First name
Committee
Middle name
on fetus and
Last name
newborn

Title

Management of Neonates Born at ≤34 6/7 Weeks' Gestation With Suspected or Proven Early-Onset Bacterial Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

Date Published

2018 Nov 19

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a serious and often fatal illness among infants born preterm, particularly among newborn infants of the lowest gestational age. Currently, most preterm infants with very low birth weight are treated empirically with antibiotics for risk of EOS, often for prolonged periods, in the absence of a culture-confirmed infection. Retrospective studies have revealed that antibiotic exposures after birth are associated with multiple subsequent poor outcomes among preterm infants, making the risk/benefit balance of these antibiotic treatments uncertain. Gestational age is the strongest single predictor of EOS, and the majority of preterm births occur in the setting of other factors associated with risk of EOS, making it difficult to apply risk stratification strategies to preterm infants. Laboratory tests alone have a poor predictive value in preterm EOS. Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants present an opportunity to identify those with a lower risk of EOS and may inform decisions to initiate or extend antibiotic therapies. Our purpose for this clinical report is to provide a summary of the current epidemiology of preterm neonatal sepsis and provide guidance for the development of evidence-based approaches to sepsis risk assessment among preterm newborn infants.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-2896

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

30455344
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Title

Management of Neonates Born at ≥35 0/7 Weeks' Gestation With Suspected or Proven Early-Onset Bacterial Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

Date Published

2018 Nov 19

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

The incidence of neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) has declined substantially over the last 2 decades, primarily because of the implementation of evidence-based intrapartum antimicrobial therapy. However, EOS remains a serious and potentially fatal illness. Laboratory tests alone are neither sensitive nor specific enough to guide EOS management decisions. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics can help identify newborn infants who are at risk and guide the administration of empirical antibiotic therapy. The incidence of EOS, the prevalence and implications of established risk factors, the predictive value of commonly used laboratory tests, and the uncertainties in the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic exposures all vary significantly with gestational age at birth. Our purpose in this clinical report is to provide a summary of the current epidemiology of neonatal sepsis among infants born at ≥35 0/7 weeks' gestation and a framework for the development of evidence-based approaches to sepsis risk assessment among these infants.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-2894

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

30455342
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Title

Use of Probiotics in Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

Date Published

2021 May 24

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Probiotic products in the United States are available for use in the general category of dietary supplements, bypassing the rigor of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process in safety, efficacy, and manufacturing standards. As a result, currently available probiotics lack FDA-approved drug labeling and cannot be marketed to treat or prevent disease in preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis. Despite lack of availability of a pharmaceutical-grade product, the number of preterm infants receiving probiotics in the United States and Canada is steadily increasing. According to recent reports from large collaborative databases in the United States, approximately 10% of extremely low gestational age neonates receive a probiotic preparation during their stay in the NICU, with wide variation in practice among units. In sum, more than 10 000 preterm infants have been enrolled in randomized clinical trials of probiotic supplementation worldwide. Methodologic differences among study protocols included different strains and combinations of therapy, masking of trials, and a priori definitions of the primary outcome measure. Large meta-analyses of these trials have demonstrated the efficacy of multiple-strain probiotics in reducing necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality, whereas the efficacy of single-strain probiotic preparations is less certain. In the absence of an appropriate medical-grade product in the United States, dietary supplement-grade probiotics, some of which have been the subject of recent recalls for contamination, are being prescribed. Given the lack of FDA-regulated pharmaceutical-grade products in the United States, conflicting data on safety and efficacy, and potential for harm in a highly vulnerable population, current evidence does not support the routine, universal administration of probiotics to preterm infants, particularly those with a birth weight of &lt;1000 g.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-051485

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34031231
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Title

Providing Care for Infants Born at Home.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Apr 20

