First name
Lisa
Middle name
A
Last name
Schwartz

Title

Body mass index rebound and pubertal timing in girls with and without a family history of breast cancer: the LEGACY girls study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1546-1555

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1464-3685

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Heavier body mass index (BMI) is the most established predictor of earlier age at puberty. However, it is unknown whether the timing of the childhood switch to heavier BMI (age at BMI rebound) also matters for puberty.

METHODS: In the LEGACY Girls Study (n = 1040), a longitudinal cohort enriched with girls with a family history of breast cancer, we collected paediatric growth chart data from 852 girls and assessed pubertal development every 6 months. Using constrained splines, we interpolated individual growth curves and then predicted BMI at ages 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 years for 591 girls. We defined age at BMI rebound as the age at the lowest BMI between ages 2 and 8 years and assessed its association with onset of thelarche, pubarche and menarche using Weibull survival models.

RESULTS: The median age at BMI rebound was 5.3 years (interquartile range: 3.6-6.7 years). A 1-year increase in age at BMI rebound was associated with delayed thelarche (HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.83-0.97) and menarche (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94). The magnitude of these associations remained after adjusting for weight between birth and 2 years, was stronger after adjusting for BMI at age 9, and was stronger in a subset of girls with clinically assessed breast development.

CONCLUSIONS: Earlier BMI rebound is associated with earlier pubertal timing. Our observation that BMI rebound may be a driver of pubertal timing in girls with and without a family history of breast cancer provides insight into how growth and pubertal timing are associated with breast cancer risk.

DOI

10.1093/ije/dyac021

Alternate Title

Int J Epidemiol

PMID

35157067

Title

Maternal and prenatal factors and age at thelarche in the LEGACY Girls Study cohort: implications for breast cancer risk.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1464-3685

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Earlier onset of breast development (thelarche) is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Identifying modifiable factors associated with earlier thelarche may provide an opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction starting early in life, which could especially benefit girls with a greater absolute risk of breast cancer due to family history.

METHODS: We assessed associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity during pregnancy, gestational weight gain and daughters' weight and length at birth with age at thelarche using longitudinal Weibull models in 1031 girls in the Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study-a prospective cohort of girls, half of whom have a breast cancer family history (BCFH).

RESULTS: Girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of ≥25 and gained ≥30 lbs were 57% more likely to experience earlier thelarche than girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25 and gained <30 lbs [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.12]. This association was not mediated by childhood BMI and was similar in girls with and without a BCFH (BCFH: HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.27; No BCFH: HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Daughters of women who reported no recreational physical activity during pregnancy were more likely to experience earlier thelarche compared with daughters of physically active women. Birthweight and birth length were not associated with thelarche.

CONCLUSION: Earlier thelarche, a breast cancer risk factor, was associated with three potentially modifiable maternal risk factors-pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and physical inactivity-in a cohort of girls enriched for BCFH.

DOI

10.1093/ije/dyac108

Alternate Title

Int J Epidemiol

PMID

35613015

Title

Trajectories of Pain Severity and Interference Among Adolescent and Young Adults With Cancer: A Microlongitudinal Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

443-450

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1536-5409

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Cancer-related pain is a pervasive concern among adolescent and young adults (AYA) with cancer and is an emerging long-term health concern. Few studies have examined the complex contributions to pain among AYA. We aimed to fill a gap by (1) identifying subgroups of AYA with distinct patterns of pain severity and interference over time and (2) explore possible predictors of these patterns.

METHODS: Daily text messages over a 9-week period were used to model group-based trajectory analyses of pain severity and interference by identifying subgroups of AYA who experience common patterns of changes in pain. Demographic, medical, physical symptom burden, and psychological distress were examined as possible predictors of these patterns.

RESULTS: AYA were on average 16.93 years old and 2.5 years since diagnosis. Subgroups of AYA were identified for pain severity and interference over time: high variability (37.7%; 37.7%, respectively), consistent high pain (35.8%; 18.9%, respectively), and consistent low pain (26.4%; 43.4%, respectively). AYA with greater psychological distress were more likely to belong to the high consistent pain severity and interference groups. AYA with greater physical symptoms were more likely to belong to the high consistent pain interference group. No significant associations between demographic/medical characteristics and trajectory subgroups were found.

