First name
David
Middle name
T
Last name
Teachey

Title

Impact of poverty and neighborhood opportunity on outcomes for children treated with CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Children living in poverty experience excess relapse and death from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The influence of household poverty and neighborhood social determinants on outcomes from CAR T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory (r/r) leukemia is poorly described. We identified patients with r/r CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on CD19-directed CAR T-cell clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from 2012 to 2020. Socioeconomic status (SES) was proxied at the household-level, with poverty-exposure defined as Medicaid-only insurance. Low neighborhood opportunity was defined by the Childhood Opportunity Index. Among 206 patients aged 1-29, 35.9% were household-poverty exposed, and 24.9% had low neighborhood opportunity. Patients unexposed to household-poverty or low-opportunity neighborhoods were more likely to receive CAR T-cell therapy with high disease burden (>25%)-a disease characteristic associated with inferior outcomes-as compared to less advantaged patients (38% vs 30%; 37% vs 26%). Complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with no significant differences by household-poverty (P = 0.334) or neighborhood opportunity (P = 0.504). In multivariate analysis, patients from low-opportunity neighborhoods experienced increased hazard of relapse as compared to others (P = 0.006, adjusted HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.1). There was no difference in hazard of death (P = 0.545, adjusted HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Among children who successfully receive CAR T-cell therapy, CR and OS is equitable regardless of proxied SES and neighborhood opportunity. Children from more advantaged households and neighborhoods receive CAR T-cell therapy with higher disease burden. Investigation of multicenter outcomes and access disparities outside of clinical-trial settings is warranted. Clinical trials: NCT01626495; NCT02435849 ; NCT02374333; NCT02228096; NCT02906371.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2022017866

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

36351239

Title

Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL1231: A Phase III Clinical Trial Testing Bortezomib in Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoma.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

JCO2102678

Date Published

2022 Mar 10

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To improve the outcomes of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LL), the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was examined in the Children's Oncology Group phase III clinical trial AALL1231, which also attempted to reduce the use of prophylactic cranial radiation (CRT) in newly diagnosed T-ALL.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS AND METHODS: </strong>Children and young adults with T-ALL/T-LL were randomly assigned to a modified augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy regimen with/without bortezomib during induction and delayed intensification. Multiple modifications were made to the augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster backbone used in the predecessor trial, AALL0434, including using dexamethasone instead of prednisone and adding two extra doses of pegaspargase in an attempt to eliminate CRT in most patients.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>AALL1231 accrued 824 eligible and evaluable patients from 2014 to 2017. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for arm A (no bortezomib) versus arm B (bortezomib) were 80.1% ± 2.3% versus 83.8% ± 2.1% (EFS, = .131) and 85.7% ± 2.0% versus 88.3% ± 1.8% (OS, = .085). Patients with T-LL had improved EFS and OS with bortezomib: 4-year EFS (76.5% ± 5.1% 86.4% ± 4.0%; = .041); and 4-year OS (78.3% ± 4.9% 89.5% ± 3.6%; = .009). No excess toxicity was seen with bortezomib. In AALL0434, 90.8% of patients with T-ALL received CRT. In AALL1231, 9.5% of patients were scheduled to receive CRT. Evaluation of comparable AALL0434 patients who received CRT and AALL1231 patients who did not receive CRT demonstrated no statistical differences in EFS ( = .412) and OS ( = .600).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Patients with T-LL had significantly improved EFS and OS with bortezomib on the AALL1231 backbone. Systemic therapy intensification allowed elimination of CRT in more than 90% of patients with T-ALL without excess relapse.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.21.02678

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

35271306

Title

Temperature Trajectory Sub-Phenotypes and The Immuno-Inflammatory Response In Pediatric Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 27