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that current data show that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth in the United States. The AAP does not recommend planned home birth, which has been reported to be associated with a twofold to threefold increase in infant mortality in the United States. The AAP recognizes that women may choose to plan a home birth. This statement is intended to help pediatricians provide constructive, informed counsel to women considering home birth while retaining their role as child advocates and to summarize appropriate care for newborn infants born at home that is consistent with care provided for infants born in a medical care facility. Regardless of the circumstances of his or her birth, including location, every newborn infant deserves health care consistent with that highlighted in this statement, which is more completely described in other publications from the AAP, including and the All health care clinicians and institutions should promote communications and understanding on the basis of professional interaction and mutual respect.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-0626

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32312908
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Title

Neonatal Provider Workforce.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

Date Published

2019 Nov 18

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>This technical report reviews education, training, competency requirements, and scopes of practice of the different neonatal care providers who work to meet the special needs of neonatal patients and their families in the NICU. Additionally, this report examines the current workforce issues of NICU providers, offers suggestions for establishing and monitoring quality and safety of care, and suggests potential solutions to the NICU provider workforce shortages now and in the future.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-3147

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31740501
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Title

Updates on an At-Risk Population: Late-Preterm and Early-Term Infants.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

Date Published

2019 Oct 21

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>The American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical report on late-preterm (LPT) infants in 2007 that was largely based on a summary of a 2005 workshop convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, at which a change in terminology from "near term" to "late preterm" was proposed. This paradigm-shifting recommendation had a remarkable impact: federal agencies (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), professional societies (the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), and organizations (March of Dimes) initiated nationwide monitoring and educational plans that had a significant effect on decreasing the rates of iatrogenic LPT deliveries. However, there is now an evolving concern. After nearly a decade of steady decreases in the LPT birth rate that largely contributed to the decline in total US preterm birth rates, the birth rate in LPT infants has been inching upward since 2015. In addition, evidence revealed by strong population health research demonstrates that being born as an early-term infant poses a significant risk to an infant's survival, growth, and development. In this report, we summarize the initial progress and discuss the potential reasons for the current trends in LPT and early-term birth rates and propose research recommendations.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-2760

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31636141
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Title

Management of Infants at Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

Date Published

2019 Jul 08

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection remains the most common cause of neonatal early-onset sepsis and a significant cause of late-onset sepsis among young infants. Administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the only currently available effective strategy for the prevention of perinatal GBS early-onset disease, and there is no effective approach for the prevention of late-onset disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics joins with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to reaffirm the use of universal antenatal microbiologic-based testing for the detection of maternal GBS colonization to facilitate appropriate administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this clinical report is to provide neonatal clinicians with updated information regarding the epidemiology of GBS disease as well current recommendations for the evaluation of newborn infants at risk for GBS disease and for treatment of those with confirmed GBS infection.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-1881

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31285392
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Title

Elimination of Perinatal Hepatitis B: Providing the First Vaccine Dose Within 24 Hours of Birth.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

Date Published

2017 Sep

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>After the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in the United States in 1982, a greater than 90% reduction in new infections was achieved. However, approximately 1000 new cases of perinatal hepatitis B infection are still identified annually in the United States. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B relies on the proper and timely identification of infants born to mothers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive and to mothers with unknown status to ensure administration of appropriate postexposure immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and immune globulin. To reduce the incidence of perinatal hepatitis B transmission further, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that all newborn infants with a birth weight of greater than or equal to 2000 g receive hepatitis B vaccine by 24 hours of age.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2017-1870

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

28847980
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Title

Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

Date Published

2016 Sep

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis. Various topical substances continue to be used for cord care around the world to mitigate the risk of serious infection. More recently, particularly in high-resource countries, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward dry umbilical cord care. This clinical report reviews the evidence underlying recommendations for care of the umbilical cord in different clinical settings.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2016-2149

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

27573092
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Title

Disaster Preparedness in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

Date Published

2017 May

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Disasters disproportionally affect vulnerable, technology-dependent people, including preterm and critically ill newborn infants. It is important for health care providers to be aware of and prepared for the potential consequences of disasters for the NICU. Neonatal intensive care personnel can provide specialized expertise for their hospital, community, and regional emergency preparedness plans and can help develop institutional surge capacity for mass critical care, including equipment, medications, personnel, and facility resources.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2017-0507

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

28557770
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