CONCLUSIONS: AYA with elevated physical and psychological symptoms were more likely to experience high consistent pain severity and pain interreference over time. Interventions aimed at reducing pain through focusing on teaching AYA how to alleviate physical symptoms and teaching coping skills to manage psychological distress may be beneficial.

DOI

10.1097/AJP.0000000000001041

Alternate Title

Clin J Pain

PMID

35686575

Title

Mother and daughter perspectives on genetic counseling and testing of adolescents for hereditary breast cancer risk.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risks, benefits, and utility of testing for adult-onset hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in adolescents and young adults.

STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated interest in genetic testing of adolescents for adult-onset HBOC genes through semistructured interviews with mothers and adolescents who had previously participated in breast cancer research or had pursued (mothers) clinical testing for HBOC.

RESULTS: The majority of mothers (73%) and daughters (75%) were interested in the daughter having genetic testing and were motivated by the future medical utility and current social utility of relieving anxiety and allowing them to prepare. Mothers and daughters both reported that approximately 3 years in the future was the best time to test the daughter regardless of the current age of the daughter. Overall, both mothers and daughters expressed the importance of the involvement of the mother to provide educational and emotional support but ultimately it was the daughter's decision to test. Balancing the independence and maturity of the daughter while reinforcing communication and support within the dyad was a prominent theme throughout the interviews.

CONCLUSIONS: There is interest among some high-risk adolescents and young adults to engage in genetic counseling and undergo testing. Providing pretest and posttest genetic counseling, assessing preferences for parent involvement, and offering psychosocial support may be important if genetic testing for HBOC is offered to adolescents and young adults before age 25 years.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.06.027

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

35777474

Title

The current state of adult metabolic medicine in the United States: Results of a nationwide survey.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1722-1731

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1530-0366

Abstract

PURPOSE: Patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) now have improved health outcomes and increased survival into adulthood. There is scant evidence on managing adults with IMDs. We present an analysis of current care practices for adults with IMDs in the United States.

METHODS: We created and distributed an online survey to US members of the Society of Inherited Metabolic Disorders. The survey addressed ambulatory care, acute management, and health care transition (HCT) practices of adults with IMDs.

RESULTS: The survey was completed by 91 providers from 73 institutions. Most adult patients with IMDs receive lifelong care from a single metabolic clinician, predominantly in pediatric clinic settings. Adults receive comprehensive ambulatory metabolic care, but fewer trainees participate compared with pediatric visits. Most acute IMD management occurs in pediatric hospitals. Clinician comfort with HCT increased the frequency of HCT planning. Overall, all respondents felt that providing specialized care to adults with IMDs is high value.

CONCLUSION: Our survey demonstrates the paucity of clinical resources dedicated to adult metabolic medicine. Care is fragmented and varies by medical system. Interest in HCT is robust but would benefit from standardized practices. Our findings reinforce the need for greater focus on adult metabolic medicine in the United States.

DOI

10.1016/j.gim.2022.04.018

Alternate Title

Genet Med

PMID

35543711

Title

Sociodemographics, Health Competence, and Transition Readiness Among Adolescent/Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 28

ISSN Number

1465-735X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Fewer than one-third of childhood cancer survivors receive follow-up from an adult provider, and adolescent and young adults (AYAs) from structurally minoritized sociodemographic groups often face health disparities that can impact transition to adult-oriented care. The primary aim of this study was to determine the relation among sociodemographic factors, cumulative effects, and transition beliefs/expectations and goals, and the moderating role of health competence beliefs in AYA survivors of childhood cancer.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A total of 195 AYAs (aged 15-29) reported sociodemographic information, completed the Transition Readiness Inventory assessing positive beliefs/expectations and goals related to transition, and completed the Health Competence Beliefs Inventory assessing health perceptions, healthcare satisfaction, cognitive competence, and autonomy. A cumulative sociodemographic factor variable was computed to investigate the potential additive effects of multiple sociodemographic factors associated with disparities. T-tests, Pearson correlations, and multivariate linear regressions were used.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Cumulative sociodemographic factors were not related to transition readiness, and insurance type was the only factor associated with health competence beliefs and transition readiness, such that AYAs with public insurance reported lower healthcare satisfaction, cognitive competence, and transition goals relative to those with private insurance. There were no interaction effects; however, health competence beliefs were significantly associated with transition beliefs/expectations and goals.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Public insurance is a barrier to holding positive beliefs/expectations and goals about transition, yet other sociodemographic factors associated with risks for poor transfer were not related to transition readiness. Multi-level interventions to reduce disparities and improve transition readiness should target health competence beliefs and barriers created by insurance.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpepsy/jsac039

