First name
Mark
Middle name
J
Last name
Cziraky

Title

Methylphenidate and risk of serious cardiovascular events in adults.

Year of Publication

2012

Number of Pages

178-85

Date Published

2012 Feb

ISSN Number

1535-7228

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The authors sought to determine whether use of methylphenidate in adults is associated with elevated rates of serious cardiovascular events compared with rates in nonusers.</p>

<p><strong>METHOD: </strong>This was a cohort study of new users of methylphenidate based on administrative data from a five-state Medicaid database and a 14-state commercial insurance database. All new methylphenidate users with at least 180 days of prior enrollment were identified. Users were matched on data source, state, sex, and age to as many as four comparison subjects who did not use methylphenidate, amphetamines, or atomoxetine. A total of 43,999 new methylphenidate users were identified and matched to 175,955 nonusers. Events of primary interest were 1) sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, 2) stroke, 3) myocardial infarction, and 4) a composite endpoint of stroke or myocardial infarction.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The age-standardized incidence rate per 1,000 person-years of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia was 2.17 (95% CI=1.63-2.83) in methylphenidate users and 0.98 (95% CI=0.89-1.08) in nonusers, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.84 (95% CI=1.33-2.55). Dosage was inversely associated with risk. Adjusted hazard ratios for stroke, myocardial infarction, and the composite endpoint of stroke or myocardial infarction did not differ statistically from 1.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although initiation of methylphenidate was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in risk of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, the lack of a dose-response relationship suggests that this association may not be a causal one.</p>

DOI

10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010125

Alternate Title

Am J Psychiatry

PMID

22318795

Title

Amphetamines, atomoxetine and the risk of serious cardiovascular events in adults.

Year of Publication

2013

Number of Pages

e52991

Date Published

2013

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p><strong>MAIN OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare the incidence rates of serious cardiovascular events in adult initiators of amphetamines or atomoxetine to rates in non-users.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective cohort study of new amphetamines (n=38,586) or atomoxetine (n=20,995) users. Each medication user was matched to up to four non-users on age, gender, data source, and state (n=238,183). The following events were primary outcomes of interest 1) sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, 2) stroke, 3) myocardial infarction, 4) a composite endpoint of stroke or myocardial infarction. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate propensity-adjusted hazard ratios for amphetamines versus matched non-users and atomoxetine versus matched non-users, with intracluster dependence within matched sets accounted for using a robust sandwich estimator.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The propensity-score adjusted hazard ratio for amphetamines use versus non-use was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.44-1.47) for stroke, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.42-1.35) for myocardial infarction, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.51-1.19) for stroke/myocardial infarction. The propensity-score adjusted hazard ratio for atomoxetine use versus non-use was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.10-1.75) for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia, 1.30 (95% CI: 0.52-3.29) for stroke, 0.56 (95% CI: 0.16-2.00) for myocardial infarction, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.44-1.92) for stroke/myocardial infarction.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Initiation of amphetamines or atomoxetine was not associated with an elevated risk of serious cardiovascular events. However, some of the confidence intervals do not exclude modest elevated risks, e.g. for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0052991

Alternate Title

PLoS ONE

PMID

23382829

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