First name
Christopher
Middle name
P
Last name
Bonafide

Title

Sustainable deimplementation of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis: study protocol for the Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) type III effectiveness-deimplementation cluster-randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

72

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1748-5908

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methods of sustaining the deimplementation of overused medical practices (i.e., practices not supported by evidence) are understudied. In pediatric hospital medicine, continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of children with the common viral respiratory illness bronchiolitis is recommended only under specific circumstances. Three national guidelines discourage its use for children who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, but guideline-discordant practice (i.e., overuse) remains prevalent. A 6-hospital pilot of educational outreach with audit and feedback resulted in immediate reductions in overuse; however, the best strategies to optimize sustainment of deimplementation success are unknown.

METHODS: The Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) trial will compare two deimplementation strategies in a hybrid type III effectiveness-deimplementation trial. This longitudinal cluster-randomized design will be conducted in Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network hospitals and will include baseline measurement, active deimplementation, and sustainment phases. After a baseline measurement period, 16-19 hospitals will be randomized to a deimplementation strategy that targets unlearning (educational outreach with audit and feedback), and the other 16-19 will be randomized to a strategy that targets unlearning and substitution (adding an EHR-integrated clinical pathway decision support tool). The primary outcome is the sustainment of deimplementation in bronchiolitis patients who are not receiving any supplemental oxygen, analyzed as a longitudinal difference-in-differences comparison of overuse rates across study arms. Secondary outcomes include equity of deimplementation and the fidelity to, and cost of, each deimplementation strategy. To understand how the deimplementation strategies work, we will test hypothesized mechanisms of routinization (clinicians developing new routines supporting practice change) and institutionalization (embedding of practice change into existing organizational systems).

DISCUSSION: The EMO trial will advance the science of deimplementation by providing new insights into the processes, mechanisms, costs, and likelihood of sustained practice change using rigorously designed deimplementation strategies. The trial will also advance care for a high-incidence, costly pediatric lung disease.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05132322 . Registered on November 10, 2021.

DOI

10.1186/s13012-022-01246-z

Alternate Title

Implement Sci

PMID

36271399

Title

Leveraging EHR Data to Evaluate the Association of Late Recognition of Deterioration With Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

447-460

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Emergency transfers (ETs), deterioration events with late recognition requiring ICU interventions within 1 hour of transfer, are associated with adverse outcomes. We leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to assess the association between ETs and outcomes. We also evaluated the association between intervention timing (urgency) and outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted a propensity-score-matched study of hospitalized children requiring ICU transfer between 2015 and 2019 at a single institution. The primary exposure was ET, automatically classified using Epic Clarity Data stored in our enterprise data warehouse endotracheal tube in lines/drains/airway flowsheet, vasopressor in medication administration record, and/or ≥60 ml/kg intravenous fluids in intake/output flowsheets recorded within 1 hour of transfer. Urgent intervention was defined as interventions within 12 hours of transfer.

RESULTS: Of 2037 index transfers, 129 (6.3%) met ET criteria. In the propensity-score-matched cohort (127 ET, 374 matched controls), ET was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (13% vs 6.1%; odds ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.24-4.9, P = .01), longer ICU length of stay (subdistribution hazard ratio of ICU discharge 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91, P < .01), and longer posttransfer length of stay (SHR of hospital discharge 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90, P < .01). Increased intervention urgency was associated with increased mortality risk: 4.1% no intervention, 6.4% urgent intervention, and 10% emergent intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: An EHR measure of deterioration with late recognition is associated with increased mortality and length of stay. Mortality risk increased with intervention urgency. Leveraging EHR automation facilitates generalizability, multicenter collaboratives, and metric consistency.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006363

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35470399

Title

Alarm Burden in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Monitored With Pulse Oximetry at Home.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2218367

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.18367

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

35737392

Title

Characteristics of Emergency Room and Hospital Encounters Resulting From Consumer Home Monitors.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e239-e244

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Consumer home monitors (CHM), which measure vital signs, are popular products marketed to detect airway obstruction and arrhythmia. Yet, they lack evidence of infant death prevention, demonstrate suboptimal accuracy, and may result in false alarms that prompt unnecessary acute care visits. To better understand the hospital utilization and costs of CHM, we characterized emergency department (ED) and hospital encounters associated with CHM use at a children's hospital.

METHODS: We used structured query language to search the free text of all ED and admission notes between January 2013 and December 2019 to identify clinical documentation discussing CHM use. Two physicians independently reviewed the presence of CHM use and categorized encounter characteristics.

RESULTS: Evidence of CHM use contributed to the presentation of 36 encounters in a sample of over 300 000 encounters, with nearly half occurring in 2019. The leading discharge diagnoses were viral infection (13, 36%), gastroesophageal reflux (8, 22%) and false positive alarm (6, 17%). Median encounter duration was 20 hours (interquartile range: 3 hours to 2 days; max 10.5 days) and median cost of encounters was $2188 (interquartile range: $255 to $7632; max $84 928).

CONCLUSIONS: Although the annual rate of CHM-related encounters was low and did not indicate a major public health burden, for individual families who present to the ED or hospital for concerns related to CHMs, there may be important adverse financial and emotional consequences.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006438

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35762227

Title

Methodological progress note: Hybrid effectiveness-implementation clinical trials.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1553-5606

DOI

10.1002/jhm.12936

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

35934981

Title

Diagnostic Reasoning of Resident Physicians in the Age of Clinical Pathways.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

466-474

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1949-8357

Abstract

Background: Development of skills in diagnostic reasoning is paramount to the transition from novice to expert clinicians. Efforts to standardize approaches to diagnosis and treatment using clinical pathways are increasingly common. The effects of implementing pathways into systems of care during diagnostic education and practice among pediatric residents are not well described.

