgery (type A) and with surgery not requiring cardiac bypass (type B, similar to AAP level 3 NICUs), and with all surgery (type C, similar to AAP level 4 NICUs).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was gestational age (GA)-specific composite quality measures using Baby-Measure of Neonatal Intensive Care Outcomes Research (Baby-MONITOR) for extremely and very preterm infants and an adapted MLP quality measure for MLP infants. Secondary outcomes were individual component measures of each scale. Composite scores were standardized observed minus expected scores, adjusted for patient characteristics, averaged, and expressed with a mean of 0 and SD of 1. Between May 2021 and October 2022, Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare scores by NICU type.

RESULTS: Among the 376 219 MLP (204 181 [54.3%] male, 172 038 [45.7%] female; mean [SD] GA, 34.2 [1.7] weeks) and 57 595 extremely and very preterm (30 173 [52.4%] male, 27 422 [47.6%] female; mean [SD] GA, 27.7 [1.4] weeks) infants included, 6.6% received care in type A NICUs with restrictions, 29.3% in type A NICUs without restrictions, 39.7% in type B NICUs, and 24.4% in type C NICUs. The MLP infants had lower MLP-QM scores in type C NICUs (median [IQR]: type A with restrictions, 0.4 [-0.1 to 0.8]; type A, 0.4 [-0.4 to 0.9]; type B, 0.1 [-0.7 to 0.7]; type C, -0.7 [-1.6 to 0.4]; P < .001). No significant differences were found in extremely and very preterm Baby-MONITOR scores by NICU type. In type C NICUs, MLP infants had lower scores in no extreme length of stay and change-in-weight z score.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, composite quality scores were lower for MLP infants in type C NICUs, whereas extremely and very preterm composite quality scores were similar across NICU types. Policies facilitating care for MLP infants at NICUs with less complex subspecialty services may improve care quality delivered to this prevalent, at-risk population.

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.5213

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

36648939

Title

Racial and ethnic disparities in outcomes after NICU discharge: An equity-focused model.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

151659

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1558-075X

Abstract

Significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in birth outcomes and complications related to prematurity. However, little is known about racial and ethnic variations in health outcomes after premature infants are discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We propose a novel, equity-focused conceptual model to guide future evaluations of post-discharge outcomes that centers on a multi-dimensional, comprehensive view of health, which we call thriving. We then apply this model to existing literature on post-discharge inequities, revealing a need for rigorous analysis of drivers and strength-based, longitudinal outcomes.

DOI

10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151659

Alternate Title

Semin Perinatol

PMID

36153272

Title

Prevalence and Predictors of Integrated Care Among Teen Mothers and Their Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

474-479

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

PURPOSE: Integrated models of primary care for parenting teens, in which teens and infants are cared for by the same clinical team on the same day, are associated with reduced repeated pregnancies and increased uptake of contraception and immunization. Our purpose was to determine how frequently teen-infant dyads receive integrated care.

METHODS: This study used Medicaid Analytic eXtract data to create a retrospective cohort of mothers aged 12-17 linked with infants born from 2007-2012 in 12 states. Teen-infant dyads were enrolled in Medicaid throughout the year after birth. The primary outcome was integrated care in the year after birth, defined as ≥ 1 instance when teen and infant had visits on the same day, billed to the same clinician identifier. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between integrated care and maternal demographics, dyad health, clinician specialty, and community factors.

RESULTS: Of 20,203 dyads, 3,371 (16.7%) had integrated care in the year after birth. Dyads with integrated care had a mean of 1.2 (SD 1.3) integrated visits. Dyads with integrated care had more visits (14.9, SD 10.6 vs. 11.7, SD 8.3), including more preventive visits for teens and more acute visits for both teens and infants. In regression, integrated care was associated with maternal factors (younger age, non-Latinx white race, and maternal health risks), residence in rural or high-poverty areas, and ever visiting Family Medicine clinicians.

DISCUSSION: Though uncommon, integrated care was associated with greater engagement in health care. Implementation of integrated care may support increased preventive care for parenting teens.

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.04.018

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

35778353

Title

Family Educational Attainment and Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of grandmother and mother educational attainment on low birth weight (LBW) in children and grandchildren.

