First name
Jason
Last name
Freedman

Title

Unrelated donor α/β T cell- and B cell-depleted HSCT for the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1175-1185

Date Published

2022 Feb 22

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with an increased risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). TCRαβ/CD19 depletion may reduce this risk, whereas maintaining graft-versus-leukemia. Outcome data with TCRαβ/CD19 depletion generally describe haploidentical donors, with relatively few URDs. We hypothesized that TCRαβ/CD19-depletion would attenuate the risks of GVHD and relapse for URD HSCT. Sixty pediatric and young adult (YA) patients with hematologic malignancies who lacked a matched-related donor were enrolled at 2 large pediatric transplantation centers between October 2014 and September 2019. All patients with acute leukemia had minimal residual disease testing, and DP typing was available for 77%. All patients received myeloablative total body irradiation- or busulfan-based conditioning with no posttransplant immune suppression. Engraftment occurred in 98%. Four-year overall survival was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-81%), and leukemia-free survival was 64% (95% CI, 48%-76%), with no difference between lymphoid and myeloid malignancies (P = .6297 and P = .5441, respectively). One patient (1.7%) experienced primary graft failure. Relapse occurred in 11 patients (3-year cumulative incidence, 21%; 95% CI, 11-34), and 8 patients (cumulative incidence, 15%; 95% CI, 6.7-26) experienced nonrelapse mortality. Grade III to IV acute GVHD was seen in 8 patients (13%), and 14 patients (26%) developed chronic GVHD, of which 6 (11%) had extensive disease. Nonpermissive DP mismatch was associated with higher likelihood of acute GVHD (odds ratio, 16.50; 95% CI, 1.67-163.42; P = .0166) but not with the development of chronic GVHD. URD TCRαβ/CD19-depleted peripheral HSCT is a safe and effective approach to transplantation for children/YAs with leukemia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02323867.

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005492

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

34872106

Title

Comparative effectiveness of senna to prevent problematic constipation in pediatric oncology patients receiving opioids: a multicenter study of clinically detailed administrative data.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

272-80

Date Published

2014 Aug

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Pediatric oncology patients often receive prolonged courses of opioids, which can result in constipation.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Comparing patients who received senna matched with similar patients who received other oral bowel medications, determine the subsequent risk of "problematic constipation," assessed as the occurrence of the surrogate markers of receiving an enema, escalation of oral bowel medications, and abdominal radiographic imaging.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized pediatric oncology patients less than 21&nbsp;years of age in 78 children's and adult hospitals between 2006 and 2011 who were started on seven consecutive days or more of opioid therapy and were started on an oral bowel medication within the first two days of opioid therapy. Clinically detailed administrative data were used from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Premier Perspective Database. After performing propensity score matching of similar patients who started senna and who started a different oral bowel medication, Cox regression modeling was used to compare the subsequent hazard of the surrogate markers.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The final matched sample of 586 patients averaged 11.5&nbsp;years of age (range 0-20&nbsp;years); 41.8% (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;245) had blood cancer, 50.3% (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;295) had solid tumor cancer, and 7.9% (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;46) had brain cancer. Initiating senna therapy within two days of starting the prolonged opioid course, compared with initiating another oral bowel medication, was significantly associated with a lower hazard during the ensuing five days for receipt of an enema (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.91) or undergoing abdominal radiographic imaging (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98), was marginally associated with a lower hazard of oral bowel medicine escalation (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.03), and overall was significantly associated with a lower hazard of the composite end point of problematic constipation (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Initiating senna therapy, compared with other oral bowel medications, diminishes the subsequent risk of surrogate markers of problematic constipation in this population.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.09.009

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

24321507

Title

Potential drug-drug interactions in infant, child, and adolescent patients in children's hospitals.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

e99-108

Date Published

01/2015

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospitalized infants, children, and adolescents are typically exposed to numerous distinct medications during inpatient admissions, increasing their risk of potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs). We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PDDI exposure of pediatric patients treated in children's hospitals.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients <21 years old hospitalized in children's hospitals throughout the United States. PDDIs were identified by using the MicroMedex DRUG-REAX system. We calculated the patients exposed to PDDIs, stratified according to the seriousness of the interaction; daily and cumulative counts of PDDI exposures; and characterization of the cited potential adverse effects.

RESULTS: Of 498 956 hospitalizations in 2011, 49% were associated with ≥1 PDDI, with a "contraindicated" PDDI occurring in 5% of all hospitalizations, a "major" PDDI present in 41%, a "moderate" PDDI in 28%, and a "minor" PDDI in 11%. Opioids were involved in 25% of all PDDIs, followed by antiinfective agents (17%), neurologic agents (15%), gastrointestinal agents (13%), and cardiovascular agents (13%). One-half of all PDDI exposures were due to specific drug pairs occurring in ≤3% of patients per hospital day. The most common potential adverse drug events included additive respiratory depression (in 21% of PDDIs), bleeding risk (5%), QT interval prolongation (4%), reduced iron absorption/availability (4%), central nervous system depression (4%), hyperkalemia (3%), and altered diuretic effectiveness (3%).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PDDIs is common among hospitalized children. Empirical data are needed to determine the probability and magnitude of the actual harm for each specific PDDI, particularly for less common drug pairs.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2014-2015

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

25511114

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