ISSN Number

1540-0514

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Heterogeneity has hampered sepsis trials, and sub-phenotyping may assist with enrichment strategies. However, biomarker-based strategies are difficult to operationalize. Four sub-phenotypes defined by distinct temperature trajectories in the first 72 hours have been reported in adult sepsis. Given the distinct epidemiology of pediatric sepsis, the existence and relevance of temperature trajectory-defined sub-phenotypes in children is unknown. We aimed to classify septic children into de novo sub-phenotypes derived from temperature trajectories in the first 72 hours, and compare cytokine, immune function, and immunometabolic markers across subgroups.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of 191 critically ill septic children recruited from a single academic pediatric intensive care unit. We performed group-based trajectory modeling using temperatures over the first 72 hours of sepsis to identify latent profiles. We then used mixed effects regression to determine if temperature trajectory-defined sub-phenotypes were associated with cytokine levels, immune function, and mitochondrial respiration.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified four temperature trajectory-defined sub-phenotypes: hypothermic, normothermic, hyperthermic fast-resolvers, and hyperthermic slow-resolvers. Hypothermic patients were less often previously healthy and exhibited lower levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Hospital mortality did not differ between hypothermic children (17%) and other sub-phenotypes (3 to 11%; p = 0.26).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Critically ill septic children can be categorized into temperature trajectory-defined sub-phenotypes that parallel adult sepsis. Hypothermic children exhibit a blunted cytokine and chemokine profile. Group-based trajectory modeling has utility for identifying subtypes of clinical syndromes by incorporating readily available longitudinal data, rather than relying on inputs from a single timepoint.</p>

DOI

10.1097/SHK.0000000000001906

Alternate Title

Shock

PMID

35066512

Title

Humanized CD19-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in CAR-Naive and CAR-Exposed Children and Young Adults With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

JCO2003458

Date Published

2021 Jun 22

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells demonstrate unprecedented responses in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, relapse remains a substantial challenge. Short CAR T-cell persistence contributes to this risk; therefore, strategies to improve persistence are needed.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a pilot clinical trial of a humanized CD19 CAR T-cell product (huCART19) in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (n = 72) or B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 2), treated in two cohorts: with (retreatment, n = 33) or without (CAR-naive, n = 41) prior CAR exposure. Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, and persistence of huCART19.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventy-four patients 1-29 years of age received huCART19. Cytokine release syndrome developed in 62 (84%) patients and was grade 4 in five (6.8%). Neurologic toxicities were reported in 29 (39%), three (4%) grade 3 or 4, and fully resolved in all cases. The overall response rate at 1 month after infusion was 98% (100% in B-ALL) in the CAR-naive cohort and 64% in the retreatment cohort. At 6 months, the probability of losing huCART19 persistence was 27% (95% CI, 14 to 41) for CAR-naive and 48% (95% CI, 30 to 64) for retreatment patients, whereas the incidence of B-cell recovery was 15% (95% CI, 6 to 28) and 58% (95% CI, 33 to 77), respectively. Relapse-free survival at 12 and 24 months, respectively, was 84% (95% CI, 72 to 97) and 74% (95% CI, 60 to 90) in CAR-naive and 74% (95% CI, 56 to 97) and 58% (95% CI, 37 to 90) in retreatment cohorts.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>HuCART19 achieved durable remissions with long-term persistence in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL, including after failure of prior CAR T-cell therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.20.03458

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

34156874

Title

Proteomic Profiling of MIS-C Patients Reveals Heterogeneity Relating to Interferon Gamma Dysregulation and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Apr 20

Abstract

<p>Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. Protein signatures demonstrated overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is a key marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We found that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.</p>

DOI

10.1101/2021.04.13.21255439

Alternate Title

medRxiv

PMID

33907759

Title

Diagnostic Challenges in Pediatric Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 24

ISSN Number

1573-2592

Abstract

<p>Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of severe immune dysregulation that encompasses a broad range of underlying genetic diseases and infectious triggers. Monogenic conditions, autoimmune diseases, and infections can all drive the phenotype of HLH and associated immune hyperactivation with hypercytokinemia. A diagnosis of HLH usually requires a combination of clinical and laboratory findings; there is no single sensitive and specific diagnostic test, which often leads to "diagnostic dilemmas" and delays in treatment initiation. Ferritin levels, one of the most commonly used screening tests, were collected across a large tertiary care pediatric hospital to identify the positive predictive value for HLH. Herein, we present several cases that illustrate the clinical challenges of confirming an HLH diagnosis. Additionally, we report on the utility of establishing a formal multi-disciplinary group to aid the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting with HLH-like pathophysiologies.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10875-021-01025-3

Alternate Title

J Clin Immunol

PMID

33761058

Title

Risk-Adapted Preemptive Tocilizumab to Prevent Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome After CTL019 for Pediatric B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