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Psychol

PMID

35482609

Title

COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales for Adolescents and Young Adults.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 23

ISSN Number

1465-735X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To understand the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on adolescents and young adults (AYAs), we adapted the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales (CEFIS; Kazak et al., 2021) for AYAs. Here, we report on the development, structure, and psychometric properties of the CEFIS-AYA.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The CEFIS-AYA was developed by a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional team using a rapid iterative process. Data from 3,912 AYAs from 21 programs at 16 institutions across the United States were collected from May 2020 to April 2021. We examined the underlying structure of the CEFIS-AYA using principal component analysis (PCA), calculated internal consistencies, and explored differences in scores by gender and age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Participants reported exposure to a range of COVID-19-related events (M = 9.08 events, of 28). On the bidirectional 4-point Impact scale, mean item scores were mostly above the midpoint, indicating a slightly negative impact. Kuder-Richardson 20/Cronbach's Alpha was good for Exposure (α = .76) and excellent for Impact (α = .93). PCA identified seven factors for Exposure (Severe COVID-19, Loss of Income, Limited Access to Essentials, COVID-19 Exposure, Disruptions to Activities, Disruptions to Living Conditions, and Designation as an Essential Worker) and five for Impact (Self and Family Relationships, Physical Well-Being, Emotional Well-Being, Social Well-Being, and Distress). Gender and age differences in CEFIS-AYA scores were identified.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>Initial reliability data are strong and support use of the CEFIS-AYA for measuring the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on AYAs in research and clinical care.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpepsy/jsac036

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Psychol

PMID

35459946

Title

Body mass index rebound and pubertal timing in girls with and without a family history of breast cancer: the LEGACY girls study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Feb 14

ISSN Number

1464-3685

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Heavier body mass index (BMI) is the most established predictor of earlier age at puberty. However, it is unknown whether the timing of the childhood switch to heavier BMI (age at BMI rebound) also matters for puberty.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In the LEGACY Girls Study (n = 1040), a longitudinal cohort enriched with girls with a family history of breast cancer, we collected paediatric growth chart data from 852 girls and assessed pubertal development every 6 months. Using constrained splines, we interpolated individual growth curves and then predicted BMI at ages 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 years for 591 girls. We defined age at BMI rebound as the age at the lowest BMI between ages 2 and 8 years and assessed its association with onset of thelarche, pubarche and menarche using Weibull survival models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The median age at BMI rebound was 5.3 years (interquartile range: 3.6-6.7 years). A 1-year increase in age at BMI rebound was associated with delayed thelarche (HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.83-0.97) and menarche (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94). The magnitude of these associations remained after adjusting for weight between birth and 2 years, was stronger after adjusting for BMI at age 9, and was stronger in a subset of girls with clinically assessed breast development.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Earlier BMI rebound is associated with earlier pubertal timing. Our observation that BMI rebound may be a driver of pubertal timing in girls with and without a family history of breast cancer provides insight into how growth and pubertal timing are associated with breast cancer risk.</p>

DOI

10.1093/ije/dyac021

Alternate Title

Int J Epidemiol

PMID

35157067

Title

Association Between Children With Life-Threatening Conditions and Their Parents' and Siblings' Mental and Physical Health.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2137250

Date Published

2021 Dec 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Despite concerns regarding the potential deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among family members of a child with a life-threatening condition (LTC), few studies have examined empirical measures of health outcomes among these family members.</p>