METHODS: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is a multigenerational study that collected survey data from 1994 to 2018. Using this database, we constructed a cohort of 2867 non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) grandmother-mother-grandchild triads to evaluate how education affects the likelihood of having LBW children and grandchildren, while adjusting for socioeconomic and maternal health factors using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: Similar to previous studies, NHB women were more likely to have LBW descendants compared with NHW women in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. The prevalence of LBW descendants was lower in women with college education, regardless of race. Irrespective of race, mother and grandmother college education was associated with decreased odds of LBW children and grandchildren after adjusting for individual variables. When mother and grandmother education were examined together, and after adjusting for all individual, community, and health variables together, mother college education remained associated with lower odds of LBW (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.77). There were no statistically significant differences in these effects between NHW and NHB populations.

CONCLUSIONS: Educational attainment in mothers is associated with decreased odds of LBW descendants after adjusting for multiple individual, community, and health covariates, regardless of race. Targeting improvements in education may ameliorate adverse pregnancy outcomes that disproportionately affect minority communities and cause significant lifelong consequences.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-052369

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35757969

Title

Motivational interviewing to promote interconception health: A scoping review of evidence from clinical trials.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1873-5134

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Promoting interconception health can improve birth outcomes and long-term women's health. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based behavior change strategy that can address interconception health behaviors and health care engagement.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review assessed the evidence for using MI to promote interconception health and assessed features of successful MI interventions.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, CHINAL, and Cochrane databases for clinical trials that involved an MI intervention and at least one comparison group published by 8/31/2021. Interventions occurred during pregnancy or within three months postpartum and outcomes were measured between birth and one year postpartum. We abstracted data on trial characteristics including outcome, population, interventionist training, MI fidelity monitoring, intervention dose, and comparison condition. We examined whether trials that demonstrated statistically significant improvement in outcomes had common features.

RESULTS: There were 37 included studies. Interventions addressed breastfeeding, teen contraception, tobacco, alcohol, or substance use, vaccine acceptance, nutrition, physical activity, and depression. No trials addressed more than one topic. Nineteen studies demonstrated improved outcomes. Interventions during the perinatal or postnatal periods were more likely to demonstrate improved interconception outcomes than interventions in the prenatal period. No other trial characteristics were consistently associated with demonstrating improved outcomes.

DISCUSSION: MI has been applied to a variety of interconception health behaviors, with some promising results, particularly for interventions in the perinatal or postpartum period. Outcomes were not clearly attributable to any other differences in intervention or study design. Further exploring context or implementation may help maximize the potential of MI in interconception health promotion.

PRACTICAL VALUE: MI may be implemented across a range of clinical settings, patient groups, and time points around pregnancy. Interventions on health topics relevant to the interconception period should incorporate perinatal or postpartum components.

DOI

10.1016/j.pec.2022.07.009

Alternate Title

Patient Educ Couns

PMID

35870992

Title

Variation and Temporal Trends in Delivery Room Management of Moderate and Late Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although delivery room (DR) intervention decreases with increasing gestational age (GA), little is known about DR management of moderate and late preterm (MLP) infants.

METHODS: Using the Vermont Oxford Network database of all NICU admissions, we examined the receipt of DR interventions including supplemental oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, endotracheal tube ventilation, chest compressions, epinephrine, and surfactant among MLP infants (30 to 36 weeks') without congenital anomalies born from 2011 to 2020. Pneumothorax was examined as a potential resuscitation-associated complication. Intervention frequency was assessed at the infant- and hospital-level, stratified by GA and over time.

RESULTS: Overall, 55.3% of 616 110 infants (median GA: 34 weeks) from 483 Vermont Oxford Network centers received any DR intervention. Any DR intervention frequency decreased from 89.7% at 30 weeks to 44.2% at 36 weeks. From 2011 to 2020, there was an increase in the provision of continuous positive airway pressure (17.9% to 47.8%, P ≤.001) and positive pressure ventilation (22.9% to 24.9%, P ≤.001) and a decrease in endotracheal tube ventilation (6.9% to 4.0% P ≤.001), surfactant administration (3.5% to 1.3%, P ≤.001), and pneumothorax (1.9% to 1.6%, P ≤.001). Hospital rates of any DR intervention varied (median 54%, interquartile range 47% to 62%), though the frequency was similar across hospitals with different NICU capabilities after adjustment.