JCO2002477

Date Published

2021 Jan 08

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of risk-adapted preemptive tocilizumab (PT) administration in preventing severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) after CTL019, a CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children and young adults with CD19-positive relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were assigned to high- (≥ 40%) or low- (&lt; 40%) tumor burden cohorts (HTBC or LTBC) based on a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy before infusion. HTBC patients received a single dose of tocilizumab (8-12 mg/kg) after development of high, persistent fevers. LTBC patients received standard CRS management. The primary end point was the frequency of grade 4 CRS (Penn scale), with an observed rate of ≤ 5 of 15 patients in the HTBC pre-defined as clinically meaningful. In post hoc analyses, the HTBC was compared with a historical cohort of high-tumor burden patients from the initial phase I CTL019 trial.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The primary end point was met. Seventy patients were infused with CTL019, 15 in the HTBC and 55 in the LTBC. All HTBC patients received the PT intervention. The incidence of grade 4 CRS was 27% (95% CI, 8 to 55) in the HTBC and 3.6% (95% CI, 0.4 to 13) in the LTBC. The best overall response rate was 87% in the HTBC and 100% in the LTBC. Initial CTL019 expansion was greater in the HTBC than the LTBC ( &lt; .001), but persistence was not different ( = .73). Event-free and overall survival were worse in the HTBC ( = .004, &lt; .001, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, grade 4 CRS was observed in 27% versus 50% of patients in the PT and prior phase I cohorts, respectively ( = .18).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Risk-adapted PT administration resulted in a decrease in the expected incidence of grade 4 CRS, meeting the study end point, without adversely impacting the antitumor efficacy or safety of CTL019.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.20.02477

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

33417474

Title

Evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy in children with SARS-CoV-2 across the spectrum of clinical presentations.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

6051-6063

Date Published

2020 12 08

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

<p>Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P &lt; .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.</p>

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003471

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

33290544

Title

Diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate sepsis from cytokine release syndrome in critically ill children.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

5174-5183

Date Published

2020 Oct 27

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

<p>Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells directed against CD19 have drastically altered outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). Pediatric patients with r/r ALL treated with CAR-T are at increased risk of both cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and sepsis. We sought to investigate the biologic differences between CRS and sepsis and to develop predictive models which could accurately differentiate CRS from sepsis at the time of critical illness. We identified 23 different cytokines that were significantly different between patients with sepsis and CRS. Using elastic net prediction modeling and tree classification, we identified cytokines that were able to classify subjects as having CRS or sepsis accurately. A markedly elevated interferon γ (IFNγ) or a mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with a low IL1β were associated with CRS. A normal to mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with an elevated IL1β was associated with sepsis. This combination of IFNγ and IL1β was able to categorize subjects as having CRS or sepsis with 97% accuracy. As CAR-T therapies become more common, these data provide important novel information to better manage potential associated toxicities.</p>

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002592

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

33095872

Title

Distinguishing Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children From Kawasaki Disease and Benign Inflammatory Illnesses in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 22

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of the study was to compare presenting clinical and laboratory features among children meeting the surveillance definition for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) across a range of illness severities.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This is a retrospective single-center study of patients younger than 21 years presenting between March 1 and May 15, 2020. Included patients met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for MIS-C (inflammation, fever, involvement of 2 organ systems, lack of alternative diagnoses). We defined 3 subgroups by clinical outcomes: (1) critical illness requiring intensive care interventions; (2) patients meeting Kawasaki disease (KD) criteria but not requiring critical care; and (3) mild illness not meeting either criteria. A comparator cohort included patients with KD at our institution during the same time frame in 2019.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Thirty-three patients were included (5, critical; 8, 2020 KD; 20, mild). The median age for the critical group was 10.9 years (2.7 for 2020 KD; 6.0 for mild, P = 0.033). The critical group had lower median absolute lymphocyte count (850 vs 3005 vs 2940/uL, P = 0.005), platelets (150 vs 361 vs 252 k/uL, P = 0.005), and sodium (129 vs 136 vs 136 mmol/L, P = 0.002), and higher creatinine (0.7 vs 0.2 vs 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002). In the critical group, 60% required vasoactive medications, and 40% required mechanical ventilation. Clinical and laboratories features were similar between the 2020 and 2019 KD groups.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We describe 3 groups with inflammatory syndromes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The initial profile of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and abnormal creatinine may help distinguish critically ill MIS-C patients from classic/atypical KD or more benign acute inflammation.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000002248

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

32970023

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