First name
Pranita
Middle name
D
Last name
Tamma

Title

Challenges in the Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis in Immunocompromised Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e0215621

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1098-6596

Abstract

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Voriconazole remains the drug of choice for the treatment of IA in children; however, the complex kinetics of voriconazole in children make dosing challenging and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) essential for treatment success. The overarching goal of this review is to discuss the role of voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, liposomal amphotericin B, echinocandins, and combination antifungal therapy for the treatment of IA in children. We also provide a detailed discussion of antifungal TDM in children.

DOI

10.1128/aac.02156-21

Alternate Title

Antimicrob Agents Chemother

PMID

35766509

Title

Antibiotic indications and appropriateness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a ten-center point prevalence study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are prescribed to most pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients, but data evaluating indications and appropriateness of antibiotic orders in this population are lacking.

METHODS: We performed a multicenter point prevalence study including children admitted to 10 geographically diverse PICUs over four study days in 2019. Antibiotic orders were reviewed for indication, and appropriateness was assessed using a standardized rubric.

RESULTS: Of 1462 patients admitted to participating PICUs, 843 (58%) had at least one antibiotic order. A total of 1277 antibiotic orders were reviewed. Common indications were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infections without sepsis or septic shock (260 orders, 21%), non-operative prophylaxis (164 orders, 13%), empiric therapy for sepsis or septic shock (155 orders, 12%), community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (118 orders, 9%), and post-operative prophylaxis (94 orders, 8%). Appropriateness was assessed for 985 orders for which an evidence-based rubric for appropriateness could be created. Of these, 331 (34%) were classified as inappropriate. Indications with the most orders classified as inappropriate were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infection without sepsis or septic shock (78 orders, 24%), sepsis or septic shock (55 orders, 17%), CAP (51 orders, 15%), ventilator-associated infections (47 orders, 14%), and post-operative prophylaxis (44 orders, 14%). The proportion of antibiotics classified as inappropriate varied across institutions (range: 19%-43%).

CONCLUSIONS: Most PICU patients receive antibiotics, and based on our study, we estimate that one-third of antibiotic orders are inappropriate. Improved antibiotic stewardship and research focused on strategies to optimize antibiotic use in critically ill children are needed.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac698

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

36048543

Title

Administration of a β-lactam Prior to Vancomycin as the First Dose of Antibiotic Therapy Improves Survival in Patients with Bloodstream Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 04

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy improves the survival of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI). We sought to determine if the sequence of administration of the first dose of antibiotic therapy (i.e., β-lactam or vancomycin, if both cannot be administered simultaneously) impacts early mortality for patients with BSI.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational study of patients ≥13 years with BSIs to evaluate the association of the sequence of antibiotic administration with 7-day mortality using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) incorporating propensity scores. Propensity scores were generated based on: demographics, Pitt bacteremia score, ICU status, highest lactate, highest WBC count, Charlson Comorbidity index, severe immunocompromise, administration of active empiric therapy, combination therapy, and time from emergency department arrival to first antibiotic dose.

RESULTS: Of 3,376 eligible patients, 2,685 (79.5%) received a β-lactam and 691 (20.5%) received vancomycin as their initial antibiotic. In the IPTW cohort, exposed and unexposed patients were similar on all baseline variables. Administration of a β-lactam agent prior to vancomycin protected against 7-day mortality (aOR 0.48 (95% CI: 0.33-0.69)]. Similar results were observed when evaluating 48-hour mortality (aOR 0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.83]). Administration of vancomycin prior to a β-lactam was not associated with improved survival in the subgroup of 524 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BSI (aOR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.33-2.63]).

CONCLUSIONS: For ill-appearing patients likely to be experiencing a BSI, prioritizing administration of a β-lactam over vancomycin may reduce early mortality, underscoring the significant impact of a relatively simple practice change on improving patient survival.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciab865

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

34606585

Title

Legal implications of antibiotic stewardship programs.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

757-764

Date Published

2020 07

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>Infectious diseases professional societies, public health agencies, and healthcare regulatory agencies call for antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) in many healthcare settings. However, medical legal implications of these programs remain largely uncharted territory. Although there is no legal precedent addressing issues of liability and standards of care on this subject, anticipating how the courts may assess questions of medical liability with respect to the various components of ASPs is important to define best practices in ASP operations, not only to manage the potential risk but also to improve patient care. This article seeks to address some of the common processes and interventions involved in antibiotic stewardship and the potential professional liability implications of these activities.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.89

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

32398167

Title

Antibiotics: how can we make it as easy to stop as it is to start?