<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To examine whether mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers of children with 1 of 4 types of pediatric LTCs have higher rates of health care encounters, diagnoses, and prescriptions compared with families of children without these conditions.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This retrospective cohort study included US families with commercial insurance coverage from a single carrier. Children who had 1 of 4 LTCs (substantial prematurity, critical congenital heart disease, cancer, or a condition resulting in severe neurologic impairment) were identified by a diagnosis in their insurance claim data between July 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016. Each case child and their family was matched with up to 4 control children and their families based on the age of the case and control children. Data were analyzed between August 2020 and March 2021.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Having a child or sibling with substantial prematurity, critical congenital heart disease, cancer, or a condition resulting in severe and progressive neurologic impairment.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes: </strong>Rates of occurrence of health care encounters, physical and mental health diagnoses, and physical and mental health medication prescriptions, identified from insurance claims data, were compared between case and control families using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. The statistical analysis adjusted for observed differences between case and control families and accounted for clustering at the family level.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 25 528 children (6909 case children [27.1%] and 18 619 control children [72.9%]; median age, 6.0 years [IQR, 1-13 years]; 13 294 [52.1%] male), 43 357 parents (11 586 case parents [26.7%] and 31 771 control parents [73.3%]; mean [SD] age, 40.4 [8.1] years; 22 318 [51.5%] female), and 25 706 siblings (7664 case siblings [29.8%] and 18 042 control siblings [70.2%]; mean [SD] age, 12.1 [6.5] years; 13 114 [51.0%] male). Overall, case mothers had higher rates of the composite outcome of health care encounters, diagnoses, and prescriptions compared with control mothers (incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.54-1.68), as did case fathers compared with control fathers (IRR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.46-1.64). Sisters of children with LTCs had higher rates of the composite outcome compared with sisters of children without LTCs (IRR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.55-1.82), as did brothers of children with LTCs compared with brothers of children without LTCs (IRR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.56-1.85).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this cohort study, mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers who had a child or sibling with 1 of 4 types of LTCs had higher rates of health care encounters, diagnoses, and medication prescriptions compared with families who did not have a child with that condition. The findings suggest that family members of children with LTCs may experience poorer mental and physical health outcomes. Interventions for parents and siblings of children with LTCs that aim to safeguard their mental and physical well-being appear to be warranted.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.37250

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34928360

Title

Acceptability, Feasibility, and Quality of Telehealth for Adolescent Health Care Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Study of Patient and Family Experiences.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e32708

Date Published

2021 Nov 15

ISSN Number

2561-6722

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Data regarding the acceptability, feasibility, and quality of telehealth among adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their parents and caregivers (caregivers) are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the noninferiority of telehealth versus in-person visits by comparing acceptability with respect to efficiency, effectiveness, equity, patient-centeredness, and confidentiality.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional web-based surveys were sent to caregivers and AYA following video visits within an Adolescent Medicine subspecialty clinic in May-July 2020. Proportions of AYA and caregivers who rated telehealth as noninferior were compared using chi-squared tests. Feasibility was assessed via items measuring technical difficulties. Deductive thematic analysis using the Institute of Medicine dimensions of health care quality was used to code open-ended question responses.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Survey response rates were 20.5% (55/268) for AYA and 21.8% (123/563) for caregivers. The majority of the respondents were White cisgender females. Most AYA and caregivers rated telehealth as noninferior to in-person visits with respect to confidentiality, communication, medication management, and mental health care. A higher proportion of AYA compared to caregivers found telehealth inferior with respect to confidentiality (11/51, 22% vs 3/118, 2.5%, P&lt;.001). One-quarter (14/55) of the AYA patients and 31.7% (39/123) of the caregivers reported technical difficulties. The dominant themes in the qualitative data included advantages of telehealth for efficiency and equity of health care delivery. However, respondents' concerns included reduced safety and effectiveness of care, particularly for patients with eating disorders, owing to lack of hands-on examinations, collection of vital signs, and laboratory testing.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Telehealth was highly acceptable among AYA and caregivers. Future optimization should include improving privacy, ameliorating technical difficulties, and standardizing at-home methods of obtaining patient data to assure patient safety.</p>

DOI

10.2196/32708

Alternate Title

JMIR Pediatr Parent

PMID

34779782

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