CONCLUSIONS: The DR management of MLP infants varies at the individual- and hospital-level and is changing over time. These findings illustrate the differing interpretation of resuscitation guidelines and emphasize the need to study MLP infants to improve evidence-based DR care.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-055994

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35851607

Title

Changes in preterm birth during the COVID-19 pandemic by duration of exposure and race and ethnicity.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposure duration was associated with PTB and if the pandemic modified racial disparities.

STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed Philadelphia births and replicated in New Haven. Compared to matched months in two prior years, we analyzed overall PTB, specific PTB phenotypes, and stillbirth.

RESULTS: Overall, PTB was similar between periods with the following exceptions. Compared to pre-pandemic, early pregnancy (<14 weeks') pandemic exposure was associated with lower risk of PTB < 28 weeks' (aRR 0.60 [0.30-1.10]) and later exposure with higher risk (aRR 1.77 [0.78-3.97]) (interaction p = 0.04). PTB < 32 weeks' among White patients decreased during the pandemic, resulting in non-significant widening of the Black-White disparity from aRR 2.51 (95%CI: 1.53-4.16) to aRR 4.07 (95%CI: 1.56-12.01) (interaction P = 0.41). No findings replicated in New Haven.

CONCLUSION: We detected no overall pandemic effects on PTB, but potential indirect benefits for some patients which could widen disparities remains possible.

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01488-1

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35974082

Title

Outcomes of Babies with Opioid Exposure (OBOE): protocol of a prospective longitudinal cohort study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1530-0447

Abstract

BACKGROUND: While the health, social, and economic impacts of opioid addiction on adults and their communities are well known, the impact of maternal opioid use on the fetus exposed in utero is less well understood.

METHODS: This paper presents the protocol of the ACT NOW Outcomes of Babies with Opioid Exposure (OBOE) Study, a multi-site prospective longitudinal cohort study of infants with antenatal opioid exposure and unexposed controls. Study objectives are to determine the impact of antenatal opioid exposure on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes over the first 2 years of life and explore whether family, home, and community factors modify developmental trajectories during this critical time period.

RESULTS: Primary outcomes related to brain development include cortical volumes, deep cerebral gray matter volumes, resting-state functional connectivity measures, and structural connectivity measures using diffusion tensor imaging. Primary neurodevelopmental outcomes include visual abnormalities, cognitive, language, and motor skills measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and social-emotional and behavioral problems and competence measured by the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment.

CONCLUSIONS: The OBOE study has been designed to overcome challenges of previous studies and will help further understanding of the effects of antenatal opioid exposure on early infant development.

IMPACT: This study will integrate MRI findings and comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments to provide early insights into the functional topography of the brain in this high-risk population and assess MRI as a potential biomarker. Rather than conducting neuroimaging at a single time point, the study will include serial MRI assessments from birth to 2 years, allowing for the examination of trajectories throughout this period of rapid brain development. While previous studies often have had limited information on exposures, this study will use umbilical cord assays to accurately measure amounts of opioids and other substances from 20 weeks of gestation to birth.

DOI

10.1038/s41390-022-02279-2

Alternate Title

Pediatr Res

PMID

36042329

Title

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

39-46.e5

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers (2006-2014) at 22-26 weeks of gestation and birth weight 401-1000 g. Early-onset sepsis defined as growth of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture ≤72 hours after birth. Prolonged early antibiotics was defined as antibiotics initiated ≤72 hours and continued ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, or spontaneous perforation. Primary outcome was death before follow-up or NDI assessed at 18-26 months corrected age. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and CI for early-onset sepsis outcomes. A propensity score for receiving prolonged antibiotics was derived from early clinical factors and used to match infants (1:1) with and without prolonged antibiotic exposure. Log binomial models were used to estimate aRR for outcomes in matched infants.

RESULTS: Among 6565 infants, those with early-onset sepsis had higher aRR (95% CI) for death/NDI compared with infants managed with prolonged antibiotics (1.18 [1.06-1.32]) and to infants without prolonged antibiotics (1.23 [1.10-1.37]). Propensity score matching was achieved for 4362 infants. No significant difference in death/NDI (1.04 [0.98-1.11]) was observed with or without prolonged antibiotics among the matched cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset sepsis was associated with increased risk of death/NDI among extremely preterm infants. Among matched infants without culture-confirmed infection, prolonged early antibiotic administration was not associated with death/NDI.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.038

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32446491

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