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

1600-1601

Date Published

2020 Dec

ISSN Number

1469-0691

DOI

10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.029

Alternate Title

Clin Microbiol Infect

PMID

32896656

Title

Policy Statement: Antibiotic Stewardship in Pediatrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Feb 17

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>Antibiotic overuse contributes to antibiotic resistance, which is a threat to public health. Antibiotic stewardship is a practice dedicated to prescribing antibiotics only when necessary and, when antibiotics are considered necessary, promoting the use of the appropriate agent(s), dose, duration, and route of therapy to optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing the unintended consequences of antibiotic use. Because there are differences in common infectious conditions, drug-specific considerations, and the evidence surrounding treatment recommendations (eg, first-line therapy and duration of therapy) between children and adults, this statement provides specific guidance for the pediatric population. This policy statement discusses the rationale for inpatient and outpatient antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs); essential personnel, infrastructure, and activities required; approaches to evaluating their effectiveness; and gaps in knowledge that require further investigation. Key guidance for both inpatient and outpatient ASPs are provided.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab002

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

33595086

Title

Antibiotic Stewardship in Pediatrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Antibiotic overuse contributes to antibiotic resistance, which is a threat to public health. Antibiotic stewardship is a practice dedicated to prescribing antibiotics only when necessary and, when antibiotics are considered necessary, promoting use of the appropriate agent(s), dose, duration, and route of therapy to optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing the unintended consequences of antibiotic use. Because there are differences in common infectious conditions, drug-specific considerations, and the evidence surrounding treatment recommendations (eg, first-line therapy, duration of therapy) between children and adults, this statement provides specific guidance for the pediatric population. This policy statement discusses the rationale for inpatient and outpatient antibiotic stewardship programs; essential personnel, infrastructure, and activities required; approaches to evaluating their effectiveness; and gaps in knowledge that require further investigation. Key guidance for both inpatient and outpatient antibiotic stewardship programs are provided.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-040295

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33372120

Title

Pediatric research priorities in healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

1-4

Date Published

2020 Nov 26

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level "harm index" for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.1267

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

33239122

Title

Multicenter interim guidance on use of antivirals for children with COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 12

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data evaluating agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand, such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa115

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32918548

Title

Comparative Effectiveness of Antibiotic Treatment Duration in Children With Pyelonephritis.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e203951

Date Published

2020 May 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>National guidelines recommend treating children with pyelonephritis for 7 to 14 days of antibiotic therapy, yet data are lacking to suggest a more precise treatment duration.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the clinical outcomes of children receiving a short-course vs a prolonged-course of antibiotic treatment for pyelonephritis.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>Retrospective observational study using inverse probability of treatment weighted propensity score analysis of data from 5 hospitals in Maryland between July 1, 2016, and October 1, 2018. Participants were children aged 6 months to 18 years with a urine culture growing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, or Proteus mirabilis with laboratory and clinical criteria for pyelonephritis.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Treatment of pyelonephritis with a short-course (6 to 9 days) vs a prolonged-course (10 or more days) of antibiotics.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Composite outcome of treatment failure within 30 days of completing antibiotic therapy: (a) unanticipated emergency department or outpatient visits related to urinary tract infection symptoms, (b) hospital readmission related to UTI symptoms, (c) prolongation of the planned, initial antibiotic treatment course, or (d) death. A subsequent urinary tract infection caused by a drug-resistant bacteria within 30 days was a secondary outcome.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 791 children who met study eligibility criteria (mean [SD] age 9.2 [6.3] years; 672 [85.0%]) were girls, 297 patients (37.5%) were prescribed a short-course and 494 patients (62.5%) were prescribed a prolonged-course of antibiotics. The median duration of short-course therapy was 8 days (interquartile range, 7-8 days), and the median duration of prolonged-course therapy was 11 days (interquartile range, 11-12 days). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups in the inverse probability of treatment weighted cohort. There were 79 children (10.1%) who experienced treatment failure. The odds of treatment failure were similar for patients prescribed a short-course vs a prolonged-course of antibiotics (11.2% vs 9.4%; odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.75-1.98). There was no significant difference in the odds of a drug-resistant uropathogen for patients with a subsequent urinary tract infection within 30 days when prescribed a short-courses vs prolonged-course of antibiotics (40% vs 64%; odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.09-1.43).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>The study findings suggest that short-course antibiotic therapy may be as effective as prolonged-courses for children with pyelonephritis, and may mitigate the risk of future drug-resistant urinary tract infections. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3951

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

32364593

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