Objective: To characterize pediatric residents' perceptions of the tradeoffs between clinical pathway use and diagnostic reasoning.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study from May to December 2019. Senior pediatric residents from a high-volume general pediatric inpatient service at an academic hospital participated in semi-structured interviews. We utilized a basic interpretive qualitative approach informed by a dual process diagnostic reasoning framework.

Results: Nine residents recruited via email were interviewed. Residents reported using pathways when admitting patients and during teaching rounds. All residents described using pathways primarily as management tools for patients with a predetermined diagnosis, rather than as aids in formulating a diagnosis. As such, pathways primed residents to circumvent crucial steps of deliberate diagnostic reasoning. However, residents relied on bedside assessment to identify when patients are "not quite fitting the mold" of the current pathway diagnosis, facilitating recalibration of the diagnostic process.

Conclusions: This study identifies important educational implications at the intersection of residents' cognitive diagnostic processes and use of clinical pathways. We highlight potential challenges clinical pathways pose for skill development in diagnostic reasoning by pediatric residents. We suggest opportunities for educators to leverage clinical pathways as a framework for development of these skills.

DOI

10.4300/JGME-D-21-01032.1

Alternate Title

J Grad Med Educ

PMID

35991115

Title

Leveraging EHR Data to Evaluate the Association of Late Recognition of Deterioration With Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

447-460

Date Published

2022 May 01

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Emergency transfers (ETs), deterioration events with late recognition requiring ICU interventions within 1 hour of transfer, are associated with adverse outcomes. We leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to assess the association between ETs and outcomes. We also evaluated the association between intervention timing (urgency) and outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a propensity-score-matched study of hospitalized children requiring ICU transfer between 2015 and 2019 at a single institution. The primary exposure was ET, automatically classified using Epic Clarity Data stored in our enterprise data warehouse endotracheal tube in lines/drains/airway flowsheet, vasopressor in medication administration record, and/or ≥60 ml/kg intravenous fluids in intake/output flowsheets recorded within 1 hour of transfer. Urgent intervention was defined as interventions within 12 hours of transfer.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 2037 index transfers, 129 (6.3%) met ET criteria. In the propensity-score-matched cohort (127 ET, 374 matched controls), ET was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (13% vs 6.1%; odds ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.24-4.9, P = .01), longer ICU length of stay (subdistribution hazard ratio of ICU discharge 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91, P &lt; .01), and longer posttransfer length of stay (SHR of hospital discharge 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90, P &lt; .01). Increased intervention urgency was associated with increased mortality risk: 4.1% no intervention, 6.4% urgent intervention, and 10% emergent intervention.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>An EHR measure of deterioration with late recognition is associated with increased mortality and length of stay. Mortality risk increased with intervention urgency. Leveraging EHR automation facilitates generalizability, multicenter collaboratives, and metric consistency.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006363

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35470399

Title

Parental Insights into Improving Home Pulse Oximetry Monitoring in Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e538

Date Published

2022 Mar-Apr

ISSN Number

2472-0054

Abstract

<p>Home pulse oximeters prescribed for infants with cardiorespiratory conditions generate many false alarms, which create caregiver stress and sleep disturbance and can lead to unsafe practices. Additionally, relationships among oximeters, alarms, and everyday living demands are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to gather parent perspectives on home pulse oximetry monitoring during the problem analysis phase of a quality improvement (QI) initiative.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>We purposively sampled and interviewed parents of infants prescribed home pulse oximeters and receiving local home care company services. We based questions on systems engineering frameworks previously used in healthcare. Data were coded iteratively and analyzed deductively (theoretical frameworks) and inductively (emerging themes).</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Generally, themes aligned with theoretical frameworks. Parents expressed dissatisfaction with the number of false alarms home pulse oximeters generate, which parents primarily attributed to poor probe adhesiveness and the inability of oximeters to account for infant movement. Interviews highlighted the burden associated with poor device tones and portability. Device-related issues had negative repercussions for the entire family related to sleep quality, mobility, and social interactions. Universally, parents developed workarounds, including cessation of monitoring.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Parents of infants monitored at home using pulse oximetry face many challenges, resulting in compromises in safety. Continuing to instruct parents to comply with prescribed monitoring recommendations may be unrealistic. Instead, we suggest re-engineering the home monitoring system with the needs and goals of children and their families at the center. Our description of adapting qualitative research and systems engineering methods may benefit others developing QI work.</p>

DOI

10.1097/pq9.0000000000000538

Alternate Title

Pediatr Qual Saf

PMID

35369408

Title

The Alarm Burden of Excess Continuous Pulse Oximetry Monitoring Among Patients With Bronchiolitis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 17

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p>Guidelines discourage continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen. Excess monitoring is theorized to contribute to increased alarm burden, but this burden has not been quantified. We evaluated admissions of 201 children (aged 0-24 months) with bronchiolitis. We categorized time ≥60 minutes following discontinuation of supplemental oxygen as "continuously monitored (guideline-discordant)," "intermittently measured (guideline-concordant)," or "unable to classify." Across 4402 classifiable hours, 77% (11,101) of alarms occurred during periods of guideline-discordant monitoring. Patients experienced a median of 35 alarms (interquartile range [IQR], 10-81) during guideline-discordant, continuously monitored time, representing a rate of 6.7 alarms per hour (IQR, 2.1-12.3). In comparison, the median hourly alarm rate during periods of guideline-concordant intermittent measurement was 0.5 alarms per hour (IQR, 0.1-0.8). Reducing guideline-discordant monitoring in bronchiolitis patients would reduce nurse alarm burden.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3731

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

34798003

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.